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THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 
OF CALIFORNIA 

LOS ANGELES 



THE FAUNA OF BRITISH INDIA, 



CEYLON AND BURMA. 

PUBLISHED UNDER THE AUTHORITY OF THE SECRETARY ot 
STATE FOR INDIA IN COUNCIL. 

EDITED BY A. E. SHIPLEY, Sc.l). Cantab., HON. D.Sc. Princeton, F.R.8. 
ASSISTED BY GTJY A. K. MARSHALL, F.Z.S., F.B.S. 



ORTHOPTERA. 



BY 

W, F. K I R B Y, F.L.S., F.E.S. 



LONDON: 
TAYLOR AND FRANCIS, BED LION COURT, FLEET STREET. 



CALCUTTA: 
THACKER, SPINK, & CO. 



BOMBAY : 
THACKER & CO., LIMITEP. 



BEELIN: 
E, FKIEDLANDEB & SOHN, 11 CARLSTRASSE. 

May, 19H. 




PRINTED BY TAYLOR AND FRANCIS, 
RBD LION COURT, FLEKT STREET. 




3D? 

Fa? 



PREFACE. 



AT the time of Mr. W. F. Kirby's lamented death the 
manuscript for the present volume was unfortunately not 
quite completed. Moreover, there still remained a consider- 
able amount of undetermined material upon which he was 
then at work and which doubtless comprised a number of 
species not enumerated in these pages. It was found 
impossible to arrange for the inclusion of this matter in the 
manuscript, and it was therefore decided to include only the 
species already dealt with by Mr. Kirby, merely adding 
those previously described species which might have been 
omitted and filling up various "lacunae." 

This task was kindly undertaken by Mr. Charles O, 
Waterhouse, late Assistant-Keeper of Zoology in the British 
Museum, and involved the compilation of keys to the genera 
in all the later subfamilies, as well as specific keys for 
numerous genera often a matter of no little difficulty. 
Mr. Waterhouse has further been good enough to assist in 
supervising the preparation of most of the illustrations and 
also in reading the proofs. Apart from the additions indicated 
and the correction of certain obvious errors, the text is 
essentially the work of Mr. Kirby, the portions for which 
Mr. Waterhouse is responsible being enclosed in square 
brackets. 

A. E. SHIPLEY. 

May, 1914. 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



Order OHTHOPTERA 



Page 



Fam. ACRIDIID^; 10 

Subfain. 1. Acrydiincc 11 

Group 1. Tripetalocerin i. 11 

Tri petal ocera, Westw 12 

1 . ferruginea, Westw 12 

Birmana, Brunn 13 

1. gracilis, Brunn 14 

Group 2. Cladonotini .... 14 

Fieberiana, Kirby 14 

1. pachymerus, Fieb 15 

Deltonotus, Hanc 15 

1. subcucullatus, Kirby . . 15 

2. gibbiceps, Bol 16 

Cladonotus, Sauss 17 

1. humbertianus, Sauss. . . 17 

2. turrifer, Walk 18 

3. latiramus, Hanc 19 

Mnema, Kirby 19 

1. pelops, Walk 20 

Group 3. Scelimenini .... 20 

Scelimena, Serv 21 

1. producta, Serv 22 

2. India, Hanc 23 

3. harpago, Serv 23 

4. gavialis, Sauss 24 

5. logani, Hanc 25 

6. uncinata, Serv 26 

7. birmanica, Brunn 27 

Abbasia, Kirby 27 

1. subserrata, Kirby 28 



Page 

Gavialidium, Sauss 28 

1. crocodilus, Sauss 29 

2. alligator, Sauss 29 

Eugavialidiuai, Hanc 30 

1. hastulatum, Kirby 30 

Criotettix, Bol 31 

1. spinilobus, Hanc 31 

2. maculatus, Kirby 32 

3. obscurus, Kirby 32 

4. tricarinatus/.Bo/ 33 

5. indicus, Bol 33 

6. oculatus, Bol 34 

7. exsertus, Bol 34 

8. subulatus, Bol 35 

9. vidali, Bol 35 

Acanthalobus, Hanc 36 

1. miliarius, Bol 37 

2. bispinosus, Dalm 37 

3. rufescens, Kirby 38 

4. inornatus, Walk 39 

5. cuneatus, Hanc 40 

6. flavopictus, Bol 41 

Loxilobus, Hanc 41 

1. acutus, Hanc 42 

2. hancocki, Kirby 42 

3. assamus, Hanc 43 

Group 4. Metrodorini .... 43 

Systolederus, Bol 44 

1. cinereus, Brunn 44 

2. greeni, Bol 45 

3. anoinalus, Hanc 46 

Hancockia, Kirby 46 

1. portentosa, Kirby 46 

Apterotettix, Hanc 47 

1. obtusus, Hanc 48 

Eurymorphopus, Hanc 48 

1. latilobus, Hanc 49 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



Lamellitettix, Hanc 

1. acutus, Hanc 50 

Mazarredia, Bol 50 

1. sculpta, Bol 51 

2. convergeus, Brunn. . . . 

3. insularis, Bol 

4. cristulata, Bol 

5. inaequalis, Brunn. . . . 

6. lativertix, Brunn. . . . 

7. insiguis, Kirby 

8. lugubris, Kirby 

Xistra, Bol * 55 

1. stylata, Hanc 

2. dubia, Brunn 

Group 5. Acrydiini ... 
Euparatettix, Hanc 

1. personatus, Bol. . . . 

2. mterruptus, Brunn. . 

3. scabripes, Sol 

4. parvus, Hanc 

Paratettix, Sol 

1. balteatus, Walk 

2. scabs!-, Thunb 

3. variabilis, Bol 

4. dorsifer, Walk 63 

5. cingalensis, Walk. 

6. indicus, Bol 

7. hirsutus, Brunn 65 

8. semihirsutus, Brunn. . . 
Acrydium, Fubr 

1. atypicale, Hanc 

2. dilatatum, De Haan . . 

3. bipunctatuui, Linn 

4. quadriplagiatuin, Walk.. 
Ergatettix, Kirby 

1. tarsalis, Kirby 70 

Spadotettix, Hanc 

1. fletcheri, Hanc 71 

Hedotettix, Bol. 71 

1. gracilis, De Haan .... 

2. attenuatus, Hanc 

3. lineifera, Walk 

Coptotettix, Bol 

1. latifrons, Brunn 

2. acuteterminatus, Brunn. 

3. fossulatus, Bol 

4. capitatus, Bol 76 

5. testaceus, Bol 77 

6. interruptus, Bol 

Group 6. Batrachidiini . . 
Saussurella, Bol 78 

1. cucullifera, Walk. 

2. decurva, Brunn. . . 



age 
49 
50 
50 
51 
52 


Subfam. 2. Eumastacince . 

Group 1. Xiphicerini . 
Xiphicera, Linn . 


Page 

. .. 80 

... 80 
80 


52 


1. rugifrons, Waterh. . 


81 


52 
53 
54 


2. fenestrata, Serv. . . . 
Phyllochoreia, Westw 
1. uuicolor, Westiv 


. .. 81 
... 82 
82 


54 


2. equa, Burr 


83 


55 
55 
56 


3. asina, Burr 
Scirtotypus, Brunn 
1. greeni, Burr 


.. 83 

.. 84 
84 


56 


Orchetypus, Brunn 


84 


57 
57 
58 
59 
59 
60 
60 
61 


1. rotundatus, Brunn. . 
2. ceylouicus, Karsch . 
3. subtruncatus, Brunn. 

Group 2. E r i a n t h i n i . . . 

Erianthus, Stal 
1. affinis, Westw 
2. bifidus, Kirby 


.. 85 
. . 85 
. . 85 

.. 86 

.. 86 

.. 87 
87 


62 


3 guttatus, Westw 


88 


62 
63 
63 
64 
65 
66 
66 


4. lugubris, Brunn. . , . 
5. defloratus, Brunn. . 
6. acutipennis, Sauss. . 
7. flavipes, Satiss 
8. birmanicus, Sauss. . 
9. humbertianus, Sauss. 
Bennia, Burr 


.. 89 
.. 89 
.. 89 
.. 90 
.. 90 
.. 90 
91 


67 


1. innotata, Walk. . . . 


.. 91 


68 
68 
69 
69 

70 


2. oberthuri, Sol 

Group 3. Gomphoniast 
c i n i . 


.. 92 

a - 
93 


70 
71 


Gomphoinastax, Brunn. . . . 
1. antennatus, Brunn. . 


.. 93 
. . 93 


72 
73 
73 


2. constrictus, Brunn. . 
G roup 4 Eruciini 


.. 93 
94 


74 

74 


Mastacides, Burr 


. 94 


75 

76 
76 

77 
78 

78 


] . pupseformis, Burr . . 
2. pterolepis, Burr . . . . 
3. vaginalis, Sauss 

Subfam. 3. Tryxalince 
Acrida, StSl 


.. 94 

. . 95 
.. 95 

. . 95 
.. 97 


78 




98 


79 


2 gigantea, Hbst. 


.. 98 


79 


3. exaltata, Walk. . 


. 99 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



Page 

4. lugubris, Burr 99 

Acridella, Sol. 100 

1. nasuta, Linn 100 

Aswatthamanus, Kirby 101 

1. cylindricus, Kirby .... 101 

Phlseoba, St&l 102 

1. antennata, Brunn 102 

2. infumata, Brunn 103 

3. angustidorsis, Bol 104 

4. panteli, Bol 104 

5. cinctalis, Kirby 105 

Zygoplilajoba, Bol 105 

1. sinuatocollis, Bol 106 

2. truncaticollis, Bol 106 

Phlseobida, Bol 107 

1. angustipennis, Bol. 107 

Paraphlaeoba, Bol 108 

1. platyceps, Bol. 108 

2. carinata, Bol 108 

3. simoni, Bol. . j09 

Ceracris, Walk . . . HO 

1. nigricornis, Walk 110 

2. versicolor, Brunn Ill 

3. deflorata, Brunn 112 

Mecostethus. Fieb 112 

1. faseiatus, Brttnn 113 

G/mnobothrus, Bol. 113 

1 . indicus, Bol 113 

2. simplex, Walk 114 

Madurea, Bol 114 

1. cephalotes, Bol. 11/5 

Ochrilidia, Sf.Sl 115 

1. longiceps, Bol llfi 

Dociostaurus, Fieb lift 

1. apicalis, Walk 117 

2. turbatus, Walk 118 

3 mundus, Walk 119 

4. epacromoides. Walk. . . 119 

5. decisus, Walk 120 

Stenobotbrus, Fisch ; . 120 

1. luteipes, Walk 121 

^lolopus, Kirby 121 

1 . tamulus. Fabr 122 

2. affinis, Bnl 122 

Aulacobotbrus, Bol. 1 23 

1. strictus. Bol. 124 

2. socius, Bol 124 

3. infernus, Bol 124 

4. treniatus. Bol 1 25 

5. physopodp. Nav 125 

6. rubripps, Nav 1 26 

Stauroderus, Bol. 127 

1. bicolor. Charp 127 

Chorthbpus, Fieb 128 

1, dorsatus, Zett 128 



Page 
Subfam. 4. (Edipodina 128 

Chlcebora, Sauss 130 

1. grossa, Sauss 130 

2. bramina, Sauss 131 

3. crassa, Walk 131 

Quiroguesia, Bol 132 

1. blanchardiana, Sams. . . 133 

Pternoscirta, Saitss 134 

1. cinctifemur, Walk 134 

2. caliginosa, De Haan . . 135 

3. bimaculata, Thunb 136 

Morphacris, Walk 137 

1. citrina, Kirby 137 

Lerina, Bol. 138 

1. cedipodioides, Bol 138 

Dittopternis, Sauss 139 

1. ceylonica, Sauss 139 

2. venusta, Walk. ...... 140 

3. zebrata, Sauss. ^Q 
Heteropterni,, Stdl ...... ' 14-^ 

1. respondens, Walk 141 

2. partita, Walk 142 

CEdaleus. Fieb 143 

1. nigrofasciatus, Sauas. . . 143 

2. senegalensis. Krauss . . 143 

3. abrnptus, Thimb 144 

Gastrimargus, Sauss 144 

1. trans versus, Thunb 145 

Locusta, Linn 145 

1. migratoroides, R.&F.. 146 

2. danica, Linn 146 

Mecistopteryx, Satt*s 147 

1. rotundata, Walk 148 

TrilopMdia, StM 148 

1. annulata. Thunb 149 

2. turpis. Walk 149 

3. cristella, Stal 150 

Bryodema, Fieb 1.50 

1. inda, Sauss 1/51 

Acrotylus. Fieb 152 

L inficita, Walk 152 

2. humbertianus, Sauss. . . 153 
Sphingonotus, Fieb 153 

1. caerulans, Linn 154 

2. rubescens, Walk 155 

""" 3. savignyi, Sauss 155 

4. indus.' Sauss 15fi 

5. bengalensis, Sauss 156 

6. long-ipennis. Sauss 156 

7. balteatus. Serv 157 

8. gigas, Kirby 158 

Subfam. 5. Batrachotetrigina . . 158 
Eremopeza, Sauss 158 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



Page 

1. granulosa, Walk 159 

2. brachycera, Kirby 159 

Subfam. 6. Pyrgomorphitue . . . . 160 

Chrotogonus, Serv 161 

1. pallidus, Blanch 162 

2. brevis, Bol 163 

8. incertus, Bol 163 

4. fuscescens, Kirby 163 

5. robertsi, Kirby 164 

6. concavus, Kirby 165 

7. trachypterus, Blanch. . . 165 

8. liaspis, Blanch 165 

9. oxypterus, Blanch 166 

10. saussurei, Bol. 166 

11. brachypterus, Bol 167 

12. sordidus, Kirby 167 

Aularches, StSl 168 

1. miliaris, Linn 168 

2. punctatus, Drury .... 169 

3. scabiosae, Fabr 170 

Pcecilocerus, StSl 170 

1. tessellatus, Bol 171 

2. sp., Kirby 171 

3. pictus, Fabr 172 

4. punctiventris, Sere 173 

5. ornatus, Burm 173 

Chlorizeina, Brunn 174 

1. unicolor, Brunn 174 

Pyrgomorpha, Serv 174 

1. conica, Oliv 175 

2. brachycera, Kirby 175 

3. bispinosa, Walk 176 

Zarytes, Bol 177 

1. squalina, Bol. 177 

Anarchita, Bol 178 

1. aptera, Bol 178 

Tagasta, Bol 179 

1. notata, Brunn 179 

2. indica, Bol. 180 

Atractomorpha, Sattxs 180 

1. crenulata, Fabr 181 

2. scabra, Thunb 182 

3. psittacina, l)e Haan . . 182 

4. bnrri.Bol 183 

5. himalayica, Bol 183 

6. blanchardi. Kirby 184 

Orthacris, Bol 184 

1. filiformis, Bol 18-5 

2. maindroni, Bol 185 

3. ruticornis, Bol 186 

4. elegans,^/ 186 

5. acuticeps, Bol 187 

6. simulans, Bol. 188 

Colemania, Bol 188 



Page 

1. sphenarioides, Bol 189 

Trigonopteryx, Charp 189 

1. punctata, Charp 190 

Subfam. 7. Pamphagina 190 

Aspidophyma, Bol 190 

1. indica, Bol 190 



Subfam. 8. Catantopintf 

Euthymia, St&l 

1. kirbyi, Fin 

2. finoti, Kirby 

3. greeni, Kirby 

Oxya, Sern 

1. velox, Fabr 

2. vicina, Brunn 

3. intricata, StSl 

Tarbaleus, Brunn 

1. cingalensis, Kirby 

Caryanda, StSl 

1. sanguineo - annulata, 

Brunn 

Hieroglyphus, Krauss 

1. bilineatus, Kirby 

2. bettoni, Kirby 

3. banian, Fabr 

4. con color, Walk 

5. citrinolimbatus, Brunn. 
Racilia, StSl 

1. aurora, Brunn 

Cercina, StSl 

1. obtusa, StSl 

Castetria, Bol. 

1. dispar, Bol 

Spathosternura, Karsch 

1. prasiuiferum, Walk. . . 

2. venulosum, Still 

Oxyrrhepes, StSl 

1. exteiisa, Walk 

Leptacris, Walk 

1. filiformis, Walk 

2. maxima, Karny 

3. greeni, Kirby 

Iscbnacrida, StSl 

1 . fusca, Karny 

2. convergent, Walk 

3. tarsalis, Walk 

Pseudocarsula, Kirby 

1. tenera, Brunn 

Xenippa, StSl 

1. prasina, Bol 

Gtjlastorrhinus, Brunn 

1. filatus, Walk 

2. laticornis, Serv 

3. semipictus, Walk 



191 

196 
196 
197 
198 
198 
199 
199 
200 
200 
201 
201 

201 
201 
202 
203 
204 
204 
205 
205 
205 
206 
206 
206 
207 
207 
208 
209 
209 
209 
210 
211 
211 
211 
212 
212 
212 
213 
214 
214 
215 
215 
216 
216 
217 
217 



SYSTEMATIC IIsDEX. 



Page 

4. albolineatus, Brunn. . . 218 

5. selache, Burr 218 

Lefroya, Kirby 219 

1. acutipenuis, Kirby .... 219 

Wacata, Kirby 219 

1. ceylonica, Kirby 220 

Mesambria, StSl 220 

1. scabra, Walk 221 

2. dubia, Walk 221 

3. tarsalis, Walk 222 

4. cinctifemur, Walk 222 

5. geniculata, St&l 223 

6. nepalensis, Walk 224 

Orthacanthacris, Karsch 224 

1. sjgyptia, Linn 225 

2. flavescens, Fabr 225 

3. succincta, Linn 227 

4. nigricornis, Burm 228 

5. vinosa, Walk 228 

6. violascens, Walk 229 

7. japonica, Bol 229 

Cyrtacanthacris, Walk 230 

1. rosea, DeG 231 

2. ranacea, Moll 231 

Schist ocerca, StSl 232 

1. tatavica, Linn 232 

Pelecinotus, Sol 233 

1. brachypterus, Bol. 233 

2. cristagalli, Bol 234 

Teratodes, Brultt 234 

1. monticollis, Gray .... 235 

Bibracte, StSl 23o 

1 . rugulosa, Bol 235 

Bibractoides, Kirby 236 

1. punctoria, Walk 236 

Alectoroloplms, Brunn 236 

1 . bimaculatus, Kirby .... 237 

Apalacris, Walk 237 

1. varicornis, Walk 238 

Coptacra, StSl 238 

1. ensifera, Bol 239 

Coptacrella, Bol 239 

1. martini, .Bo/ 240 

Eucoptacrn, Bol. 240 

1. pneinorsa, StSl 240 

2. ceylonica, Kirby 241 

Epistaurus, Bol 242 

1. aberrans, Brunn 242 

2. sinetyi, Bol. 242 



Page 

Gerenia, StSl 243 

1. dorsalis, Walk 243 

2. pustulipennis, Walk. . . 244 

3. intermedia, Brunn 244 

4. abbreviate, Brunn 244 

Traulia, StSl 244 

1. dimidiata, De Haan . . 245 

2. cackara, Kirby 245 

Catantops, Schaum 246 

1. opkthalmicus, Karny . . 247 

2. angustulus, Bol 248 

3. acuticercus, Bol 248 

4. domiuans, Walk 248 

0. consobrinus, Karny. . . . 249 

6. splendens, Thb 250 

7. kumilis, Sern 250 

8. interruptus, Bol 251 

9. indicus, Bol. 251 

10. karnyi, Kirby 251 

11. pinguis, StSl 252 

12. pulchellus, Walk 252 

13. erubescens, Walk 253 

Stenocrobylus, Gerst 254 

1. feiiioratus, Bol. 254 

Navasia, Kirby 255 

1. insularis, Kirby 255 

Bracbyxenia, Kirby 256 

1. scutifera, Watts 256 

Kripa, Kirby 257 

1. undulata, Kirby 257 

Caloptenopsis, Bol 258 

1. insignis, Walk 258 

2. glaucopis, Walk 259 

3. liturifer, Walk 259 

4. punctata, Kirby 260 

Peripolus, Mart 261 

1. pedaritis, StSl 261 

Heteracris, Walk 262 

1. robu8ta,/Sfer 262 

2. illustris, Walk 263 

3. capensis, Thb 263 

4. elegans, Walk 264 

Tylotropidius, StSl 626 

1. varicomis, Walk 255 

Paraeuprepocnemis, Brunn. . . 266 

1. pictipes, Bol 266 

Euprepocnemis, StSl 267 

1. alacris, Serv 267 

2. pnlckra, Bol 268 



ORTHOPTERA. 

THE Orthoptera are insects of moderate or large size, undergoing- 
an imperfect metamorphosis, the larva and pupa being of the 
same form as the perfect insect, and the pupa (or nymph, as it is 
often called) being active, and generally differing from the larva 
in the possession of rudimentary wings.* 




Fig. 1. (A) Nymph of Locusta danica, L.: a, costa of wing ; (B) adult 
Hieroglyphus : b, costa of front wing. 

The Orthoptera are always provided with strong mandibles, 
and are almost exclusively vegetable feeders, except the MANTID.E 
and many PHASGONUUID^, The front pair of wings are called 
tegmina, or by some authors elytra, and are nearly always of a 
parchment-like texture (rarely horny, as in the majority of 
Coleoptera), while the hind wings are membranous. They are 
most nearly allied to the typical Neuroptera of Linnaeus (the 
Dragonflies), the Odonata of Fabriciua, which some authors have 



* [These nymph forms can be distinguished from semi-apterous adults by 
the wings being inverted, i.e., the costa is uppermost,] 



2 INTBODUCTION. 

proposed to include in the Orthoptera under the title of Pseudo- 
neuroptera ; the Dragonflies, however, have four membranous 
wings, generally resembling each other closely, and covered by a 
network of veins. There are a few small groups of insects which 
are sometimes included in the Orthoptera, which are now more 
usually regarded as aberrant Neuroptera, or else as independent 
Orders. These are the Thysanoptera, Aiioplura, Mallophaga, 
Thysanura, and Collembola. 

The Orthoptera proper are divided into seven principal families, 
of which the first four have the hind legs fitted for walking. They 
comprise the FOEFICULID^E or Earwigs, the BLATTID^E or Cock- 
roaches, the MAKiiDvE or Praying Insects, and the PHASMiDyE or 
Stick Insects (sometimes called Spectre Insects). 

The Leaping Orthoptera have the hind legs strongly developed, 
and the hind femora much thickened ; they comprise the GRYL- 
LLD;E or Crickets, the PHASGO^ URIM: or Long-horned Grasshoppers 
(often improperly called LOCUSTIDJE), and the ACRIDIIDJE, the 
Short-horned Grasshoppers or Locusts. The last family, the 
one with which alone we are here concerned, may generally be 
recognized at a glance by the short antenna? and the 3-jointed 
tarsi. 

General Observations. 

The Order Orthoptera is the least numerous of the great 
Orders of Insects, with the possible exception of the Neuroptera, 
and is very poorly represented in England. In the Indian 
Region the species are far more numerous, and sometimes occur 
in devastating swarms, especially in the north-western regions, 
which are exposed to the attacks of various species of Migratory 
Locusts. 

[Some species are only found in woods, others only in open 
grass land, and some prefer very rough ground. They deposit 
their eggs in the ground in masses, covered with a glutinous 
secretion. 

A detailed account of the migratory species and their allies, by 
Mr. H. Maxwell Lefroy, will be found in the ' Memoirs of the 
Department of Agriculture in India, 1906, Entomological Series,' 
vol. i, No. 1, with numerous illustrations. The species referred 
to are : 

Aci'idium peregrinum, Ol. (ScJiistocerca tatarica, L., of this 

work), the North-West migratory locust. 
Acridium succinctum, L. (Orthacanthacris of this work), the 

Bombay locust. 
Acridium ceruc/inosum, Burm. (Cyrtacanthacris ranacea, Stoll, 

of this work). 
Acridium melanocorne, Serv. (Orthacanthacris niyricornis, 

Burm., of this work). 
Poecilocera picta, F. 

Demodocus robustus, Serv. (Heteracris of this work). 
Hieroylyphus furcifer, Serv. (H. banian, F., of this work). 



STBUCTUEE. 



These are species of large or moderate size, but many of the 
smaller kinds sometimes occur in large numbers and do great 
harm to crops and vegetation ; some preferring particular food- 
plants, whilst others are almost omnivorous.] 



Structure. 

In the ACEIDIID^E the head is usually short and broad. The 
compound eyes are placed one on each side, arid sometimes 
approximate very closely above. More frequently they are 
separated by a space as great or greater than their diameter ; 
and they are sometimes raised above the level of the rest of the 



Face of Locusta. 



Head of Atractomorj)ha.] 




Fig. 2. (A) Face of Locusta : a, eye, b, b, ocelli, c, frontal ridge, d, d, lateral 
carinae, e, e, tempora, or foveolce, f, clypeus, ff, labruin ; (B) head of 
Atractomorphus: h, fastigiutn, i, i, foveolae. 



head. The head is usually horizontal, but is occasionally obliquely 
raised. The extremity curves into the face, or is separated from 
it by a transverse carina ; not unfrequently it is more or less 
produced between and beyond the antennae, and this prolongation 
is called the fastigium. [The extreme apex of the fastigium is 
sometimes called the scutellum of vertex.^ 

The antennae are generally placed between or below the eyes. 

There are usually three ocelli, or simple eyes, the lateral ones 

u2 



placed between the eyes and the antennae, and the middle one on 
the frontal ridge. The frontal ridge is the central part of the 
face. It is generally raised, and bounded by a carina on each 
side. These carina? often curve outwards above each eye, and 
below the antennae they may either run parallel as far as the 
extremity of the lower part of the face (the clypeus) or they may 
become obsolete below the level of the antennae, or may diverge, 
leaving a more or less triangular space. The middle of the frontal 
ridge is often more or less thickly punctured, and is often deeply 
grooved; sometimes, however, it is flattened throughout, with the 
carinae scarcely marked. Under each eye there is frequently 
another straight or oblique carina, the lateral carina. 

[On each side, above the antennal socket and between the eye 
and the fastigium, there is a space, generally more or less tri- 
angular, called the tempora, lateral fovece or foreclos.] 




Fig. 3. Mouth part* ot Locust a : (A) labrum ; (B) mandible ; (C) maxilla ; 
(D) labiuiii : a, galea, b, lacinia, d, paraglossa. 

The mandibles are strong, pointed or bifid at the extremity, 
occasionally with a tooth, or several teeth, on the inner edge. 
[The maxillce have a fleshy galea, which more or less wraps 
round the lacinia ; this latter is curved and bifid, or may have 
three teeth at the apex. ThepaZpi are of moderate length, with 
five joints. The labium, which in the MANTID^E is extremely 
primitive and shows the maxilla-like structure most distinctly, 
is much modified in the ACRIDIHXS;, the paraylossce being greatly 
developed and the ligula much reduced. The intermediate form 
is seen in Agroecia, one of the PHASGONOIUJXE. The labial palpi 
are simple, and three- jointed. The labrum is leathery in texture 
and to a considerable extent shuts in the mouth parts.] 



STRUCTURE. 



[For comparison figures of the labiuin of a Mantis (Hieroduld) 
and of a Phasgonurid (Agrcecia) are here given.] 





Fig. 4. (A) Labiura of Hierodula ; (B) labium of Agnxcia. 

The antennae are comparatively short, with not more than 
twenty-four joints. The first joint, or scape, is generally 
stouter and longer than the second, which is often more or 
less globular, and is sometimes called the ring-joint. The 
remaining joints form the flagellum ; they are sometimes long 




Fig. 5. Antennae of (A) Locusta, (B) Gomphocerus, (C) Acrida. 



and uniformly cylindrical ; sometimes the flagellum is much 
thickened towards the base and tapers more or less towards the 
extremity ; and more rarely the joints of the flagellum are 
tiattened ; or some of the terminal joints are expanded or even 
form a club. 

The prouotum is generally as broad as the head, and its front 
edge slightly overlaps it. It is usually truncated or rounded 
behind, but is sometimes continued into a long process posteriorly, 
especially in the ACRYDIINJE, in which it frequently extends not 
only beyond the abdomen, but even covers the whole of the wings. 
The pronotuni above is sometimes flattened, in which case there 
is generally a central carina and two lateral carina?. En other 
cases the prouotum is cylindrical and arched above, when the 



IM'EODUCT I ON. 



lateral and sometimes the central carina are absent. Occasionally 
the central carina is raised into a ridge, or humped, and spines 
project from the front angles, or from the sides. On the upper 
surface of the pronotum we frequently meet with three or four 
transverse depressions or grooves, the position and extent of 




Fig. 6. Side view of the pronotnm of Criotettix : a, pronotum, l>, tegmen, 
c, costa of wing. 

which is of some importance in classification ; as is also the shape 
of the deflexed lobes on the sides of the pronotum. [When there 
is a central carina it is sometimes complete, sometimes it is cut 
by one of the transverse grooves, and in some cases by two of the 
grooves]. 

Behind the pronotum we find the mesonotum and metanotum, 
followed by the nine segments of the abdomen. The first segment 




Fig. 7. Side view of pronotum of: (A) Gastrimargus, with central carina 
cut by one groove ; (B) Bryodema, cut by two grooves. 

bears a curious structure on each side which is regarded as an 
organ of hearing. [It consists of a cavity covered by a transparent 
membrane, filled with liquid, and is connected with a nerve 



' 




Fig. 8. Side view of the base of the abdomen of Scltistocerca, 
showing : a, the auditory organ. 

originating in the third thoracic ganglion.] Each segment, 
except the ninth, is provided with a spiracle on each side. There 



STRUCTURE. t 

is frequently a central carina, and sometimes a row of teeth on 
the upper surface. In the male the 9th ventral segment forms a 
structure called the subgenital lamina which is often bifid. There 
are also two terminal appendages called cerci. In the female the last 
segment bears two upper and two lower lamellae, or valves, which 
are often dentate, and differ considerably in size and shape. 



A 




Fig. 9. Genitalia of Schistocerca : (A) tf , a > supra-anal lamina, b, subgenital 
lamina, c, c, cerci ; (B) $ , a, supra-anal lamina, b, lower lamellae, 
c, c, cerci, d, d, upper lamellae. 

[Characters of importance for purposes of classification are found 
in the sterna. The prosternum may be simple or provided with a 





Fig. 10. Meso- and meta-sternum of (A) Hieroglyphus and (B) Lcptacris : 
a, a, mesosternal lobes. 

strong spine or tubercle which varies much in form. The uieso- 
steruuin and metasternum have on each side of the posterior 
margin, lobes, the shape and extent of which are of importance.] 



INTRODUCTION. 



The legs consist of five distinct sections, known as the coxa, 
trochanter, femur, tibia and tarsus. The front and middle legs 




Fig. 11. Front leg of Cyrtacantltacris: a, coxa, b, trochanter, c, femur, 
d, tibia, e, tarsus. 

are generally much shorter than the hind legs, and much less 
. -g strongly developed, though their 

femora are not unfrequently 
more or less widened or flattened, 
and are sometimes toothed or 
spined. The hind femora are 
generally much thickened at the 
base, enabling the insect to leap. 

The tibia3 and tarsi are also some- 
limes thickened and lamellated, but 
more rarely. The hind tibiae have 
nearly always a double row of 
spines on the upper surface, and 
two or more spines at the ex- 
tremity, called calcaria or spurs. 
In the AeRiuiiDjE the tarsi are 
three-jointed, and the first joint is 
generally the longest, and is fre- 
quently provided with three pads, 
called pwvilli, on the under surface, 
-c 'a*' ~ ^ ne ^ as * ii nt terminates in two 
$JF claws, between which is a pad called 

/7* A .1 the arolium (wanting in the 

ACRYDIIN.E), a word of which I 
have been unable to discover the 
origin. 

Fig. 12. (A) Hind tibia and tarsus of Leptacris ; a, tibia, b, outer apical 
spine, which is absent in many genera, c, c, calcaria ; (B) upper 
side of tarsus of Locusta, ehowirg the three joints, and d, the 
arolium ; (C) under side of same, showing three pulvilli on basal 
joint and one on second. 



The teymina of the ACRIDIIDJE are generally comparatively long 
and narrow, of a parchment-like consistency, and are not folded. 



STRUCTURE. 



[Many species have them much abbreviated, in which case they 
are most commonly oval or elliptical ; and in some cases they are 




J i hk * 

Fig. 13. Tegmen of Schistocerca : a, mediastinal vein; b, scapular (humeral, 
or anterior radial) ; c, middle radial (or discoidal) ; d, branch of 
radial; e, posterior radial (or median); g, intercalate ; A, anterior 
ulnar ; i, branch of ulnar ; j, posterior ulnar ; k, anal (or 
dmdens) ; /, axillary (or plicata). 

1, mediastinal area ; 2, scapular (or humeral) area ; 3, 4, anterior 
and posterior intercalate spaces (discoidal of Brunner) ; 3+4, 
median of Saussure ; 5, ulnar area ; 6, 7, anterior and posterior 
axillary areas (Saussure) ; 7, anal area (Brunner). 

absent.] They are usually more or less opaque, especially 
towards the base. 

The wings usually almost equal the tegmina in length, but are 
much broader and are longitudinally folded. In most cases they 
are hyaline or glassy, with darker nervures, but are sometimes 




Fig. 14 "Wing of Schistocerca. The lettering as in figure 13. 

stained with red or yellow, or more rarely with blue or green. 
The neuration will be better understood from the diagram than 
from description. 



10 



SUBFAMILIES OF ACRIDIID^. 

In Brunner von Wattenvvyl's 'Eevision of the Orthoptera,' 
published at Geneva in 1893, he admits nine subfamilies of the 
present group. Of these, the second and fourth (PNEi'iiOEiN^E 
and PBOSCOPJNJE) are exclusively confined to South Africa and to 
Tropical America respectively ; while the eighth, the PAMPHAGHTJK, 
is not yet recorded from India, though it is probable that some 
representatives may occur in the northern or north-western 
portions. The other subfamilies are all more or less fully 
represented. 



Table of Subfamilies of Indian 

1 (2) Claws of the tarsi not provided with 

an arolium or intermediate pad ; pro- 
notum always produced backwards 
over the abdomen ACRYPIIN^E, p. 1 1 . 

2 (1) Claws of the tarsi provided with an 

arolium ; pronotum rarely produced 
over the abdomen. 

3 (4) Antennae shorter than the front femora. EUMASTACIKJE, p. 80. 

4 (3) Antennae longer than the front femora. 

5 (10) Prostemum unarmed. 

6 (7) Fastigium of the vertex horizontally 

produced, or sloping beneath, and 
forming an angle with the frontal 
ridge TRYXALIX^E, p. 95. 

7 (6) Fastigium of the vertex rounded 

towards the fixmt, which is nearly 
vertical. 

8 (9) Frontal costa obtuse ; posterior tibiw 

with no external apical spine ; second 

abdominal segment smooth CEoiPODiN-iE, p. 128. 

9 (8) Frontal costa compressed and sulcate ; 

posterior tibiae with an apical spine 

on outer margin ; second abdominal [p. 158. 

segment granulated BATKACHOTETRIGIN.*:, 

10 (o) Prosternum raised and laminated in 

front, swollen, spined or hooked. 

11 (12) Foveolse of the vertex contiguous, 

superior, and forming the extremity 

of the fastigium ; front never [p. 160. 

sloping PYKGOMORPHIN.S:, 

12 (11) Foveolae of the vertex varying in 

position, but never forming the tip of 
the fastigium, and often obsolete. 

13 (14) Foveoke superior, open behind ; 

prosternum strumose, but rarely 

spined PAMPHAGINJE, p. 190. 

14 (13) Foveolae lateral or inferior, closed 

behind, or obsolete: prosternum dis- [p. 191. 

tinctly spined or tuberculate CATANTOPINJE, 



11 



Subfamily I. ACRYDIIN^. 

These insects are amongst the smallest species of the LOCUSTIDJK, 
and are called Grouse-Locusts in America. They are very 
numerous in meadows and swampy places and many of the 
species may almost be regarded as subaquatic. Till recently they 
have been somewhat neglected by entomologists, but Professor J . 
L. Hancock, of Chicago, has made a speciality of the subfamily, on 
which he has published an important series of works, especially 
in Wytsman's " Genera Insectorum " (family ACRIDIIDJE, sub- 
family TETRIGINJE), in which he divides the subfamily into nine 
sections, six of which are represented in the Indian Fauna. 



Key to the Groups o 

1 (2) Antennae much flattened, except at base 

and apex Tripetalocerini, p. 11. 

2 (1) Antenna? filiform. 

3 (10) Anterior femora compressed, carinate 

above. 

4 (5) Frontal costa forked between the ocelli, 

the rami strongly divergent, forming 

a frontal scuteflum Cladonotini, p. 14. 

5 (4) Frontal costa furcillate, but the rami 

diverging only a little or moderately 
in front, or parallel, very frequently 
separated only in a slight degree by 
a sulcus. 

6 (7) Posterior angles of lateral lobes spined; 

first joint of hind tarsi generally 

longer than the third Scelimcnini, p. 20. 

7 (6) Posterior angles of lateral lobes rarely 

spined ; first joint of hind tarsi not 
longer than the third. 

8 (9) Posterior angles of lateral lobes slightly 

produced, obliquely truncate, rarely 
spined ; first and third joints of hind 
tarsi nearly equal in length Metrodorini, p. 43. 

9 (8) Posterior angles of lateral lobes de- 

pr-essed, more or less rounded ; third 
joint of hind tarsi shorter than the 

first Acrydiini, p. 57. 

10 (3) Anterior femora sulcated above Batrachidiini, p. 78. 



Group I. TRIPETALOCEEINI. 
Key to the Genera. 

1 (2) Front bifid ; tegmina and wings 

rudimentary ' TRIPETALOCERA, Westw., p. 12. 

2 (1) Front acuminate ; tegmina and 

wings obsolete BIRMAXA, Brunn., p. 13. 



12 



Genus TRIPETALOCERA. 

Tripetalocera, Westwood, Vigors' Zoolog. Journ. v, 1834, p. 444 ; 
Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. xxxi, 1887, pp. 190, 190, 310; 
Hancock, Gen. Ins., Orth. Tetriginse, 1906, p. 4 ; Kirby. Cat. 
Orth. iii, 1910, p. 1. 

TYPE, Tmpetdlocera ferruginea, Westw. 

Range. Oriental Begion. 

Form long, rather narrow, tapering. Head with a strong bifid 
projection between the eyes ; eyes very large and prominent. 
Antennae half as long as the body, 8-jointed, the basal joint 
short, the second shorter, moniliforin, the rest (except the minute 
terminal joints) considerably longer than broad, but all broad and 
flattened and usually broadest at the extremity ; terminal joints 
very short, filiform. Pronotum covering the whole body, the 
lateral lobes strongly spined, the upper surface very rugose, with 
a strong triangular hump before the middle, and a lateral spine 
between the front and middle legs. All the femora flattened, 
with triangular teeth on the carina? above and below. Tegrnina 
(when visible) small, oval. Upper valves of ovipositor dentated 
above. 



1. Tripetalocera ferruginea, Westw. 

Tripetalocera ferruginea, Westwood, Zool. Journ. v, 1834, p. 444, 
pi. xxii, tig". 3. 

Dark ferruginous brown, with a bifid projection between the 
autennte, which are placed hardly below the level of the 
prominent eyes, and are 11-jointed. The first two joints are 
short and broader than the 3rd, which is moniliforin, smooth, 




Fig. 15. Tripetalocera Jcrruginea. 

and shining; the 4th and 5th are short, widened at the ex- 
tremity ; the 6th to the 10th are longer than broad, triquetral, 
and expanded at the extremities, except the 10th, which is more 
oval; from it projects the minute joint 11, which is apparently 
broken off, and perhaps consists of two or three closely-approxf- 
mating joints. Body very rugose, a strong triangular denticulated 
hump a little before the middle, and a strong pointed tooth on 



TRIPETALOCERA. 



13 



each side between the first two pairs of legs. Legs short and 
thick, all the femora nodulose. 

Length 15 mm. 

MADRAS: Travancore. 

Type in the Oxford Museum. 

The type appears to be the only specimen known from India. 
All other ostensible descriptions are taken from Burmese ex- 
amples. The British Museum possesses specimens of this genus 




Fig. 16. Tripetalocera ferruginea. 

from Penang and Borneo, which present differences in the pro- 
portions of the antennae, and in the protuberances on the body. 
I believe them to be distinct species, but the material before me 
is insufficient to deal with at present. De Haan and Bolivar have 
described and figured species as ferruginea from Borneo, but 1 
doubt if they have figured the same species as "Westwood's. 



Genus BIRMANA. 

Birmana, Brunner, Ann. Mus. Genova, xxxiii, 1893, p. 113; Han- 
cock, Gen. Ins., Orth. Tetrig. 1906, p. 4 ; Kirby, Cat, Orth. iii, 
1910, p. 1. 

TYPE, Birmana gracilis, Brunn. 

Range. Burma. 

Form long, oval. Head prominent, vertex pointed; antennae 
inserted before the eyes, "8-jointed, all the joints except the 



14 ACKYDIIX.D. 

basal (terminal ?) ones, smooth, triquetral " (the figure shows 
eight broad joints the basal one may be concealed and a terminal 
tiagellum of three small slender joints). Pronotum narrow, not 
extending to the extremity of the abdomen, viewed from the 
side subrotund, marginal cariuae parallel in front, lateral lobss 
appressed, apical process emarginate, with the margin broadly 
deflexed. Tegmina and wings absent. Front and middle femora 
compressed ; hind femora rather short, much dilated, with the 
upper carina projecting in a tooth at the extremity ; front tibise 
compressed, sulcated ; hind tibia? denticulated ; hind tarsi with 
the first and third joints of equal length. 

L. Birmana gracilis, Brunn. 

Birmana gracilis } Brunner, Ann. Mus. Genova, xxxiii, 1893, p. 114, 
pi. v, fig. 47. 

Colour uniform cinereous (male only described). 

Length 7'5 mm. ; pronotum, 4'5 mm. ; hind femora, 3-5 mm. 

BURMA : Bharao. 

Type in the Genoa Museum. 



Group II. OLADOBOTINL 

Key to the Genera. 

\ (4) Pronotum compressed, foliaceous. 

2 (3) Tegmina small, triangular FIKBEUIAXA, n. n., p. 14. 

3 (2) Tegmina and wings absent DELTONOTUS, Hanc,, p. 15. 

4 (1) Pronotum not compressed. 

o (6) Pronotum with a foliaceous process 

curving forward over the head . . CLADONOTUS, Sauss., p. 17. 
'(5) Pronotum almost flat MNEMA, g. n., p. 19. 

Genus FIEBERIANA, n. n. 

Playiocephalus, Fieber (nee Macq.), Abh. kb'nigl.-biihni. Ges. Wiss. 
(5) iii, 1845, p. 407. 

TYPE, Plagioceplialas pachymerus, Fieb. 

Range. North India (?) 

Head short, broad, very slightly narrower above than below ; 
anteniife distant from the eyes, placed at the lower end of the 
forked frontal carina near the ocellus. Pronotum high, arched, 
cultrate, tectiform, wrinkled, as long as the abdomen. Hind 
femora very large and broad, suddenly contracted at the knee ; 
middle, legs with lamellated, notched carinae. Thorax arched. 
(Fieber.) 

This genus appears to be most nearly related to Piezotetliv, Bd., 
species of which occur in Borneo and the Philippines, as well as in 
West Africa, New Guinea, etc.; but differs from it in the 
possession of rudimentary tegulos. 



FIEBEKIAXA. JJELTOXOTUS. 1.5 

3. Fieberiana pachymerus, Fieb. 

Playiocephalus pachymerus, Fieber, Abli. konigl.-bohm. Ges. Wiss. 

(5) iii, 1845, p. 407. 
Piezotettix pachymerus, Kirby, Cat. Orth. iii, 1910, p. 7. 

Pronotum with a high arch, laterally tectiform, wrinkled, and 
finely granulated ; front lateral margin waved, front angle 
rounded, hinder angle short, lamellated ; sides of the truncated 
process broad, lamellated, narrowed from front to back. Upper 
carina of hind femora before and at the knee twice " abgesetzt " 
(emarginate ?). Tegmina small, triangular, in the concavity of 
the hinder angle of the pronotum. (Fieber.) 

Size not stated. 

INDIA (Heifer). 

Genus DELTONOTUS. 

Deltonotus, Hancock, Spol. Zeyl. ii, 1904, pp. 107, 111 ; id., Gen. Ins., 

Orth. Tetrig. 1906, pp. 9, 14. 
Pcecilotettiv, Bolivar (nee Scudder), Ann. Soc. Ent. France, Ixx, 

1902, p. 580. 

TYPE. Deltonotus tectiformis, Hanc. 

Eanye. India, Ceylon. 

Finely granulated, but not rugose. Head broad, wider below 
than above, vertex carinated, the branches diverging on the face ; 
antennae very slender, 12-jointed, widely separated, slightly below 
the level of the lower margin of the eyes ; eyes large, sessile. 
Pronotum strongly compressed and carinate above, pointed before 
and behind, projecting above the head, and about as long as the 
abdomen behind. Tegmina and wings absent. Hind femora 
about twice as long as broad, and extending for fully one-third 
of their length beyond the extremity of the pronotum ; hind 
tibiae with four or five spines on the back, and with two terminal 
spines on each side ; first joint of the hind tarsi longer than the 
second and third together. 

Key to the Species. 

1 (2) No black lateral spot on pronotum . . subcucullatiis, Walk., p. 15. 

2 (1) A distinct black spot on each side of 

pronotum yibbiceps, Bol., p. 16. 

4. Deltonotus subcucnllatus, Walk. 

Tettix subcucuUatus, Walker, Cat. Derm. Salt. B.M. v, 1871, 

ettc 




Darker or lighter ferruginous brown ; pronotum, except the 
carina, darker than the rest of the body. Pronotum thickly 



16 ACRYDITNJE. 

reticulate-punctate, sometimes with obsolete linear markings. 
Hind femora strongly notched above before the extremity. 
Valves of ovipositor hairy, dentated, with the tip pointed, and 
slightly curved. 

Length 9 mm. 

CEYLON: (2 J empleton\ Pundaluoya (Green). 

Types ( 3 , $ ) in the British Museum ; those of D. tectiformis 
in Prof. Hancock's collection at Chicago. 

Prof. Hancock states that some of the specimens from Punda- 
luoya and others from Tantune have the pronotum less produced 




Fig. 17. Deltonotus subcucullatus. 

anteriorly. He is in doubt whether to regard them as larval 
forms, or as a distinct species, for which he suggests the pro- 
visional name of D. cristatus (Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1907, 
p. 216). Mr. Green's specimens were taken among fallen 
leaves. 



5. Deltonotus gibbiceps, Bol. 

Pcecilotettix yibbiceps, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, Ixx, 1902, 

p. 580. 
Deltonotus gibbiceps, Hancock, Gen. Ins., Orth. Tetrig. 1900, p. 14 ; 

Kirby, Cat. Orth. iii, 1910, p. 7. 

Ochraceous-bi-own, granulate-rugose. Vertex (viewed from 
above) obtusely produced before the eyes, carinated in the middle 
and on the sides ; seen from the side distinctly ascending, with 
the carina somewhat compressed ; frontal scutellum nearly twice 
as long as broad. Pronotum acutely tectiform, in front obtusely 
angulated, behind truncated, middle carina straight, somewhat 
sloping towards the front margin, with lateral carina slightly 
indicated in front, with a long wrinkle simulating a carina near 
the shoulder, next to the lateral carina ; the back with a velvety 
black spot on each side near the middle ; the deflexed lobes 
beyond the hinder angle slightly produced, forming a rectangular 
lobe truncated behind. Front femora with undulating carina, 
banded with brown ; hind femora with the upper carina minutely 
granulated, acutely sinuated before the apex ; hind tibiae with the 
upper margins minutely serrulated and spined, ringed with brown ; 



CLADONOTUS. 17 

first joint of the tarsi with three pulvilli of equal length. Abdo- 
men varied with brown. 

J . Length 9 mm. ; prouotum, 5-5 mm. ; hind femur, 5 mm. 

2 . Length 10 mm. ; pronotum, 6-5 mm. ; hind femur, 5-5 mm. 

MADRAS : Madura (Decoly}. 

Types in the collections of Pantel and Bolivar, in Madrid. 



Genus CLADONOTUS. 

Cladonotus, Saussure, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, (4) i, 1861, p. 478 ; 
Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. xxxi, 1887, pp. 184, 192, 208; 
Hancock, Spol. Zeyl. ii, 1904, pp. 107, 112 ; id., Gen. Ins., Orth. 
Tetrig. 1906, pp. 10, 11; Kirby, Cat. Orth. iii, 1910, p. 9. 

TYPE, Cladonotus Jiumbertianus, Sauss. 

Range. The Oriental Kegion ; New Guinea. 

Body moderately long and broad, set with spiniform tubercles. 
Face slightly oblique; antennae very slender, wider apart than the 
distance from them to the eyes ; frontal scutellum concave, the 
rami subcornpressed, and slightly raised, simple or dentated ; 
vertex nearly twice as broad as the eyes, subtruncated, with a 
small tooth on each side. Pronotum very rugose, covering the 
occiput, with a high compressed dentated process on the back, 
directed forwards ; truncated and emarginate behind. Tegmina 
and wings absent. Hind femora dentated and often sublamel- 
lated ; hind tibiae long and slender, with numerous small spines ; 
first and third joints of hind tarsi of nearly equal length. 

Key to the Species. 

1 (2) Pronotal process curved forward . . humbertianus, Sauss., p. 17. 

2 (1) Pronotal process straight. 

3 (4) Pronotal process expanded at 

extremity latiramus, Hanc., p. 19. 

4 (3) Pronotal process not widened at 

extremity turrifer, Walk., p. 18. 

6. Cladonotus humbertianus, Sauss. 

Cladonotus humbertianus, Saussure, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, (4) i r 
1861, p. 478 : Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belp. xxxi, 1887, pp. 184, 
192, 209 ; Hancock, Spol. Zeyl. ii, 1904, pp. 107, 113 ; id., Gen. Ins., 
Orth. Tetrig. 1906, pp. 10, 16 ; Kirby, Cat. Orth. iii, 1910, p. 9. 

Dark brown or blackish, eyes very prominent, wide apart, 
vertex carinated above the frontal ocellus ; below, diverging 
rami on the clypeus, just beyond which the slender antennae are 
inserted on each side ; labrum again with one central cariua. 
Pronotum with a lower process, dentated above, projecting over 
the vertex ; behind this is a large flattened process, curving 
forward over the head and trifid at the extremity, with several 
teeth on the converging upper carinae ; lateral angles projecting 

c 



18 ACRYDIINJE. 

in a triangular tooth, with a small tooth behind it; thorax and 
abdomen above granulated, carinated in the middle and on the 




Fig. 18. Cladonotus humbertianus. 

sides ; extremity of abdomen concave. Femora with large lobate 
teeth ; tibiae with 5 short spines above on each of the upper 
carinse, and a pair of terminal spines on each side. 

c? . The type figured by Bolivar has the process of the pro- 
notum longer and more slender than in the female above 
described. 

Length 8-9 mm. ; breadth, 3 mm. ; dorsal appendage, 3-4 mm. 

CEYLON : Peradeniya, Trincomali (Humbert, Green). 

Type in the collection of the late cle Saussure. 

Saussure states that this insect is found in sandy places and in 
meadows, and on paths ; also that the spines, tubercles and 
appendages vary considerably in form and size. 

7. Cladonotus turrifer, Walk. 

Cladonotus turrifer, Walker, Cat. Derm. Salt. B.M. v, 1871, p. 843 ; 
Kirby, Cat. Orih. iii, 1910. p. 9. 

Dark brown, more strongly granulated and dentated than the 
last species, which it considerably resembles. The appendage of 




Fig. 19. Cladonotus turrifer. 
the pronotum is directed obliquely forward, and is nearly straight 



CLADOXOTUB. MNEMA. 19 

above, though serrated and dentated; beneatli it throws off a 
strong pointed projection, directed downwards over the vertex, 
and deutated above ; the extremity of the upper appendage is not 
furcate, as in O. hutiibertianus, but is irregularly toothed and 
somewhat excavated beneath, between the extremity and the 
lower branch. The lateral abdominal carinae are strongly toothed 
and serrulated. The tibia? and tarsi are black, banded with 
yellow ; hind tarsi with 4 or 5 small spines on che upper carinae, 
and serrulated nearer the base. 

Length 8 mm. 

CEYLON (Roberts). 

Type in the British Museum. 



8. Cladonotus latiramus, Hanc. 

Cladonotus latiramus, Hancock, Spol. Zeyl. ii, 1904, pp. 107, 113, 
114, pi. i, fi<?. 1 ; id., Gen. Ins., Orth. Tetrig. 1906, p. 16. pi. i 
Kirby, Cat. Orth. iii, 1910, p. 9. 

Brown, very similar to the last species, but thepronotal process 
is nearly straight, expanding towards the upper extremity, where 
it is broadest, and subfurcate ; in front it is strongly toothed and 
excavated, curving regularly inwards and outwards, the lower 
projection over the vertex being comparatively short. Hind tibiae 
with numerous small spines on the upper carina3. 

Length 9 mm. 

CEYLON : Kandy (Green). 

Type in the Collection of J. L. Hancock. 

Described from a single male. 



Genus [MNEMA] nov * 

TYPE, Cladonotus pdops. Walk. 

Banc/e. Ceylon. 

Body apterous, strongly rugose. Vertex considerably wider 
than the width of the eye and with a spine on each side ; antennas 
very slender, on a level with the lower part of the eyes, the bifid 
carina projecting distinctly between them as seen from above. 
Pronotum very broad at the shoulders, the lateral angles lamin- 
ately trideiitate, the long middle one acute ; upper surface humped 
between the shoulders, and the median line strongly dentated 
behind ; apex of pronotum acutely pointed, extending beyond the 
abdomen. Four front femora with strong triangular teeth, both 
above and below ; four front tibiae with two small nodules above ; 
hind legs wanting. A strong spine on the upper side of the 
abdomen in front of the upcurved terminal plate. 

Possibly allied to Potua. 



[Left unnamed in manuscript by Mr. Kirby.] 

c2 



20 



ACKYDIIN.E. 



9. Mnema pelops, Walk. 

Cladonotus pelops, Walker, Cat. Derm. Salt. B.M. v, 1871, p. 843. 

Blackish, stout. Head with a spine on each side of the vertex 
adjoining the eye ; front with a tubercle on each side, two keels 
in the middle part ; a single keel towards the vertex, and a forked 
keel towards the face ; eyes extremely prominent. Antennae 
very slender. Prothorax rugose, with a middle keel which is 




Fig. 21. Mil e ma pelops. 



Fig. 20. Mnema pelops. 

most distinct in the fore part ; sides dilated into membranes, each 
of which is armed with four spines ; hind part lanceolate, 
extending somewhat beyond the tip of the abdomen. Legs 
stout ; femora armed with teeth ; hind tibiae [now lost] with very 
short spines. "Wings rudimentary. 

Length 9 mm. 

CEYLOK. 

Type in the British Museum. 

Walker calls the specimen a female, but it appears to be a 
male. 



Group III. SCELIMENINI. 

Key to the Genera. 

1 (8) Antennae inserted distinctly below 

the eyes. 

2 (5) Borders of the hind tibiae and of the 

first joint of the hind tarsi with 
wide lamellar expansions. 

3 (4) Pronotum very long, projecting 

greatly beyond the abdomen .... 



SCELIMENA, Serv., p. 2U 



21 

4 (3) Pronotum only slightly produced 

beyond the abdomen. .". ABBASIA, g. n., p. 27. 

5 (2) Borders of the hind tibiae and of the 

first joint of the hind tarsi more or 

less expanded, but not lamellated. [p. 30. 

6 (7) Vertex unarmed EUGAVIALIDIU.M, Hanc., 

7 (6) Vertex with two raised tubercles . . GAVIALIDIUM, Sauss., 

8 (1) Antennae inserted nearly between [p. 28. 

the eyes. 

9 (10) Lateral spine of pronotum straight 

or curved forwards CBIOTETTIX, Bol., p. 31. 

10 (9) Lateral spine distinctly directed 

backwards. [p. 36. 

11 (12 ) Frontal carina not prominent ACANTHOLOBUS, Hanc., 

12 (11) Frontal carina very prominent .... LOXILOBUS, Hanc., p. 41. 

Genus SCELIMENA. 

Scelimena, Serville, Ins. Orth. 1839, p. 762; Bolivar, Ann. Soc- 
Ent. Belg. xxxi, 1887, pp. 184, 193, 216 ; Hancock, Spol. Zeyl. 
ii, 1904, pp. 107, 116, 154; id., Gen. Ins., Orth. Tetrig. 1906, 
pp. 21, 23. 

Scelymena, Saussure, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, (4) i, 1861, p. 484. 

Scelhymena, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, Ixx, 1902, p. 581. 

TYPE, Tetrix productus, Serv. 

Range. The Oriental Eegion. 

Body rugose ; pronotum usually much produced ; antennae 
inserted in front of, and below the level of the eyes ; upper ocelli 
slightly in front of the eyes ; frontal cariuse only slightly divergent 
below the eyes, and produced, united below the frontal ocellus, 
and suddenly forking at the lower extremity. Antennas slender, 
filiform, uniform in thickness throughout. Eyes large, prominent, 
raised above the vertex. Body above with a slight carina 
throughout, granulated, and prouotum more or less rugose ; 
posterior angles with a strong spine, curving outwards and more 
or less forwards. Tegmiua oval, rounded at the extremity ; 
wings ample, considerably longer than broad. Femora frequently 
dentated beneath ; hind tibiae and first joint of hind tarsi strongly 
lamellated. 

The species of Scelimena differ considerably, and may, when 
more material has accumulated, be subdivided into several genera. 
They are aquatic in their habits, the laraellated hind legs being 
doubtless employed as oars. 

Key to the Sjaecies. 

1 (10) Abdomen produced about as far as 

the extended hind femora. 

2 (5) Hind femora almost unarmed beneath. 

3 (4) Pronotal elongation longer than the 

extended hind femora and tibiae . . producta, Serv., p. 22. 

4 (3) Pronotal elongation about equal to 

the extended bind femora and 

tibiae india, Hanc., p. 23. 



A.CBTJ>inrz. 



5 (2) Hind femora strongly spined be- 

neath. 

6 (9) Lateral lobes of pronotum with only 

one spine. 

7 (8) Spine nearly straight ; lamellae of 

hind tibiae and tirst joint of hind 
tarsi very wide, subhyaline ...... 

8 (7) Spine distinctly curved forwards : 

la 



Jiarpago, Serr v p. 23. 



mellae of hind tibiae and first 
joint of hind tarsi narrower, more 
gradually formed, and only sub- 
hyaline at edges ........ .* ..... yavialis, Sauss., p. 24. 

9 (6) Lateral lobes of pronotum with two 

spines, curving forwards ........ logani, Hanc., p. 25. 

10 (1) Abdomen scarcely produced beyond 

the extended hind femora ; pro- 

notum shorter ................ tmcinata, Serv., p. 26. 

11 Species iucertse feedis ............ btrmanica, Brunu., p. 27. 



10. Scelimena producta, Serv. 

Tetrix producta, Serville, Ins. Orth. 1839, p. 762. 

Acridium (Tetri.r) productum (a), De Ilaan, Temminck, Verhandl., 

Orth. p. 168. 
Scelymena producta, Saussure, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, (4) i, 1861, 

p. 484. 
Scelimena prodncta, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. Bete, xxxi, 1887, 

p. 216; Brunner, Ann. Mus. Geneva, xxxiii, 1893, p. 103. 
Scelymena extensa, Walker, Cat. Derm. Salt. B.M. v, 1871, p. 841. 

Brown, the front lateral borders of the pronotum narrowly 
yellowish. Pronotum slender, very long and 
tapering, with dorsal and lateral carina?, the 
latter somewhat indistinct in front ; the 
front angle with a strong yellowish tooth, 
and a much longer lateral one, curved for- 
wards, halfway between them is a well- 
marked notch ; on the sides of the median 
carina are one or two slight elevations ; the 
extremity is obliquely rounded, not indent- 
ated, as in S. Jiarpago, f/avlalis and loc/ani. 
Tegmina oval, narrow, rather pointed. Wings 
ample, much longer than broad, with the 
costa brown, and the hind margin crenulated, 
hyaline, with greenish and violet iridescence. 
Front femora rather uneven above ; hind 
tibioe and first joint of tarsi with moderately 
broad laminae. 

LengtJi, to end of pronotum, 28-30 mm. ; 

to end of abdomen, 15-16 mm. ; breadth of pronotum from spine 

to spine, 8-9 mm. ; length of tegmen, 3 mm. ; hind femur, 8 mm. ; 

expanse of wings, 45-48 mm. ; breadth 13 mm. 

MADRAS : Trivandrum ; BURMA : Karen Hills, 3000-3700 ft., 

Dawna Hills, 2000-3000 feet ; JATA ; BORXEO : Sandakan. 




Fig. 22. Scelimena 
product a. 



SCELIMENA. 23- 

Type in the Paris Museum ; that of S. extensa in the British 
Museum. 

Described from Javan specimens. Brunner von "Wattenwyl 
states that Burmese specimens are rather larger than othera. 

11. Scelimena India, Hanc. 

Scelimena india, Hancock, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1907, p. 219. 

" Eesembling S. producta, but slightly stouter in stature. Body 
fuscous, pale variegated, the carinae of dorsum navo-maculate, the 
tibiae with pale annuli. Vertex subequal in width to one of the 
eyes, the frontal carinaa on each side little compressed and sub- 
acute. Pronotum anteriorly somewhat subangulate, posteriorly 
extended beyond the knees of the hind femora as far as the tibial 
apices, but not so lengthily attenuate as in producta ; dorsum 
conspersed with granules, depressed and uneven, between the 
sulci forwards subfossulate on each side, between the shoulders 
bearing subclavated longitudinal costate protuberances, humeral 
angles unarmed, behind the shoulders bifossulate, and presenting 
a pair of rounded sub-elevated nodules ; again another pair, which 
are indistinct and somewhat fused together, appear posteriorly 
opposite the middle of the hind femora ; posterior process stout at 
the base and acuminate towards the apex ; median carina rather 
incrassate, unevenly undulate anteriorly at the margin, little 
protuberant and subtuberculate ; lateral lobes at the anterior 
margin armed with small tubercles, the posterior margin little 
laminate outwards, and armed with a distinct acute spine on each 
side, directed transversely but little curved forward. The posterior 
femoral margins entire, the posterior tibiae armed with minute 
denticles, the margins dilated towards the apices ; the first article 
of the posterior tarsi dilated, but not so widely as in productus. 
Length of body entire, male, 19*5 mm. ; pronotum, 18 mm. ; 
posterior femora, 7 mm." 

ASSAM : Cherrapunji. 

Type in the Oxford Museum. 

S. producta, Serv. (=extensa, Walk.) from Java and Borneo 
(Sandakan), with which this species is compared, is a much more 
slender and tapering species than any of the following. 

12. Scelimena harpago, Serv. 

Tetrix Jiarpago, Serville, Ins. Orth. 1839, p. 763 ; Bolivar, Ann. 
Soc. Ent. Belg. xxxi, 1887, pp. 216, 217, pi. iv, fig. 13. 

Dull brownish black, thickly granulated, and with a pale 
yellowish tomentum. Eyes large, prominent, separated by less 
than half their diameter ; between them runs a double carina, as 
described in the characters of the genus. Antennas black, with 
white incisions ; placed considerably below and in front of the 
level of the eyes. Pronotum broader than the head, with the 
front lateral angles obtusely rounded ; hinder angles with a very 




24 ACBYDIINJE. 

strong nearly straight yellow spine : the median and lateral carinae 
often spotted with yellow ; two short subsidiary carinae. one on 
each side of the median carina, at the base of the pronotum ; 
behind the level of the lateral spine the pronotuin is raised, and 
there are four strong protuberances on each side, two smaller ones 
near together just behind the level of the spine ; and two larger 
ones before the middle ; the pronotum then tapers to the extremity, 
which is slightly indented ; it extends to about one-fourth of 
its length beyond the abdomen. Front legs black, tibiae and tarsi 
spotted with yellow ; front femora 
with two slightly marked teeth 
above and below, the latter yel- 
low ; middle legs black, femora 
scarcely toothed above, but with 
two strong yellow teeth below ; 
tibiae and tarsi spotted with yel- 
low ; hind femora with a varying 
number of large and small yellow 
teeth beneath; hind tibiae with 
a wide yellowish hyaline lateral 
membrane, except at the base; 
Fig. 23.- Scelimena harpacfo. nrst j o j nt o f tars i w i t h a similar 

membrane on the whole of its 

length, forming a long oval ; second joint of tarsi of equal length, 
yellow, black at base and tip. Tegmina oval, about twice as long 
as broad, and slightly narrowed towards the extremity ; wings 
considerably longer than broad, hyaline, with a slight bluish 
iridescence, brown along the costa, hind margins crenulated. 

$ . The valves longer than the terminal segment of the abdo- 
men, the upper ones turned upwards and the lower ones turned 
downwards at the tip ; the upper ones denticulated above, and 
the lower ones below. 

Length, to end of pronotum, 24-26 mm. ; to end of abdomen, 
16-17 mm. ; breadth of pronotum from spine to spine, 9 mm. ; 
length of tegmen, 3 mm.; of hind femur, 9 mm.; expanse of 
wings, 36-38 mm, ; breadth, 10 mm. 

BOMBAY : Bombay, Bandra ; UNITED PROVINCES : Almora ; 
MADRAS: Coirnbatore. 



13. Scelimena gavialis, Sauss. 

Scelymena gavialis, Saussure, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, (4) i, 1861, 

p. 486. 
Scelimena ffavialis, Hancock, Spol. Zeyl. ii, 3904, pp. 107, 117, 154, 

pi. i, tig. 4. 
Scelymena nodosa, Walker, Cat. Derm. Salt. B.M. v, 1871, p. 840 

(n. yn.). 

Dull black, thickly granulated, the front and lateral margins of 
the pronotum narrowly edged with red as far as the lateral spines 
which are of the same colour, and strongly hooked forwards, 



SCELIHEXA. 




Central and lateral carinae well marked, the latter slightly incurved 
in front, and not extending to the front lobe of the pronotuin. 
Prouotura with two elevations on each side 
before the middle, and generally tipped with 
red. Tegmina grey, twice as long as broad, 
and obtusely pointed towards the extremity. 
Wings slightly iridescent hyaline, as long as 
or somewhat longer than the prothorax, and 
crenulated on the hind margins ; costa brown. 
Front and middle femora with two or three 
small teeth beneath ; hind femora with several 
small pale teeth beneath ; hind tibiae and first 
tarsal joint with narrower and less rounded 
lamellae than in . liarpago. 

5 . Anal appendages black or red, nearly as 
in S. liarpago ; <$ appendages much shorter. 
Lenyth, to end of pronotum, 21-24 mm. ; 
to end of abdomen, 11-14 mm. ; breadth of 
pronotum from spine to spine, 8-10 mm.; 
length of tegmen, 2 mm. ; of hind femur, 
9mm.; expanse of wings, 43 mm. ; breadth, 
13 mm. 

MADKAS: Trivandrum; CEYLON: Peradeniya, Damballa, Mas- 
keliya, Pundaluoya. 

Type location unknown ; that of S. nodosa in the British 
Museum. 

" One female, Dambella, October, ' from margin of tank ' ; two 
females, Maskeliya, November and February ; five females and 
four males, Pundaluoya, March, were taken from rocks in 
mountain streams ; when disturbed, either takes wing or dives 
under water and remains submerged for some time; larva in similar 
situations. Two more males and several nymphs were taken in 
June from the same locality." (Hancock.') 

The white tip to the tegmina noted by Walker in his description 
of IS. nodosa only occurs on one side, and is clearly accidental. 

This appears to be the species alluded to as Scelimena liarpago 
by E. E. Green (Entom. M. Mag. xxxviii, 1902, p. 215). 



Fig. 24. Scelimena 
gavialis. 



14. Scelimena logani, Haw. 

Scelimena logani, Hancock, Spol. Zeyl. ii, 1904, pp. 107, 164; id., 
Gen. Ins., Orth. Tetrig. 1906, p. 94^ pi. ii, fig. 15. 

Brown, finely granulated, the front and lateral margins of the 
pronotum, and the dorsal and lateral carinae generally more or less 
yellowish. A short intermediate carina on each side between the 
dorsal and lateral carinae, on the front of the pronotum, and 
again on the front of the hinder lobe ; before the middle two 
well-marked longitudinal elevations, the hindermost linear; 
lateral edges of the pronotum irregularly dentated, as far as two 
yellow teeth, the hinder one larger, and strongly hooked forward. 



26 



ACRYDIIXJE. 




Fig. 25. Scelimena 



Front and middle femora with two strong 
yellow teeth, hind femora with four to six; 
hind tibiae and first joint of tarsi rather 
more strongly laminated than in S. gavialis. 
Tegmina oval, obtusely pointed ; wings 
about as long as pronotum. Anal appen- 
dages blackish, with pale stripes beneath, 
shorter than in S. gavialis. 

Length, to end of pronotum, 22-26 mm. ; 
to end of abdomen, 8-9 mm.; breadth of 
pronotum from spine tc spine, 8-10 mm.; 
length of tegrnen, 3 mm. ; of hind femur, 
8-9 mm. 

CEYLON : Kandy, Haragana, Punda- 
luoya. 

Type in the Chicago Museum. 

Habits similar to those of S. gavialis. 



15. Scelimena uncinata, Serv. 

Tetri.v uncinata, Serville, Ins. Orth. 1839, p. 763. 

Scelimena uncinata, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. xxxi, 1887, 

pp. 216, 218. 
Scelymena contracta, Walker, Cat. Derm. Salt. B.M. v, 1871, p. 841 

(n. syn.). 

Dull black, shape very short and broad. Pronotum hardly 
extending beyond the hind femora, with the middle carina very 
strongly marked, and the lateral carinae 
complete, undulating, and strongly curved 
inwards and then forwards in front ; surface 
with 3 or 4 elevations on each side of 
the median cariua ; lateral front margin of 
pronotum denticulated, with a projecting 
angle in front, and a rectangular outer 
tooth, slightly curved downwards. Wings 
blackish, rather shorter than the pronotum. 
Tarsi yellowish at base ; intermediate femora 
with two or three yellowish teeth ; hind 
femora with 4 yellow hooked ones ; hind 
tibiae and first joint of tarsi with mode- 
rately broad laminae. Antennae short, black. 
Anal appendages yellow. 

Length, to end" of pronotum, 11 mm. ; 
to end of abdomen, 10 mm. ; breadth, 
5 mm. ; length of hind femur, 7 mm. 
BOMBAY. 

The description given above is taken 

partly from Serville, and partly from Walker's type of S. 
contracta, a much damaged and discoloured specimen. 




Fig. 26. 

Scelimma uncinata. 



SCELIMENA. ABBASIA. 27 

16. Scelimena (?) birmanica, Srtmn. 

Gavialidium birmanicum, Erunner von Wattenwy], Ann. Mus. 

Geneva, xxxiii, 1893, p. 104, pi. v, fig. 37. 
Eutjavialidium birmanica, Hancock, Gen. Ins., Orth. Tetrig. 1906, 

p. 25. 

" Clay-brown, with dark markings. Vertex obtuse, about as 
broad as the eye. Pronotum with raised tubercles on the disc, 
parallel with the longitudinal marginal cariuulae ; with the 
deflexecl lobes obtusely dentated in front, produced behind into a 
straight triangular lobe, neither pointed nor curved forwards ; 
humeral angle very finely crenulatecl, with a pale obtuse tubercle ; 
the process with very acute longitudinal carinae extending to the 
tip, with pale crenules far apart. Hind femora above very 
slightly waved, with a nearly entire carina above ; hind tibiae 
simple. Subgenital lamina of the male roundly produced. 

"Length, body. ... <j 10-5 mm., 5 12-5 mm. 
pronotum 15'5 mm., 17 mm. 
hind femur 7 mm., 9-4 mm." 

BURMA : Karen Hills. 

Type in the Genoa Museum. 

In the shape of the lateral spine this species resembles 
S. Jiarpayo, and in the shape of the front of the pronotum 
S. contracta. Although the hind tibiae are called " entire," the 
figure shows four teeth on the outer margin. They are repre- 
sented as gradually and widely laminate ; and the basal joint of 
the tarsi also appears to be expanded and is in any case much 
broader than the terminal joint, as is also the short middle joint. 
The first joint is longer than the third. I have placed this 
species provisionally in ticelimena, to which it appears to have as 
much affinity as with the genera in which it has been placed by 
previous authors. 



Genus ABBASIA, nov. 

TYPE, Abbasia subserrata, sp. nov. 

Ranye. Travancore. 

Body depressed, but traversed by a central undulating carina ; 
space between the eyes about as wide as the eyes, which are 
large and prominent ; head not produced. Antennae slender, 
rather longer than the head, placed distinctly below the eyes. 
Pronotum in front with two distinct lateral carinae, ceasing, and 
then continued by three longitudinal callosities ; there is also an 
irregular outer carina, continued towards the end of the pro- 
notum, before reaching which it forms a small angle and dis- 
appears. Wings shorter than the abdomen, which, again, is 
shorter than the pronotum ; the latter with a truncated lobe on 
each side, turned downwards and backwards. Front femora 
flattened, with one tooth above and two beneath ; middle femora 




ACRYDIINM. 

flattened, with two teeth beneath ; hind 
femora very large, rounded, with several 
large teeth beneath ; first -joint of hind 
tarsi longer than the third, the pulvilli 
very small. 

Apparently allied to the South American 
genus Amorjoliopus, Serv. 



17. Abbasia subserrata, sp. nov. 

Dull blackish brown, inner side of 
hind femora black and shining, lined 
with yellowish, as is also the abdomen; 
the outer side of the hind femora, is also 
marked with yellowish, and the teeth 
beneath and the tarsi are of the same 
colour. 

Length 11-12 mm. 

MADRAS : Tenmalai, Travancore, W. 
side of W. Ghats, November 1908. 

Common on rocks near water. 

Fig. 11. Abbasia subserrata. 

Genus GAVIALIDIUM. 

Gavialidium, Saussure, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, (4) i, 1861, p. 481 ; 
Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. xxxi, 1887, pp. 184, 193, 218; 
Hancock, Spol. Zeyl. ii, 1904, pp. 107, 122 ; id., Gen. Ins., Orth. 
Tetrig. 1906, pp. 22, 25. 

TYPE, Scelymena crocodilus, Sauss. 

Range. Ceylon, Philippines. 

Body rugose, pronotum much produced, obtusely truncated at 
the extremity. Antennae slender, filiform, inserted much below 
the eyes, on the sides of the frontal projection, between which the 
frontal carina is double, but below M'hich it is obsolete, only 
reappearing as indicating a small triangular space at the extremity 
of the clypeus. Eyes globose, very prominent; ocelli incon- 
spicuous. Front of pronotum with three strong raised carinae, 
the middle one continued to the apex ; lower lateral margins with 
a projecting tooth in front, expanding behind, with the margins 
more' or less strongly denticulated, to a projecting lateral lamina 
bearing three teeth. Tegmina oval, narrow, pointed. Wings not 
much longer than broad, and shorter than the pronotum. Femora 
lobate-dentate ; hind tibiae only slightly widened, and the tarsal 
joints simple. 

Key to ilie Species. 

Pronotum without raised tubercles .... crocodilus, Sauss., p. 29. 
Pronotum with raised tubercles alligator, Sauss., p. 29. 



GAYIALIDIUM. 



18. Gavialidium crocodilus, Smiss. 

Scelymena crocodilus, Saussure, Ann. Soc. Ent. France. (4) i, 1861, 

p. 481. 
Gavialidium crocodilus, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. xxxi, 1887, 

pp. 218, 219 ; Hancock, Spol. Zeyl. ii, 1904, pp. 107, 122, 123, 

pi. ii, fig. 1 ; id., Gen. Ins., Orth. Tetrig. 1906, p. 25, pi. ii, 

fig. 16. 

Greyish brown, thickly reticulate-rugose, the dorsal carina 
sometimes more or less yellow, the legs sometimes spotted or 
interruptedly lined with yellow, and the tip of the pronotum 
reddish. Pronotum with three parallel 
cariuae on the front, the middle one con- 
tinued to the extremity, which is obtusely 
truncated; the lateral carinse are finely 
denticulated in front, and there is a larger 
tooth on each side at their greatest ex- 
pansion ; the lower lateral border of the 
pronotum has a projecting tooth at the 
front angle, behind which it is more or 
less strongly denticulated as far as the 
lateral lobe, which is armed with three 
teeth. Front and middle femora armed 
with two or three rather strong teeth 
above and below ; hind femora much less 
distinctly so ; hind tibiffi very slightly ex- 
panded towards the extremity. Tegmina 
lanceolate ; wings shorter than the pro- 
notum, with violet iridescence ; costa 
opaque. 

Length, to end of pronotum, 19-25 mm. ; 
to end of abdomen, 15 mm. ; breadth 
of pronotum from spine to spine, 7 mm. ; length of hind femora, 
7-8 mm. 

CEYLON : Kaduganawa, Pundaluoya. 
Type in the Geneva Museum. 

Found in March, April, and June. Taken " from rocks over 
which oozy water trickles ; insect seldom actually wet ; very 
sluggish ; seldom takes wing" (E. E. Green, quoted by Hancock). 

19. Gavialidium alligator, Sauss. 

Scelymena alligator, Saussure, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, (4) i, 1861, 

p. 483. 
Gavialidium alligator, Bolivar, Aun. Soc. Ent. Belg. xxxi, 1887, 

pp. 218, 219 ; Hancock, Spol. Zeyl. ii, 1904, pp. 107, 122, 125. 

Very similar to G. crocodilus, but smaller, and the pronotum 
shorter. The middle carina is strongly undulated and lobate on 
its first half; the short front carinae are strongly raised, but 
hardly crenulated ; the humeral angles are spinose, and the 
lateral margins of the pronotum are well marked, but not denti- 
culated ; the lateral projections terminate in three equal lobes, 




Fig. 28. Gavialidium 
crocodilus. 



30 



ACRYDIINJE. 



instead of spines ; pronotum very uneven, with four oblique 
tubercles [on each side?]. Hind femora more slender than 
in S. crocodilus, and only armed with a tubercle on the outer 
surface ; hind tarsi extending beyond the pronotum. 

Length of pronotum, 19mm.; breadth at shoulders, 3mm.; 
length of hind femur, 5 mm. 

CEYLON : Kaduganawa (Humbert'). 

Type in the Geneva Museum. 

There is a specimen of an allied species in the British Museum 
from North China, labelled nodulosus in Walker's handwriting. 
I am not certain whether it is identical with S. nodulosa, Stal, 
from Java. 

Genus EUaAVIALIDIUM. 

EuyaviaUdium, Hancock, Gen. Ins., Orth. Tetrig. ]906, p. 24. 
TYPE, Eugavialidium dcntiumeris, Hancock. 
Range. Borneo, Celebes, Philippine Is., Tenasserim. 
[Eesembles Gavialidium and Scelimena, but has the body 
prolonged ; lace declivous ; the frontal costaa rather narrowly 
sulcate. Pronotum granulate; humeral angles unarmed, lateral 
angles with a strong acute spine, curved 
forwards ; posterior process extended con- 
siderably beyond the apex of the posterior 
femora. Posterior femora moderately stout, 
the inferior margins dentate in typical 
species, unarmed in hastulatum. Hind tarsi 
with the first joint slightly expanded and 
flattened, much longer than the second and 
third joints taken together.] 

20. Eugavialidium hastulatum, sp. nov. 

Black, finely and uniformly granulated 
throughout, without nodosities, humeral 
angles unarmed, lateral angles with a curved 
spine directed forwards, pronotal process as 
long as the wings, extending considerably 
beyond the hind femora, and pointed at 
the tip, reddish on the sides beyond the 
spines, and slightly varied with grey above 
towards the extremity. Tegmina oval, 
reddish. Front and middle femora linear ; 
hind femora unarmed, moderately stout; 
hind tibiae long, waved, with numerous 
fine spines above; first joint of hind tarsi 

slightly expanded and flattened, much longer than the second and 

third together. 

TENASSERIM : Kawkaraik, Amherst District, 5. iii. 1908. 
Type in the Indian Museum, Calcutta. 




^ig. Sfo.Euqavia- 

idium hastulatum. 



CBIOXETTIX. 31 

Genus CEIOTETTIX. 

CriotettLi; Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. xxxi, 1887, pp. 184, 193, 
222 ; Hancock, Spol. Zeyl. ii, 1904, pp. 108, 128 ; id., Gen. Ins., 
Orth. Tetrig. 190G, pp. 22, 27. 

TYPE, Criotettix tricarinatus, Bol. 

Range. Oriental Begion, New Guinea, E. and W. Africa. 

Body granulated. Vertex scarcely lower than the eyes, hori- 
zontal above, or raised in front ; frontal carina not divergent at 
the antennae, palpi subcylindrical, concolorous, antennae scarcely 
inserted before the level of the eyes. Pronotum truncated in 
front, generally long and tapering, the tip obtuse or slightly 
bifid ; shoulder angles truncated, lateral angles laminated, and 
emitting a sharp spine. Tegmina oblong; wings as long as the 
pronotum. Prosternum reflexed, broadly sinuate in front. Front 
femora narrow, with the carinae entire, femoral and terminal teeth 
of hind femora small ; hind tibiae slightly expanded towards the 
extremity, the canthi compressed, spinos ; first joint of hind 
tarsi smooth above, narrow, linear, longer than the third. 

Key to tlie Specks. 

1 (14) Lateral spine of pronotum long, 

pointed. 

2 (7) Lateral spine distinctly curved for- 

wards. 

3 (4) Spine thick at the base . spinilobiis, Hanc., p. 31. 

4 (3) Spine slender at the base. 

5 (6) Space between the eyes narrower than 

the eye maculatus, sp. n., p. 32. 

6 (5) Space between the eyes about equal 

to the width of an eye obscurus, sp. n., p. 32. 

7 (2) Lateral spine straight or inclining 

backwards. 

8 (11) Pronotum smooth. 

9 (10) Vertex distinctly tricarinate tricarinatus, Bol., p. 33. 

10 (9) Vertex with the middle carina very 

short, only visible in front indicus, Bol., p. 33. 

11 (8) Pronotum more or less rugose or 

granulated. 

12 (13) Pronotum transversely rugose oculatus, Bol., p. 34. 

13 (12) Pronotum granulated exsertus, Bol., p. 34. 

14 (1) Lateral lobes of pronotum short, 

pointed. 

15 (16) Vertex wider than the eye subulatus, Bol., p. 35. 

16 (15) Vertex not wider than the eye vidali, Bol., p. 35. 

21. Criotettix spinilobus, Hanc. 

Criotettix spinilobus, Hancock, Spol. Zeyl. ii, 1904, pp. 108, 129, 
155. pi. iii, fio-. 12: id., Gen. Ins., Orth. Tetrig. 1906, p. 28, 
fig. 12. 

Body slightly granulated; head scarcely elevated. Vertex 
nearly as broad above as one of the eyes; frontal margin 



32 ACRYDIIJ^E. 

truncate, lateral carinse curving outward and back ward, the middle 
carina not prominent ; frontal carina prominent between the 
antennas ; eyes globose, of moderate size. Antennae slender, 
filiform, inserted between the lower angle of the eyes. Pronotum 
truncated in front, subulate behind, and produced about as far as 
the wings ; above more or less granulated, and with a short 
abbreviated lateral carina between the shoulders ; humeral angles 
obtuse ; median carina not prominent but continuous, lateral 
carinsB distinct ; hinder lateral angles with an acute spine, 
straight or slightly curved forward. Tegmina oval, obtuse at 
the extremity. Femora rather slender, margins entire ; hind 
femora serrulate above ; hind tibiae with the margins armed with 
small spines, except on the inner margin towards the apex ; first 
joint of hind tarsi very narrow, but 
scarcely longer than the third ; first two 
pulvilli of the first joint pointed, the third 
obtuse. 

cJ . LengtJi 9-8-10*3 mm. ; pronotum, 
8'9-9"5 mm. ; tegmina, 1 mm. ; posterior 
femur, 4*5-4'6 mm.; antennae, 3*2-3'3 mm. 
$ . Length 11-12-2 mm.; pronotum, 10-2- 
11*3 mm. ; tegmina, 1*1-1*2 mm. ; posterior 
femur, 5-2-5-7 mm. ; antennae, 4 mm. 
CEYLON: Pundaluoya. 
Frequents swampy ground in March. 




22. Criotettix maculatus, sp. nov. 

Dark brown, with the process of the 
pronotum inclining to rufous on the 
borders. Antennae long and slender, 
scape thickened. Pronotum and wings 
of about equal length, nearly as long 
as the hind legs, * pronotal spine 
slender, curved forwards. Front legs 
blackish, banded with grey ; hind femora 
-p- go yellowish, varied with white on the 

Criotettix maculatus. outer side, and with blackish below ; 
towards the base is a blackish band ; 

hind tibiae yellowish, darker towards the tip ; tarsi whitish, 
with the tips of the joints blackish. 
Length 11 mm. 
BURMA. 
Type in the British Museum. 

23. Criotettix obscums, sp. nov. 

Dull brown, paler beneath, the legs transversely banded with 
brown and yellowish grey. Eyes large, round, the space between 

* [This is correct ; the artist has been misled by the wings being out of 
position.] 



CEIOTEXTIX. 




Fig. 31. 
Criotettix obscurus. 




Fig. 32. 

Criotettix tricarinatus. 



them as broad as an eye ; face not promi- 
nent; antennae slender, inserted rather below 
the eyes, vertex tricarinate in front, the 
middle carina less distinct behind. Pro- 
notum finely granulated, as long as the 
wings ; median carina slightly raised be- 
tween the shoulders, continuous, but very 
finely undulating ; slight lateral carinae in 
front ; lateral spines long, slender, curved 
forwards. Hind femora rugose ; first joint 
of hind tarsi with very small pulvilli. 

Length 13 mm. 

MADRAS : Travancore Coast. 

Type in the Indian Museum. 

24. Criotettix tricarinatus, Bol. 

Criotettix tricarinatus, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. 
Ent. Belg. xxxi, 1887, pp. 184,223, 224; 
Hancock, Spol. Zeyl. ii, 1904, p. 128, 
pi. iii, fig. 15. 

Pale grey, more or less varied with 
brown. Vertex distinctly narrower than 
the eye, carinated in the middle, with 
a raised curved line on each side in front. 
Pronotum above very obtusely tectiform r 
with a raised continuous middle carina; 
two parallel carinse between the shoulders, 
obsolete before and behind; hinder pro- 
cess long, subulate, lateral angles with a 
long acute spine. Tegmina shortly ovate, 
with the extremities rounded. Femoral 
carinse granulated, not lobate ; hind, tibiae 
with a longitudinal brown stripe on the 
outer side, tibiae ringed with brown ; first 
joint of hind tarsi with the two basal 
pulvilli acutely spined at tips. 

cJ. Length 12 mm. ; pronotum, 11 mm. ; 
hind femur, 5 mm. 

$> . Length 13-14-5 mm. ; pronotum, 
12-13-5 mm. ; hind femur, 5-5-6 mm. 

CEYLON : Pundaluoya, Kandy, Kadu- 
ganawa, Peradeniya (Green). 

25. Criotettix indicus, Bol. 

Criotettix indicus, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. 
France, Ixx, 1902, p. 581. 

Eedclish. Vertex slightly narrower than 
the eye, hardly narrowed in front, the 
middle c;arina very short, only distinct 
D 



34 

in front; eyes globose. Pronotum narrowed on the back, 
slightly convex, minutely granulated, with a short carina on 
each side between the shoulders ; lateral carina3 of the anterior 
section short, not well marked ; middle carina behind the humeral 
angles slightly, if at all, depressed ; hind projection of the pro- 
notum long, subulated, but not extending to the tip of the hind 
tibiae; lateral spine strongly transverse, long, pointed. Tegmina 
short, ovate. Wings brown, reaching, but not passing, the tip of 
the pronotum. Carina? of front femora entire, those of the middle 
tibiae slightly undulating ; hind tibiae beneath varied with brown 
a,nd testaceous, the upper carina shortly and sharply produced at 
the tip ; tarsi with the pulvilli of the first joint acutely spiued, 
the third pulvillus shorter than the first two together. 

d . Length 7'5 mm. ; pronotum, 11 min. ; hind femur, 6*5 mm. 

MADRAS : Trichinopoly. 



26. Criotettix oculatns, Bol 

Criotettix ocitlatus, Bolivar, Ann. Mus. Genova, xxxix, 1898, p. 71 ; 
id., Ann. Soc. Ent. France, Ixx. 1902, p. 584. 

Testaceous brown. Vertex narrower than the eye, tricarinate, 
the lateral carinae slightly converging in front, the middle carina 
obsolete behind ; eyes prominent ; frontal ridge somewhat arched 
between the antennae, slightly sinuate between the ocelli, sloping 
towards the vertex. Pronotum truncated in front, subulated 
behind, somewhat convex above between the shoulders, shortly 
bicarinate, bifossulate behind the shoulders, with the process 
more or less obliquely rugose, the middle carina not raised, and 
obsolete towards the front margin, lateral carinae not prominent ; 
hinder angle of the lateral lobes with an acute spine. Tegmina 
small, broadly rounded at the apex, coarsely impresso- punctate. 
Legs ringed with brown ; front legs long, femora with granulated 
and slightly undulating carinae; hind femora obliquely banded 
with grey, minutely serrated above and below ; first joint of the 
hind tarsi with three obtuse pulvilli of nearly equal length. 

d $ . Length 9-11 mm.; pronotum, 11-14 mm.; tegmina, 
1-8 ram. ; middle femur, 2-2-3 mm. ; posterior femur, 5-6-5 mm. 

MADRAS: Kodaikanal ; SUMATRA; JAVA. 



27. Criotettix exsertus, Bol. 

Cfiotettix exsertus, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, Ixx, 1902. 
p. 688. 

Colour brown above, beneath greenish-yellow varied with brown, 
hind femora with paler bands. Vertex narrower than the eye, 
expanded behind, carinated in the middle, with the carina s'ightly 
projecting in front ; ocelli rounded, moderately prominent, frontal 
ridge moderately and regularly curved before the eyes. Pronotum 



CBIOTETTIX. 



35 



nearly smooth, behind the shoulders slightly depressed and granu- 
lated, between the shoulders slightly carinulated, with the lateral 
carinae of the front part nearly parallel ; the median carina con- 
tinuous, slightly compressed, and (seen later- 
ally) slightly sinuatecl before the humeral 
angles ; hind process acute, extending as 
far as the middle of the hind tibiae ; hinder 
angle of the lateral lobes with a short 
oblique spine projecting backwards, and 
sinuated behind. Tegmina very small, 
ovate. Wings slightly longer than the tip 
of the pronotum, iridescent, with the mar- 
gins smoky. Front and intermediate femora 
with the carinae entire, slighly crenulated ; 
hind femora slender, the outer ridges very 
oblique, dorsal genicular carina serrated ; 
hind tarsi with the pulvilli of the first joint 
of nearly equal length. 
$ . Length 9 mm. 
3IADRAS : Kodaikanal. 



28. Criotettix subulatus, Bol. 

Criotettix subulatus, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. 
Ent. Belg. xxxi, 1887, pp. 185, 223, 227. 

Ferruginous brown. Vertex (seen from 
above) horizontal, very narrow in front, sub- 
triangular, broader behind than the eye ; 
frontal ridge produced, more rounded below the antennae, neither 
sinuated nor depressed. Back of pronotum with short raised 
ridges, middle carina continuous, somewhat raised ; hinder pro- 
cess not extending to the tip of the hind tibiae ; hinder angles 
of lateral lobes acute, but not very prominent. Femora ridged, 
sparingly granulate; hind tibiae rather long, very straight; first 
joint of hind tarsi with the third pulvillus slightly longer than 
the second. 

$ . Length 11 mm.; pronotum, 14 mm.; posterior femur, 6'5mm. 
EAST INDIES (British India ?). 
Type in the collection of I. Bolivar, 




Fig. 33. 

Criotettix exsertiis. 



29. Criotettix vidali, Bol. 

Ci-iotettix vidali, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. xxxi, 1887, pp. 185, 
223, 227 ; Brunner, Ann. Mus. Geneva, xxxiii, 1893, p. 105. 

Grey or ferruginous brown. Vertex slightly prominent, not 
broader than the eye, transversely rounded in front, carinated in 
the middle, and distinctly sinuated on each side ; frontal carina 
curved between the antennae. Pronotum distinctly transversely 

* 



36 ACBYDTIX.-E. 

convex on the back, rugulose, the middle carina slender, rather 
indistinct, and often obsolete between the shoulders ; subulated 
behind ; lateral spine depressed, pointed, but rather short. Hind 
femora entire, hind tibiae nearly straight, first joint of hind tarsi 
rather longer than the third, first and second pulvillus of equal 
length, the third slightly longer. 

Length 9 mm. ; pronotum, 14 mm. ; hind femur, 7 mm. 

BUHMA : Karen Hills ; PHILIPPINES. 



Genus ACANTHALOBUS. 

Acanthalobtis, Hancock, Spol. Zeyl. ii, 1904, pp. 108, 131 ; id., Gen. 
Ins., Orth. Tetrig. 1906, pp. 22, 28. 

TYPE, Criotettix miliarius, Bol. 

Range. The Oriental Eegion. 

Body moderately stout, more or less rugose or granulated. 
Head not elevated ; eyes moderately prominent ; vertex wider 
than the eye, with a slight middle carina ; frontal carina not 
prominent. Antennae moderately short, filiform, inserted between 
the lower margin of the eyes. Pronotum truncate in front, 
extended backwards beyond the hind femora, flattened above, 
except between the shoulders, where it is more or less raised or 
undulated ; lateral spines obliquely directed backwards. Tegmina 
ovate ; wings about as long as the pronotum. Front femora 
entire or slightly crenulated, middle femora sometimes sublobate 
or denticulated. First joint of hind tarsi slightly longer than the 
third. 

Key to the Species. 

1 (2) Wings more or less abbreviated cuneatus, Hanc., p. 40l 

2 (1) Wings approximately as long as the 

pronotum. 

3 (4) Pronotum granulated, but not rugose 

or tuberculated flavopictus, Bol., p. 41. 

4 (3) Pronotum rugose or tuberculated. 

5 (10) Lateral spine very prominent and . 

acute. 

6 (7) Back of pronotum deeply impresso- 

punctate ; lateral spine directed 
outwards or only slightly back- 
wards miliarius, Bol., p. 37. 

7 (6) Back of pronotum finely granulated. 

8 (9) Lateral spine directed outwards or 

only very slightly inclining back- 
wards bispinosus, Dalm., p. 37. 

9 (8) Lateral spine very obliquely directed 

backwards inornatus, Walk., p. 39-. 

10 (5) Lateral spine not very prominent, 

with a short acute point rufescens, sp. n., p. 38. 



ACANTHALOBUS. 



SO. AcanthaloMs miliarius, Bol. 

Criotettiv miliarius, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Eut. Belg. xxxi, 1887, 

pp. 185, 2:23, 226. 
Acanthalobus miliarius, Hancock, Spol. Zeyl. ii, 1904, pp. 108, 131, 

132, loo, pi. ii, rig. 8 ; id., Gen. Ins., Orth. Tetrig. 1906, p. 29, 

pi. ii, tig. 19. 

Yellowish or ferruginous brown, with the lateral spines and 
legs yellow. Vertex at least as broad as one of the eyes and 
almost on the same level, the bifid carina 
projecting somewhat in front ; frontal 
lateral carinae slightly curving inwards 
below, obsolete above. Front of prouotum 
above finely granulated, with a very strong 
middle carina and two lateral ones ; on the 
outer side of the latter a round tubercle. 
Hinder lobe of pronotum convex between 
the shoulders, then flattened, the mediau 
cariua undulated htndwards ; the surface 
granulated, with numerous longitudinal 
wrinkles and small round tubercles ; hinder 
extremity extending for about two-fifths of 
its length beyond the hind femora; lateral 
spines stout, extending obliquely backwards 
and acute at the extremity. Hind femora 
rather broad, very finely crenulated below, 
central area blackish; tibiae yellow, the 
outer carina with about 12 small spines, 
the inner with 6 ; first joint of hind tarsi 
longer than the other two ; the pulvilli 
rectangular, the second rather shorter than 
the first, the third the shortest. Tegmina 

twice as long as broad ; wings about as long as pronotum, 
clouded iridescent, yellowish externally. 

The male is smaller and much less strongly rugose. 

Length 11 mm. ; pronotum, 16'5 ram. ; hind femur, 7 mm. 

CEYLON : Peradeniya, Kandy, Colombo. 

Type in the collection of Brunner von Wattenwyl. 

Found in rice-fields, &c., and comes freely to light. 




Fig. 34. 

Acanthalobus miliarius. 



31. Acanthalobus bispinosus, Dalm. 

Acrydium bispinosum, Dalman, Kongl. Vet.-Akad. Handl. 1818, 

p. 77. 
Tettix bispinosa, Dalman, Anal. Ent. 1823, p. 86; StSl, Recens. 

Orth. i, 1873, p. 150. 
Criotett.ix bispinosus, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. xxxi, 1887, 

pp. 185, 223, 220; Brunner, Ann. Mus. Geuova, xxxiii, 1893, 

p. 105. 
Acridium (Tetrix) bispinosum, l)e Haan, Temtninck, Verhandel., 

Orth. 1842, pp. 166, 169. 



38 



ACEYDIIX.E. 



Tettiv pallitarsis, Walker, Cat. Derm. Salt. B.M. v, 1871, p. 822. 
Tettix armigera, Walker, /. c. 1871, p. 826. 
Tettix latispina, Walker, 1. c. 1871, p. 837. 

Yellowish grey or fusco-ferruginous, finely granulated. Vei'tex 
rather below the level of the eyes, as broad behind as an eye, but 
narrowed in front, the bifid carina slightly projecting between the 
yellowish antennae ; frontal carina not prominent, and obsolete 
below ; cheeks with carinse only visible below ; mouth black, palpi 
white. Pronotum finely granulated, nearly flat, the median carina 
indistinct, nearly obsolete in front ; two slightly marked lateral 
carinse on the frontal area, beyond which there are no lateral 
carinse ; lateral spine yellow, acute, straight, or very slightly 
inclining backwards, sometimes tipped with black. Pronotum 
subulated behind, the tip obtuse, extending for two-fifths of its 
length behind the hind femora. Pectus spotted with brown ; 
abdomen blackish, spotted with white. Tegmina broadly oval, 
about 1| times as long as broad. Wings as long as the pronotum, 
iridescent towards the base ; costa and inner margin brown, and 
hind margin broadly clouded with brown. Hind femora and 
tibiae black, more or less spotted with white ; tarsi white, tipped 
with black ; hind tibiae with a strong notch on the upper side 
before the knee, and with 6 spines on the outer and 8 on the 
inner carina ; first joint of tarsi about as long as the other two ; 
pulvilli small, triangular, of about equal length. 

Length 16-21 mm., to end of ovipositor, 
11-12 mm. ; hind femur, 9 mm. ; expanse of 
wing, 30 mm. 

BURMA : Karen Hills ; CHINA : Hong 
Kong ; SUMATRA ; BORNEO. 

Type in Dalman's collection, now in the 
Stockholm Museum. Types of Walker's 
species in the British Museum. 

A common and well-marked species, but 
the descriptions, except Dalman's, are very 
unsatisfactory. Bolivar writes : " inter 
humeros convexiusculo, rugis linearibus, ab- 
breviatis, subseriatis " ; the last four words 
hardly apply to any of the specimens before 



32. Acanthalobus rufescens, sp. nov. 

Uniform reddish brown, hind femora ob- 
scurely banded with dull yellow, and a broad 
pale ring at the base of the hind tibia?, but 
these paler markings very indistinct. Eyes 
large, slightly approximating in front, sepa- 

rated by about the width of an e ^ e ; antenna 
inserted rather below the level of the eyes, 
long and slender. Head and pronot nn finely granulated above ; 




ACAXTHALOBUS. 



median carina continuous, slightly raised behind the shoulders ; 
lateral carinse slightly marked in front, parallel; lateral angles 
very acute, hardly spined, and directed slightly backwards ; pro- 
notal process as long as the wings, much longer than the hind 
femora, very slightly bifid at the extremity. Tegmina oval, twice 
as long as broad. Hind tibise slightly waved, with small spines ;. 
joints of hind tarsi long, the first joint slightly longer than the 
rest ; pulvilli conspicuous, pointed behind. 

Length 16-23 mm. 

SIKKIM: Gantok, 6050 ft., 10. xi. 1900, Kurseong, 5000 ft.,. 
14. viii. 1909 ; BENGAL : Calcutta, 28. vii. 1904. 

33. Acanthalobus inornatus, Walk. 

Tettix inornata, Walker, Cat. Derm. Salt. E.M. v, 1871, p. 834. 
Crwiettix saginatus, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. JBelg. xxxi, 1887,. 

pp. 185, 223, 225 ; Brunner, Ann. Mus. Geneva, xxxiii, 1893,. 

p. 104, pi. v, fig. 38. 

Kather slender, brown, rugulose. Vertex distinctly broader 
than the eye, the double carina projecting slightly between the 
antennae. Top of head flattened ; cheeks 
,, r , with lateral caririae, obsolete above and 

,i[ slightly converging below ; eyes not raised ; 

; ; ; \ / \ face varied with tawny. Pronotum with 

three strong keels on the frontal area, the 
lateral ones slightly converging and obsolete 
behind ; as long as the hind wings, subulate, 
and extending for nearly half its length 
beyond the hind femora ; lateral spines pale, 
rather slender at the extremity and slightly 
hooked backwards ; pronotum rather arched 
on the back between the shoulders, depressed 
behind, with numerous raised granules, more 
or less regularly arranged ; middle carina 
rather indistinct and irregular, and with 
some short, raised, incomplete carinse oppo- 
site the shoulders. Tegmina forming a long 
oval ; wings dusky along the costa. Middle 
and hind tibise pale, the latter slightly ex- 
panded, and with 7 spines on the terminal 
half of the outer carina and 4 on the inner ; 
there are also two strong outer and one 
inner terminal spine, and a small spine on 
the upper surface of the tibia just beyond the knee ; first joint of 
hind tarsi rather longer than the rest together; the three pulvilli 
triangular, of equal length. Valves of ovipositor pale, long and 
slender, the upper one denticulated above, with the tip slightly 
hooked upwards ; the lower ones denticulated below, the tip 
slightly hooked downwards ; at the base of the lower ones is a 
slight tooth above and another about the middle. Abdomen 
blackish, spotted with ochreous. 




Fig. 3.Acantha- 
inornatus. 



40 



ACRYDIINyE. 



Length, to end of ovipositor, 14 mm. ; to end of pronotum, 
22mm.; hind femur, 10 mm.; breadth between lateral spines, 
6 mm. 

BURMA : Rangoon ; JAVA. 

Type in British Museum ; those of C.sayinatusin the collections 
of Bolivar and Brunner von Wattenwyl. 

Walker speaks of " three spines on each side," but this appear- 
ance is evidently an optical illusion. Criotettix sayinatus of 
authors appears to agree with the species above described, but 
the dimensions given are slightly smaller. 

34. Acanthalobus cuneatus. Hanc. 

Acanthalobus cuneatus, Hancock, Spol. Zeyl. ii, 1904, p. 108. 
Acanthalobus miliarius cuneatus, Hancock, 1. c. 1904, p. 133. 

Perhaps a brachypterous form of A. miliarius. " The pronotum 
differs in being more rugose and more cuneate posteriorly, the 




Fig. 37. Acanthalobus cuneatus. 





Fig. 38. Acanthalobus cuneatus, 



"Fig. 39. Acanthalobus cuneatus, 



apex extending not more than two millimetres beyond the femoral 
knees, and not a little passing the wings. The median carina of 



ACANTHALOBUS. LOXILOBUS. 41 

pronotum posteriorly irregularly sinuate. AVings more or less 
abbreviate." 

CEYLON : Colombo. 



35. Acanthalobus flavopictus, Bol. 

Criotettix Jtavopictus, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, Ixx, 1902, 
p. 582. 

Greyish brown, with pale markings, abdomen spotted with 
yellow. Vertex slightly narrower than the eye, carinated in the 
middle ; frontal ridge between the antennae somewhat compressed. 
Pronotutn smooth on the back, somewhat raised between the 
shoulders, behind them bifoveolate, irregularly granulose ; middle 
carina slender, continuous ; prozona carinated on each side, with 
the carinae converging behind ; hinder process long and pointed, 
the deflexed lobes very finely granulated with white, the lateral 
spine acute. Tegmina oblong-ovate, roundly truncate behind. 
Wings long, brown towards the margins, with parallel nervures. 
Four front femora very finely crenulated ; lower carinae of the 
middle legs rather indistinctly bilobate, upper carina of the hind 
femora 3- or 4-denticulate, with the upper external and internal 
areas with rows of obtuse tubercles ; hind tibiae slightly waved, 
pulvilli of the tarsi acute. 

Length 12 mm. ; pronotum, 17 mm. ; hind femur, 7'5 mm. 

MADBAS : Kodaikanal. 

Resembles A. rniliarius and spinosus. Differs from the former in 
its narrower vertex and smooth pronotum, and from the latter by 
the depressions oil the pronotum, which make it resemble a 
Gavialidium, but that the median carina is straight and not 
depressed. 



Genus LOXILOBUS. 

Loxilobus, Hancock, Spol. Zeyl. ii, 1904, pp. 108, 134 ; id., Gen. Ins., 
Orth. Tetrig. 1906, pp. 22, 29. 

TYPE, Loxilobus acutus, Hanc. 

Range. Oriental and Austro-Malayan Eegions. 

Body slender, scabrous or granulated. Head slightly higher 
than the eyes, vertex about as wide as the eyes, frontal costa 
rounded, projecting in front. Pronotum raised between the 
shoulders, middle carina slightly sinuated, hinder process longer 
than the hind femora, or abbreviated, lateral lobes produced. 
Tegmina oblong ; wings more or less developed. Femora with 
very small spines, hind tibiae spined ; first and third tarsal joints 
of nearly equal length, the three pulvilli also equal. 



42 ACBYDIIN^. 

Key to the Species. 

1 (2) First and second pulvilli of the first joint 

of the hind tarsi pointed assamus, Hanc. 

2 (1) All the pulvilli of the first joint of the 

hind tarsi flattened. 

3 (4) Wings and pronotal process extending 

backwards beyond the hind femora . . ctcutus, Haiic. 

4 (3) Wings and pronotum shorter, not ex- 

tending to the extremity of the hind 

femora hancocki, Kirby. 

36. Loxilobus acutus, Hanc. 

Loxilobus acutus, Hancock, Spol. Zeyl. ii, 1904, pp. 108, 134 ; id., 
Gen. Ins., Orth. Tetrig. 1906, p. 29, pi. ii, fig. 17. 

Body slender, granulated. Vertex about as wide as an eye, 
narrowed towards the front, carinated in front in the middle 
and pitted at the sides, vertex scarcely higher than the eyes, 
frontal cariua rounded and projecting between the eyes, which 
are small and rounded. Antennae slender, inserted between the 
lower third of the eyes. Pronotum truncate in front, extending 
behind beyond the hind femora, back rugose and granulated, 
convex between the shoulders, anterior carinae distinct, hardly 
converging behind, humeral angles distinct, 
lateral carina not conspicuous, median 
carina continuous, very slightly waved, 
lateral angles acute, projecting outwards 
and backwards. Tegmiua ovate ; wings 
projecting beyond the pronotum. Front 
femora unarmed, hind femora with the 
margins crenulated, and a small tooth before 
the extremity ; hind tibiae crenulated and 
spinose ; outer margin with ten spines ; 
first joint of hind tarsi rather longer than 
the third ; the third pulvilltis longest, and 
flat below. Upper blade of ovipositor stout, 
strongly denticulated. 

Length 15'8 mm. ; prouotum, 13'8 mm. ; 
hind femur, 6*2 mm. 

CEYLON : Pundaluoya (E. E. Green). 
Taken at light in May. 

37. Loxilobus hancocki, Kirby. 

Loxilobus ruaoms, Hancock (nee Bolivar), 
Spol. Zeyl. ii, 1904, pp. 108, 134, 135, 
155, pi. iii, fig. 17 ; id., Gen. Ins., Orth. 
Tetrig. 190(5, p. 30. 

Loxilobus hancocki. Kirby, Syn. Cat. Orth. 
iii, 1910, p. 18. 

Body greyish brown, thickly granulated, 
and somewhat rugose. Vertex scarcely higher than the eyes, 




LOXILOBUS. 43 

with a median carina. Middle carina of pronotum continuous, 
slightly elevated between the shoulders, lateral cartnse reddish 
brown. Wings and pronotum scarcely extending as far as the 
tips of the abdominal appendages, and not nearly so far as the 
ends of the hind femora. Abdomen with a small tooth above 
before the base of the abdominal appendage ; the latter is denti- 
culated beneath, and slightly hooked at the extremity. Four 
anterior femora unarmed, the front ones flatter and shorter than 
the middle ones ; hind femora rather stout, and truncated at the 
extremity, with a row of nodules on the outer upper area ; hind 
tibiae serrated above, and with long terminal spines ; pulvilli of 
hind tarsi indistinct. 

Leiigih 7|-10 mm ; of pronotum, 6^-9 mm. ; hind femur, 
5-6 mm. 

CEYLON: Pundaluoya. 

Frequents grass-lands and swampv places in March and May. 



38. Loxilobus assamus, Hanc. 

Loxikbus assamus, Hancock, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1907, p. 223. 

Small ; ashy grey or ferruginous, often varied with brown. 
Vertex narrowed in front, and longitudinally sulcate on each side. 
Pronotum truncated in front, produced behind to the extremity 
of the hind femora ; tuberculose on the back, median carina some- 
what waved, and slightly elevated in front. First and second 
pulvilli of the first joint of the hind tarsi pointed. Tegmina long, 
rounded at the tips ; wings rather shorter than the pronotum. 

Dimensions not stated. 

ASSAM : Cherrapunji. 

Type in the Oxford Museum. 



Group IV. METRODOEINI. 

Key to the Genera. 

1 (8) Teginina and win<js present. 

2 (3) Pronotum with an acute lateral 

spine LAMELLITETTIX, Hanc., 

3 (2) Pronotum with no acute lateral [p. 49. 

spine. 

4 (5) Vertex narrower than half the width 

of the eye SYSTOLEDERUS, Bol., 

o (4) Vertex ab'out as broad as the eye. [p. 44. 

6 (7) Body stout, posterior angle of lateral 

lobes of pronotum truncated MAZARREDIA, Bol., p. 50. 

7 (6) Body slender, posterior angle of 

* lateral lobes of pronotum rounded. XISTRA, Bol., p. 55. 

8 (1) Tegmina and wings absent or rudi- 

mentary. 

9 (12) Lateral lobes obtusely angulated. 



44 ACEYDI1N.E. 

10 (11) Body and legs setose HANCOCKIA, g. n., p. 46. 

Ha 



11 (10) Body and legs bare APTEROTETTIX, Hanc.. 

lateral lobes with wing-like ex- 
pansions EURYMORPHOPTTS, 



[p. 48. 

Genus SYSTOLEDERUS, Sol. 

Systoledei-us, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. xxxi, 1887, pp. 185, 194, 
234 ; Hancock, Spol. Zeyl. ii, 1904, pp. 108, 136 ; id., Gen. Ins., 
Orth. Tetrig-. 1906, pp. 30, 33. 

TYPE, Systoledenis Jiaani, Boh, from the Philippines. 

Range. Oriental Region, Celebes. 

Head considerably higher than the pronotum ; eyes large, 
closely approximating above, and higher than the vertex ; antennae 
slender, placed below the level of the eyes ; frontal carina slightly 
projecting between them ; face sinuous; palpi filiform. Pronotum 
flattened above, acuminate behind, extending considerably beyond 
the hind femora ; median carina indistinct, except in front. 
Tegrnina oval ; wings as long as the pronotum. Four front legs 
simple ; hind tibiae spinose, terminal spines small ; first and third 
joints of tarsi of nearly equal length. 

Key to the Species. 

1 (2) First two pulvilli of the first joint of the 

hind tarsi of equal length, the third 

longer cinereus, Brunn., p. 44. 

2 (1) All three pulvilli of equal length. 

3 (4) Process of pronotum produced consider- 

ably beyond the hind femora greeni, Bol., p. 45. 

4 (3) .Process not or scarcely reaching apex of 

hind femora anomalus, Hanc., p. 46. 

39. Systolederus cinereus, Brunn. 

Systolederm cinereus, Brunner, Ann. Mus. Geneva, xxxiii, 1893, 
p. 105. 

$ . Uniform ashy grey. Vertex very narrow ; eyes moderately 
prominent ; antennae inserted before the eyes. Pronotum very 




Fig. 41. Systolederus cinereus. 

smooth and flat, the median carina inconspicuous, very straight, 
the marginal carinulse short in front, the deflexed lobes acuminate, 



SYSTOLEDERUS. 45 

obliquely truncated, the terminal process tricarinated to the 
extremity. Pour front femora compressed, not waved ; hind 
femora with the carina acute, and the oblique rugulse inconspicuous ; 
first joint of hind tarsi with three pulvilli of equal length. 

Lem/tli 10 mm. ; pronotum, 13 mm. ; hind femur, 9 mm. 

BURMA : Karen Hills. 

Type in the Geneva Museum. 



40. Systolederus greeni, Bol. 

Systolederus greeni, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, Ixx, 1892, 
p. 584 ; Hancock, Spol. Zeyl. ii, 1904, pp. 108, 137, 155, pi. ii t 
fig. 9 ; id., Gen. Ins., Orth. Tetrig. 1906, p. 34, pi. ii, fig. 14. 

Greyish brown. Eyes much elevated ; only separated above 
by the median oarina of the vertex ; antenna? inserted below the 
eyes, with the frontal carina slightly projecting between the scapes ; 
below the antenna? a distinct indentation. Pronotum finely 
granulated, slightly constricted between the shoulders, and very 
slightly raised ; lateral angles almost rounded off ; median carina 
strongly marked in front and straight; behind less conspicuous 




Fig. 42. Systolederus greeni. 

and undulating ; lateral carinse obsolete in front, and before the 
extremity ; deflexed lobes rather pointed, but not produced ; 
hinder process of pronotum extending considerably beyond the 
hind femora, and shortly bifid at the extremity. Wings extending 
to the tip of the pronotum. Abdomen ringed with whitish, with 
one 'or two small teeth above near the extremity ; abdominal 
appendages of female straight, crenulated, not hooked at the tip. 
Legs more or less varied with grey ; four front legs compressed, 
simple ; hind femora with oblique wrinkles, hind tibia? minutely 
crenulated, with curved terminal spines ; first joint of hind tarsi 
longer than the third, the first two pulvilli of equal length, the 
third considerably longer. 

Length, body, 7-14 mm. ; pronotum, 10|-14 mm. ; hind femur,. 
5-6| mm. 

MADRAS : Kodaikanal ; CEYLON" : Pundaluoya, Kaduganatra. 

Types in the collections of Pantel and Bolivar. 

Taken on dry rocks away from water in January and March. 



46 



ACRYDIIN^E. 



41. Systolederus anomalus, ffanc. 

Systoledenis anomalus, Hancock, Spol. Zeyl. vi, 1910, p. 146. 

Body rugose, varied with brown. Eyes only slightly prominent ; 
vertex nearly half the width of one of the eyes. Pronotum trun- 
cate anteriorly, not quite reaching the eyes ; rugose and slightly 
tuberculate above, with the median carina waved, lateral lobes 
slightly oblique, posterior angles acutely augulated, but not 
spined, posterior process not reaching the tip of the hind femora. 
Tegmina narrow, elliptical ; wings not reaching the end of the 
pronotal process. Front and middle femora entire, rather long ; 
hind femora thickened ; first and third joints of hind tarsi of nearly 
equal length, and the three pulvilli of the first joint nearly equal. 

Length 7-9-5 mm. 

CEYLON : Madulsima, 8. viii. 1908 (T. B. Fletcher). 

Genus HANCOCKIA, nov. 
TYPE, Havcoclda portentosa, sp. n. 

Range. S. India. 

Body stout, pubescent, aptei-ous. Antennae very slender, in- 
serted 'below the eyes; head projecting between and below the 
eyes, which are separated by a space 
more than twice their width. Pro- 
notum gibbous between the shoulders, 
and with three undulations behind ; 
much raised, carinated, finely denticu- 
lated, and very rugose behind ; longer 
than the abdomen ; shoulders not much 
widened, lower lateral margins ovally 
sublobate outwardly, slightly depressed. 
All the femora much widened and 
thickened, very coarsely dentate-carinate 
above ; front and middle tibiae short, ex- 
panded ; hind tibiae long, slender, denti- 
culated above, and with two short ter- 
minal spines ; first joint of tarsi longer 
than the third, pulvilli small. 

A very remarkable genus, resembling, 
in profile, Hancock's figure of the South- 
American PJatytettix reticulatus, but 
without the projecting shoulder-spines. 

42. Hancockia portentosa, sp. iiov. 

Uniform blackish brown, very rugose 
and pubescent, apterous ; appendage to 
pronotum rather longer than the head 
Fig. 43. ancl fore-part together, and obtusely 

Hancockia portentosa. rounded at the extremity ; abdomen 
shorter than the pronotum. 




HANCOCKIA. APTEROTETTIX. 47 

Lenyili 13 inm. ; width at shoulder, 4 mm.; at lower lateral 
expansions, 6| mm. 

MADBAS : Maddathoray and Teamalai, Travancore, ~W. base of 
W. Ghats. 

Type in British Museum. , 



Genus APTEROTETTIX. 

Apterotettiv, Hancock, Spol. Zeyl. ii, 1904, pp. 108, 140 ; id., Gen. 
Ins., Orth. Tetrig. 1906, pp. 30, 35. 

TIPE, Apterotettix obtusus, Hanc. 

Range. Ceylon. 

Body granular, apterous or with very slight traces of tegmina 
and wings. Vertex scarcely higher than the eye ; antennae rather 
long and slender, inserted just below the level of the eyes ; the 
frontal carinae slightly projecting between the eyes, and the face 
slightly oblique below the antennae. Pronotum with a strong 





Fig. 44. -Apterotetiix obtusus. 



Fig. 45. 

Apterotettix obtusus. 

continuous median carina, and with a more or less distinct 
carinula from the base to the middle of the total length ; base 
truncate, lateral angles nearly rounded off, extremity entire, 
shortly rounded, generally shorter than the abdomen ; lower 
lateral angles obtusely angulated. Hind tarsi spinose. 



48 



ACRYDIIXJE. 



43. Apterotettix obtusus, Hanc. 

Apterotettix obtusus, Hancock, Spol. Zeyl. ii, 1904, pp. 108, 140, 1 55, 
pi. iii, fig. 13 ; id., Gen. Ins., Orth. Tetrig. 1906, p. 31, fig. 16. 

Brown, more or less varied with grey beneath and on the legs. 
Vertex about equal in width to one of the eyes, and with a strong 
median carina ; eyes moderately large and prominent. Pronotum 
generally shorter than the abdomen and hind femora. Hind 
femora with transverse wrinkles on the upper outer area ; hind 
tibia? spinulose above, and with strong terminal spines ; joints of 
tarsi slender, the second joint and terminal claw black ; pulvilli 
inconspicuous. 

Length 6-9 mm.; pronoturn, 4^-6 mm. ; hind femur, 4|-5 mm. 

CEYLOX : Peradeniya, Pundaluoya. 

Found in grass-fields in February, March, May, and December. 

Genus EURYMORPHOPUS. 

Eurymorphopus, Hancock, Gen. Ins., Orth. Tetrig. 1906, pp. 30, 35. 

TYPE, AmorpJiopus cunclatiis, Bol. 

Range. Ceylon, ]S"ew Caledonia. 

Body stout, depressed, granulated, apterous. Vertex on a level 
with the eyes, frontal carina very slightly projecting between the 
antenna?, the face beneath almost perpendicular ; vertex much 




Fig. 46. Eurymorphopus latilobus. 



Fig. 47. 
Eurymorphopus latilobits. 

narrowed in front, antennae very short, inserted below the eyes ; 
face and cheeks broad, rounded. Pronotum with the median and 
lateral carinse well-marked and continuous, except that the lateral 



EURYMOKPHOPUS. LAMELLITETTIX. 49 

carinre curve inwards to the extremity of the frontal area, on 
which they are obsolete, though there is a slight carina in front 
on each side of the median carina ; pronoturn pointed at extremity, 
extending about as far as the abdominal appendages, and with 
very large wing-like lateral expansions. Hind femora very stout 
and rounded above, spines of hind tibiae very small. 

44. Eurymorphopus latilobus, Hanc. 

Eurymorphopw latilobus, Hancock, Spol. Zeyl. v, 1908, pp. 113, 114, 
fig. 1. 

Body short and broad, thickly granulated. Eyes large, the 
vertex above triangular, and narrowed in front till there is only 
space for the not very prominent carina, which is only bifid for a 
short distance between the antennae ; below the antennae it is just 
perceptible as a slight elevation to the extremity of the clypeus. 
The wing-like lateral expansions of the pronotum are very con- 
spicuous. The stout hind femora have oblique wrinkles on the 
upper outer area, and much longer oblique striae on the lower 
outer area ; the under surface bounded by the two lower carinaa is 
flat, and black; hind tibiae with small terminal spines, and the 
spines on the upper surface minute ; pulvilli on the under surface 
of the first joint of the tarsi very inconspicuous. 

Length 9 mm. ; hind femur, 5 mm. 

CEYLON : Andugoda, ix. 1907 (E. E. Green}. 

" Frequents the surface of dry rocks in the shade of the jungle " 
(Green). 



Genus LAMELLITETTIX. 

Lamellitettix, Hancock, Spol. Zeyl. ii, 1904, pp. 107, 125 ; id. Gen. 
Ins., Orth. Tetrig. 1906, pp. 31, 41. 

TYPE, Lamellitetiix acuttis, Hanc, 

Range. Ceylon. 

Body stout, very rugose and gibbous. Head not prominent ; 
antennae long and slender, placed below the eyes, the frontal costa 
slightly produced between them ; the face below sinuated; vertex 
slightly wider than the eye. Pronotum truncated in front, 
pointed at the extremity, and extending beyond the hind femora 
and abdomen ; lateral angles triangular, laminated, and pointed at 
the extremity ; median line strongly humped between the 
shoulders, and undulated behind to two-thirds of the length of 
the pronotum. Tegtnina oval; wings well developed. Front 
tibiae with a few spines beneath ; hind tibiae with some above ; 
hind femora finely denticulated above, with a notch before the 
pointed terminal spike ; terminal spine of hind tibiae small ; first 
and third joints of hind tarsi of equal length ; pulvilli flat 
below. 



50 ACRYJHINJE. 

45. Lamellitettix acutus, Hanc. 

Lamellitettix acutus, Hancock, Spol.Zeyl. ii, 1904, pp. 107, 126, 154, 
pi. ii, fig. 6 ; id., Gen. Ins., Ortk. Tetrig. 1906, p. 42, pi. ii, fig. 21. 

Body brown, rugose. Vertex about as wide as one of the eyes, 
not raised ; antennae long and slender, with the carina projecting 
between them. Pronotum gibbous between the shoulders, and 
undulated behind ; a strong triangular laraellated lateral pro- 
jection ending in a sharp spine. Abdomen about as long as the 
hind femora, but the appendages extending beyond for half the 
distance to the extremity of the prouotum, which is pointed, and 
about as long as the wings. Front tibiae with a few small spines 
below, and hind tibiae with a few above. 

Length, body, 14'3 mm. ; pronotum, 13-4 mm. ; hind femur, 7 mm. 

CEYLON : Maskeliya. 

Taken from the stem of a tree in the jungle. 



Genus MAZARREDIA. 

Mazarredia, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. xxxi, 1887, up. 185, 194, 
236; Hancock, Spol. Zeyl. ii, 1904, pp. 108, 138 ; id., Gen. Ins., 
Orth. Tetrig. 1906, pp. 32, 42. 

TYPE, Mazarredia geminella, Bol. 

Range. Oriental Region, New Guinea, Fiji. 

Head not prominent, vertex about as wide as one of the eyes, 
often narrowed in front, on each side with an oblique more or 
less compressed carina, face slightly oblique; frontal carina 
scarcely forked behind the eyes, in front scarcely diverging, 
slightly projecting between the antennae, which are long and 
slender, and inserted slightly in front of the eyes ; maxillary palpi 
with the terminal joints narrow, subcompressed. Pronotum 
smooth above, truncated in front, and often humped between the 
shoulders, with obtuse humeral angles, the apex long and pointed ; 
hind margin of the lateral lobes more or less laminated externally, 
distinctly truncated, and acutely angulated, but not spinose, very 
rarely depressed. Tegtniua ovate; wings perfectly developed. 
Legs long ; front femora somewhat compressed, carinated above, 
carinae entire or slightly waved; hind tibiae slightly expanded 
towards the tips, and spinose ; first and third joints of hind tarsi 
of equal length. 

Key to the Species. 

1 (10) Vertex not or scarcely broader than 

the eye. 

2 (5) Median carina not crested nor sinu- 

ated behind the shoulders. 

3 (4) Last two joints of palpi concolorous. sculpta, Bol., p. 51. 

4 (3) Last two joints of palpi yellow cwzw;yens,Brunn.,p.52. 



MAZAKREDIA. 51 

5 (2) Median carina crested or sinuated 

behind the shoulders. 
C (7) Median carina with a high raised 

crest cristulata, Bol., p. 52. 

7 (6) Median carina slightly crested, or 

with very unequal elevations and 
depressions. 

8 (9) Median carina slightly crested insularis, Bol., p. 52. 

9 (8) Median carina with very unequal 

elevations and depressions inccqualis, Brunn., p. 53. 

10 (1) Vertex about twice as broad as the 

eye lativertex, Brunn., p. 54. 

Species incertse sedis : insir/nis, sp. n., lugubris, sp. n. 



40. Mazarredia sculpta, Bol. 

Mazarredia sculpta, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. xxxi, 1887, 
pp. 237, 238 ; Brunner, Ann. Mus. Geneva, xxxiii, 1893, p. 107. 

Greyish brown. Head not prominent, eyes scarcely higher 
than the pronotum, vertex rather broader than the eye, some- 
what narrowed in front, frontal carina produced between the 
antenna? ; palpi concolorous, slightly depressed. Pronotum smooth 
above, convex and bicarinated behind the shoulders, the marginal 
carinulae slightly converging behind ; the median carina depressed 




Fig. 48. Mazarredia sculpta. 



behind the shoulders, then straight and very narrow; hinder 
angle of the lateral lobes slightly produced and obtuse; hinder 
lobe of pronotum produced. Front femora with the carina3 
slightly waved ; hind femora obliquely rugose externally, with 
rows of tubercles above ; the carina3 entire ; hind tibiae slightly 
spinose and unicolorous brown ; pulvilli of first joint of hind tarsi 
of equal length. 

Length, body, 1T5-13-5 mm.; pronotum, 14-5-18-5 mm.; hind 
lemur, 7'5-8-5 mm. 

BURMA : Karen Hills, Pegu, Palon ; TENASSER.IM : Thagata. 

Type in the collection of Brunner von Wattenvvyl. 

E2 



52 ACBYDIIKJE. 

47. Mazarredia convergens, Brunn. 

Mazarredia convergens, Brunner, Ann. Mus. Geneva, xxxiii, 1893, 
p. 107, pi. v, fig. 40. 

Colour varied with dark brown. Vertex scarcely broader than 
the eye, with the lateral lobes much lower than the eye ; antennae 
inserted nearly between the eyes ; ocelli placed midway between 
the eyes ; frontal carina slightly sinuated at the ocelli ; two 
terminal joints of palpi yellow. Pronotum with the front marginal 
carinae distinctly converging behind, the disc nearly smooth, with 
longitudinal wrinkles, but without tubercles, the median carina 
slightly interrupted between the shoulders ; hinder angle of the 
lateral lobes truncated at the tip ; humeral sinus rather acute. 
Tegmina of usual form. None of the femoral carinse undulated. 

Length, body, H'7-14'5 mm.; pronotum, 13-15 mm.; hind 
femur, 6-8-8-2 aim. 

BURMA : Karen Hills ; TEN ABSERIM. 

48. Mazarredia insularis, Bol. 

Mazarredia insularis, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. xxxi, 1887, 
pp. 237, 239 ; Hancock, Spol. Zeyl. ii, 1904, pp. 108, 138, 155, 
pi. ii, fig. 7. 

Body moderately slender, ferruginous brown. Eyes globose, 
rather prominent, higher than the vertex, which is rather broader 
than one of the eyes ; antennae slender ; face rather oblique. 
Pronotum rugose, slightly raised in front, the median line with 
a concavity behind the shoulders, and then distinctly crenulated ; 
hinder part of pronotum tricarinated, pointed, and extending con- 
siderably beyond the abdomen and hind femora ; lateral angles 
pale, somewhat laminate, rectangularly pointed at the extremity. 
Tegmina oval ; wings as long as the pronotum. Hind femora with 
the outer surface scabrous, the upper area with large rounded 
tubercles, the disc with strong oblique wrinkles ; front tarsi black, 
orange in the middle; hind tibiaa denticulated on the upper 
surface ; the pulvilli of the first joint of the hind tarsi small. 

Length, body, 9-12 mm. ; pronotum, 9-11 mm. ; hind femur, 
4-5-6 mm. 

CEYLON : Pundaluoya, Hantanna, Peradeniya. 

Collected " from stems of Grevillea tree in May ; a male from 
Hantanna was taken in March. Mr. Green remarks that the 
living insects are often coloured like and harmonize with the 
natural lichens and mosses, being very inconspicuous " (Uancocl-}. 

49. Mazarredia cristulata, Bol. 

Mazarredia cristulata, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, Ixx, 1902, 
p. 584. 

Greyish brown. Head not raised ; eyes prominent ; vertex 
rather broader than the eye, not narrowed in front, and hardly 



MAZARREDIA. 



53 



obliquely elevated, produced in the middle in front, the sides 
reflexed-angulate ; frontal carina compressed between the antennae, 
moderately raised, suddenly sinuated and depressed behind the 
antennae. Pronotum depressed, granulose and impresso-punctate, 
the median carina raised into an entire compressed crest on the 
front margin, not crenulated, behind the shoulders waved and 
sinuated ; hinder process very long, hinder angle of lateral lobes 
forming a short, narrow, rounded, oblique lobe. Tegmina ovate, 
impresso-punctate. Wings as long as the pronotum, brown 
externally, with transverse pale nervures. Front femora com- 
pressed, with granulated carinae ; intermediate femora above the 
carina compressed, granulate, lower before the tip, a lobate crenu- 
lated carina towards the tip beneath ; hind femora with the upper 
carina almost entire, crenulated, the upper outer area with a row 
of raised tubercles, with a larger wrinkle scarcely behind the 
middle ; tibiae nearly straight, brown, with the tip ferruginous ; 
third joint of hind tarsi shorter than the first, the third pulvillus 
produced. 

Length, body, 7 mm. ; pronotum, 13 mm. ; hind femur, 4-8 mm 

MADKAS : Madura. 



50. Mazarredia inaequalis, Brunn. 

Mazarredia iticequalis, Brunner, Ann. Mus. Geneva, xxxiii, 1893, 
p. 106, pi. v, fig. 39. 

Vertex slightly broader than the eye, 
with a small lobule on each side, not 
higher than the level of the eye. Antennae 
inserted in front of the eyes, each joint 
with a pale ring at the extremity. Frontal 
costa compressed, regularly rounded in 
profile ; anterior marginal carinae of the 
pronotum slightly diverging behind, the 
disc with very unequal tubercles and de- 
pressions, raised between the shoulders, 
and the median carina interrupted at that 
point ; process smooth ; deflexed lobes 
with the hinder angle little produced, 
rounded off at the tip, the humeral sinus 
rounded. Tegmina oblong-ovate. Four 
front femora sinuated above and below ; 
hind femora not compressed, the carinae 
not sinuated, but with paler markings ; 
hind tibiae with pale bands. Subgenital 
lamina of the male, as seen in profile, 
compressed at the base and very rotund- 
produced. 

LengtJi, body, 10-5-11-2 mm. ; pronotum, 17'2-17'8 mm.; hind 
femur, 5'7-6-8 mm. 

BUKMA : Karen Hills. 




Fig. 49. 
Mazarredia intequalis. 



ACRYDII1SVE. 



51. Mazarredia lativertex, Brunn. 

Mazarredia lativertex, Brunner, Ann. Mus. Geneva, xxxiii, 1893, 
pp. 106, 108, pi. v, fig. 41. 

Brownish testaceous. Vertex compressed from the front, 
nearly twice as broad as one of the eyes ; antenna? inserted in 
front of the eyes, unicolorous ; ocelli placed before the middle of 
the eyes ; frontal costa, seen in profile, hardly sinuated Front 
marginal carina? of the pronotum slightly converging behind ; the 
disc smooth, slightly excavated, the process tricarinated to the 
tip ; the lateral lobes rotund-truncate. Femora not sinuated ; 
hind femoi'a compressed. 

Length, body, 1 1 mm. ; pronotum, 14'7 mm. ; hind femur, 7 mm. 

BURMA: Karen Hills, 4700-5000 ft. 

[The two species which follow here, M. insignia and M. lugubris, 
spp. n., were labelled and placed by Mr. Kirby in the British 
Museum collection under Xistra. M. insignia has the posterior 
angle of the lateral lobe of the pronotum very slightly truncate. 
M. lugubris has the lobe scarcely prominent and slightly rounded. 
They seem to be connecting links.] 



52. Mazarredia insignis, sp. nov. 

Dark brown, inclining to black on the 
head and face, the sides of the body greyish ; 
palpi and basal joints of the antenna? reddish. 
A slight projection in profile between the 
antenna? ; labrum shining black ; eyes sepa- 
rated by more than the width of one. 
Pronotum somewhat rugose, extending con- 
siderably beyond the abdomen and as long 
as the wings : middle carina well marked, 
with a short parallel carina on each side in 
front, Tegmina oval, about twice as long as 
broad. Front and middle femora slightly 
compressed and widened ; hind femora 
moderately thickened, entire ; hind tibiae 
with small regular spines above, first joint 
of hind tarsi :ipparently rather shorter than 
the third. Valves of the ovipositor serrated 
above and below. 

Length 19 mm. 

UNITED PROVINCES : Kumaon, Bhim Tal, 
4500 ft., 22-27. ix. 190G. 
Type in the British Museum. 




Fig. 50. 
Mazarredia insignis. 



MAZAEBEDIA. XISTRA. 



55 




Fig. 51. 
Masarredia lugubris. 



53. Itazarredia lugubris, sp. nor. 

Dull brownish black. Antennae slender, 
placed just below the eyes; eyes narrowed 
in front, where they are separated by about 
the width of one of them, the head between 
slightly convex ; palpi concolorous ; labrum 
shining black. Pronotum nearly as long as 
the wings, finely granular, rugose hind- 
wards, with no lateral carinae, the middle 
carina well-marked in front, and regularly 
but shallowly undulated behind. Hind 
femora on the inner side rufous brown, 
smooth ; on the outer side with a raised 
carina dividing the central area into two 
nearly equal parts ; hind tibiae with short 
spines above and very strong terminal 
spines. 

Length 16 mm. 

INDIA. 

Type in the British Museum. 



Genus XISTRA. 

Xistra, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. Bel^r. xxvi, 1887, pp. 186, 194, 242 ; 
Brunner, Ann. Mus. Geneva, xxxiii, 1893, p. 242 ; Hancock, Gen. 
Ins., Orth. Tetrig. 1906, pp. 32, 45. 

TTPE, Xistra gogarzea, Bol. 

Range. The Oriental Region. 

Head moderately depressed ; vertex usually depressed, with 
oblique carinae more or less compressed in front, and slightly con- 
verging behind, often acutely produced; eyes higher than the 
vertex, face oblique, frontal costa forked behind the eyes, the 
branches slightly diverging in front ; slightly compressed and 
elevated between the antennae ; antennae inserted scarcely 
before the eyes, long and filiform ; palpi not dilated. Pronotum 
narrow, truncate in front, with a long process behind, humeral 
angles obtuse ; hinder angle of the lateral lobes slightly, if at all, 
produced outwards, narrow, snbrotund-truncate. Tegmina ovate ; 
wings perfectly developed. Legs long, front femora compressed, 
carinate above, hind tibiae towards the tip not, or slightly, ex- 
panded, carinae sparingly dentated ; first joint of hind tarsi nearly 
equal to, or slightly longer than, the third. 



Key to the Species. 

Vertex with an acute spine on each side .... stylata, Hanc. 
Vertex simply carinate dubia, Brunn. 



56 



54. Xistra stylata, Ham. 

Xistra styltda, Hancock, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1907, p. 231. 

Ferruginous. Head compresso-elevated, sinuated in profile ; 
vertex concave in front, but the oblique lateral carinulae forming 
an acute spine on each side about four-fifths of the height of the 
eye ; hinder ocellus placed barely below the eyes, but antennae 
inserted far below ; frontal costa not much raised between the 
antennae, but rather widely sulcate and evenly divergent forwards to 
the median ocellus. Pronotum granulated, extending behind beyond 
the hind femora, raised, and with a slightly dentated crest between 
the shoulders; median carinsB slightly marked, humeral angles 
obtuse, the lateral carinae continued forward at the shoulders, 
anterior lateral earinae parallel ; posterior angles of lateral lobes 
subangulate, slightly reflexed, subrotund-truncate. Tegmina 
rather long, rounded at the tips, externally punctate, brown, with 
pale tips ; wings extending to the tip of the pronotum. Four 
front femora rather long, the carinae compressed and waved, upper 
carina of the middle femora with an apical spine ; hind femora 
rather long, with a short acute spine ; pulvilli of first joint of hind 
tarsi of equal length. 

Length 16'2 mm. ; pronotum, 15 mm. ; hind femur, 5 - 9 mm. 

CEYLON : Put! am. 

Type in the Oxford Museum. 



55. Xistra (?) dubia, Brunn. 

Xistra (?) dubia, Brunner, Ann. Mus. Geneva, xxxiii, 1893, p. 108, 
pi. v, fig. 42. 

Vertex as broad as the eye, sloping, with a raised carinula on 
each side, rising just above the eye when viewed from the front ; 
frontal costa produced between the antennae, not sinuated ; 
antennae as long as the pronotum, inserted much before the eyes ; 
ocelli placed in a line between the base of the eyes. Pronotum 
produced beyond the hind femora, the front marginal carinae 
parallel, the lateral lobes appressed, obliquely truncated, the 
humeral sinus rectangular, the median carina continuous, biundu- 
late at the shoulders in profile, the process with the lateral carina? 
very slightly sinuated above the tegmina. Wing as long as the 
pronotum. Four front femora undulated above and below ; hind 
femora stout, not compressed ; first and third joints of hind tarsi 
of equal length. 

Length 7'5-10'5 mm.; pronotum, 9-2-1 0'5 mm.; hind femur, 
5-5-5 mm. 

BURMA : Karen Hills. 



EUPAKATETTIX. 57 

Group V. ACRTDHNI. 
Key to the Genera. 

[1 (10) Pronotum very long and rather 
narrow, the posterior prolonga- 
tion very narrowly cuneiform, 
the apical half subparallel-sided. 

2 (7) Vertex and eyes very little raised 

above the level of the pronotum. 

3 (4) Vertex narrower than width of 

eye PARATETTIX, Bol., p. 60. 

4 (3) Vertex as wide as or wider than 

eye. 

5 (6) Wings developed HEDOTTETIX, Bol., p. 71. 

6 (6) Wings absent SPADOTETTJX, Hanc., p. 70. 

7 (2) Vertex and eyes obviously raised 

above the level of pronotum. 

8 (9) Posterior femora without con- [p. 57. 

spicuous nodosities on outside. . EUPARATETTIX, Hanc., 

9 (8) Posterior femora with rugose no- 

dosities on outside ERGATETTIX, g. n., p. 69. 

10 (1) Pronotum shorter, the posterior 

prolongation broadly cuneiform, 
its margins nearly rectilinear. 

11 (12) Pronotum tectiform, the median 

carina well raised for its whole 

length ACRYDIUM, Geoff'r., p. 60. 

12 (11) Pronotum only tectiform at its 

widest part, the median carina 
very fine, the marginal carinae 
on the same level as median . . COPTOTETTIX, Bol., p. 74.] 

Genus EUPARATETTIX. 

Euparatettix, Hancock, Spol. Zeyl. ii, 1904, pp. 108, 111, 145 5 id., 
Gen. Ins., Orth. Tetrig. 1906, pp. 51, 55. 

TrPE, Paratettix personal us, Bol. 

Range. The Oriental Region, New Guinea. 

Head slightly raised, vertex rather narrower than the eye, 
elevated forward ; antennae moderately long, inserted scarcely 
below the eyes. Pronotum granulose, lateral angles rounded off, 
median and lateral carinsB strongly developed, the basal carinse 
short ; pronotum longer than the hind femora, but shorter than 
the wings. Tegmina oval, granulated. Anterior femora almost 
entire, hind femora spinulose ; first and third joints of hind tarsi 
of nearly equal length ; third pulvillus nearly as long as the 
other two. 

Key to the Species. 

1 (6) Frontal carina rounded. 

2 (3) Median carina of pronotum well 

marked personatits, Bol., p. 58. 



58 



ACRYDIIN^E. 



interruptus, Brunn., p. 59. 



3 (2) Median carina of pronotum undulated. 

4 (5) Wings two millimetres longer than 

prouotum ; the latter smooth 

5 (4) Wings one millimetre longer than pro- 

notum ; the latter finely granulose . . scabripes, Bol., p. 59. 

6 (1) Frontal carina flattened between an- 

tennte parvus, Hanc., p. 60. 



56. Euparatettix personatus, Bol. 

Paratettix personatus, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. xxxi, 1887, 

pp. 188, 278. 
Euparatettix personatus, Hancock, Spol. Zeyl. ii, 1904, pp. 108, 145, 

146, 155, 156, pi. ii, fig. 10, pi. iii, fig. 20; id., Gen. Ins. Orth. 

Tetrig. 1906, p. 55, pi. iii, fig. 32. 




Fig. 52. Euparatettix personatus. 

Body finely rugose, brown or reddish 
brown, often varied with grey. Antennae 
rather long, sometimes annulated with 
white. Head prominent, vertex raised in 
front, narrower than the eye; frontal 
costa strongly arched in front, towards the 
base sloping, and entire. Pronotum narrow, 
pointed at the extremity, generally pro- 
duced considerably beyond the hind femora, 
but shorter than the wings ; median carina 
complete, strongly marked, slightly 
sinuated between the shoulders ; hinder 
angle of the lateral lobes narrowly rounded. 
Tegmina oval, rounded at the tips. 
Front femora slender, almost entire ; 
tibiae and tarsi mostly blackish, ringed 
with white ; hind tibiae black, often with 
a broad white band near the base and 
spines ; pulvilli of first joint of hind tarsi 
straight beneath, the third not much longer 
than the second. 

Length 11-13 mm.; pronotum, 8-11 
mm. ; hind femora, 4-5 mm. 

INDIA; BURMA ; CEYLON ; JAVA ; 
PHILIPPINES. 
Frequents grassy places and rice fields in Ceylon. 




Fig. 53. Euparatettix 
personatus. 



EUPARATETTIX. 59 



57. Euparatettix interruptus, Brunn. 

Paratettix interruptus, Brunner, Ann. Mus. Geneva, xxxiii, 1893, 
p. 109. 

Head raised, eyes rounded, vertex narrower than the eye, 
frontal carina rounded, slightly produced. Pronotum smooth, 
produced and pointed, subconstricted before the shoulders ; the 
front marginal carinse short, slightly converging behind the median 
carina, waved, not strongly marked and slightly crenulated. Wings 
two millimetres longer than the pronotum. Four anterior femora 
narrow ; hind femora with the upper carina terminating in an 
obtuse tooth near the apex. 

Lenytli 8-9 mm. ; pronotum, IO6-11 mm. ; hind femur, 
5-5*8 mm. 

BUKMA : Karen Hills, Bhamo, Teinzo. 

According to Brunner von Wattenwyl, both the foregoing 
species sometimes exhibit velvety black spots on the pronotum. 



58. Euparatettix scabripes, Bol. 

Paratettix scabripes, Bolivar, Ann. Mus. Geneva, xxxix, 1898, p. 76 ; 
id., Ann. Soc. Ent. France, Ixx, 1902, p. 585. 

Eeddish or grey, varied with brown or whitish, minutely granu- 
lose. Head slightly raised ; vertex rather narrower than the eye, 
separated behind from the occiput by transverse folds, in front 
slightly narrowed, ascending, the median carina slender, ab- 
breviated behind, with a raised carinula on each side below the 
eye ; frontal costa hut little produced, slightly sinuated behind 
the antennae ; eyes not prominent. Pronotum produced behind, 
finely granulose, rather convex before and between the shoulders, 
the middle carina eubcompressed, undulated, the process at the 
base slightly excavated, the lateral carina granulose, when seen 
from above distinctly expanded and undulated ; hinder angle of 
the lateral lobes slightly turned outwards, rounded-truncate. 
Tegmina oblong, punctured; wings longer than the pronotum, 
and varied outwardly with brown. Front femora slightly waved 
above ; middle femora with the carinae compressed and dilated, 
waved, ciliated beneath ; hind femora short, upper carina} crenu- 
lated towards the tip, lobate, outer surface with rather compressed 
prominent ridges; hind tibiae brown, banded with white; first 
joint of hind tarsi longer than the third ; pulvilli acute, the third 
shorter than the two basal ones together. 

Length 6-5 mm. ; pronotum, 10 mm. ; hind femur, 5-5 mm. 

E. BENGAL : Eajshai ; SUMATBA. 

Type in Bolivar's collection. 



60 



ACRTDTIN.D. 



59. Euparatettix parvns, Ham. 

Evparatettix parvus, Hancock, Spol. Zeyl. ii, 1904, pp. 108, 145. 

Body small, slender, rugose. Head slightly rounded, vertex 
narrower than the eye, not produced. Frontal costa flattened 
between the eyes, and slightly convex between the antennae ; the 
latter moderately long, filitiorm. Pronotum flattened and rugulose 
above, median carina irregular, lateral carina well marked in front 
of humeral angles ; several small subsidiary carinae in the disc. 
Tegmina oval, rounded at the tips ; wings extending considerably 
beyond the pronotum. Hind tarsi spinose, brown, with two slight 
pale bands. 

Length 9'7 mm. ; pronotum, 8 mm. ; hind femur, 3'9 mm. 

CEYLON : Elephant Pass, Northern Province (E. E. Green). 

Genus PARATETTIX. 

Paratettlv, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. xxxi, 1887, pp. 187, 195, 
270; Hancock, Spol. Zeyl. ii, 1904, pp. 108, 110, 144; id., Gen. 
Ins., Orth. Tetrig. 1906, pp. 52, 55 ; Jacobs & Bianchi, Pram. 
Loznos. Ross. Imp. 1902, pp. 104, 175, 211. 

TYPE, Tetrix meridionalis, Eamb. 

Range. Cosmopolitan. 

Body granulose, slightly rugose. Vertex horizontally not 
broader than the eye, carinated in the middle, more or less con- 
cave on the sides, bounded in front by sinuous carinulae, and 
scarcely produced between the eyes ; frontal carina between the 
eyes curved, sloping towards the base, rarely sinuated ; antennae 
filiform, long, 14-jointed, placed scarcely before the eyes ; palpi 
not dilated, concolorous. Pronotum rather flattened, truncate in 
front, generally produced behind beyond the hind femora, the 
middle carina slightly raised, the humeral angles obtuse, lateral 
lobes bisinuated behind, the lower sinus straight or pointed, the 
hinder lateral angle turned down, with the tip rounded off. 
Tegmina oval, punctured; wings generally longer than the 
pronotum. Front femora compressed, carinated above, usually 
undulated ; hind tibiae with the apical third distinctly expanded 
and spinose; first joint of hind tarsi longer than the third, 
pulvilli acuminate, flattened below, the third pulvillus generally 
longer than the first two together. 

Key to the Species. 

1 (2) Pronotum without a median 

carina balteatus, Walk., p. 61. 

2 (1) Pronotum with a median 

carina. 

3 (4) Middle carina of pronotum 

depressed in front, and ceasing 
betore reaching the front 
margin scaber, Thunb., p. 62. 



PAKATETTIX. 



01 



(3) Middle carina of pronotum 

continuous to front margin. 
(6) A short raised line on each side 

between the shoulders. 
(5) The short line curved ?* 

7 (6) The short line straight 

8 (5) No short line between shoulders. 

9 (10) Middle carina of pronotum 

strongly marked, distinctly 

arched, not depressed behind . . cingalensis, Walk., p. 63. 
(9) Middle carina less strongly 
marked and more or less 



variabilis, Bol., p. 62. 
dorsifer, Walk., p. 63. 



8 



10 



11 (12) Caring of the hind femora 

entire indicus, Bol., p. 64. 

12 (11) Upper carina of hind femora 

more or less linely serrated. 

13 (14) Femora densely hairy beneath . . hirsutus, Brunn., p. 65. 

14 (13) Femora less densely hairy 

beneath sulhirsutus, Brunn., p. 66. 



60. Paratettix balteatus, Wall: 

Tettix balteata, Walker, Cat. Derm. Salt. B.M., v, 1871, p. 825. 

Grey. Head [now wanting] small, with 
the usual looped keel, whitish about the 
mouth ; eyes very prominent. Pronotum 
with a broad black transverse band above, 
just before the hind coxae ; this is concave 
before and behind, and marked with a whitfr 
spot on each side behind; the pronotal 
process tapers, but at the tip is shortly 
truncated, with a fine spine on each side ; 
it is also marked with several transverse 
blackish bands towards the extremity^ 
The wings project considerably beyond the 
process, and are hyaline, varied with brown, 
and marked alternately with brown and 
hyaline on the costa towards the tip. 
Legs whitish, with blackish rings and 
markings ; femora moderately stout, hind 
femora* and hind tarsi largely rufous. Ab- 
domen short, white at the extremity, 
blackish towards the base above and at 
Fig. 54. Paratettix the sides. 
balteatus. 




* [The specimen identified by Mr. Kirby in the British Museum Collection 
as variabilis has the short carina curved, but Bolivar's description does not 
mention this.] 

t [Owing to the position of the hind femora the raised nodosities are not 
shown in the figure. Examination of additional material indicates that the 
species should be referred to the genus Ergatettix (p. 69).] 



62 ACRYD1INJE. 

Length of the body, 4^ lines ; expansion of the hind wings, 9 lines. 

S. INDIA. 

Described from the much damaged type specimen. 
Type in the British Museum. 

61. Paratettix scaber, Thunb. 

Acrt/dium scabntm, Thunberg, Nova Acta Uppsal., vii, 1815, p. 159. 
Tetiix subpustulata, AValker, Cat. Derm. Salt. B.M. v, 1871, p. 819. 
Tettix sealer, Stal, Recen. Orth. i, 1873, p. 149. 
Paratettix sealer, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. xxxi, 1887, pp. 188, 
279 ; id., Ann. Soc. Ent. France, Ixx, 190:2, p. 585. 

Brown or blackish, scabrous, with very small darker granules. 
Head moderately produced, vertex not prominent, narrower than 
the eye, narrowed and subangularly rounded in front, and cari- 
nated in the middle. Pronotum produced behind, much con- 
stricted in front, the back transversely convex between the 
shoulders, the middle carina slightly raised, more compressed in 
front, and obsolete before reaching the front margin ; hinder 
angle of the lateral lobes narrowly rounded off at the tips ; a 
white spot on each side of the pronotum in the typical form, 
behind which is a black spot followed by a small whitish dot. 
Tegmina twice as long as broad, closely punctured ; wings longer 
than the pronotum, iridescent, with brown borders. Carinae of 
the front femora straight ; front tibiae ringed with white, hind 
tibia pale, at least at the base ; hind tarsi pale, the first joint 
much longer than the third ; pulvilli pointed, the third as long as 
the first two together. 

Length 8-10 mm. ; pronotum, 10'5-12'5 mm. ; hind femur, 5'5- 
6*5 mm. 

MADRAS : Trichinopoly ; ZANZIBAR ; PORTUGUESE EAST 
AFRICA ; CAPE COLONY ; GABOON. 



62. Paratettix variabilis, Bol, 

Parateltix variabilis, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. xxxi, 1887, 
pp. 188, 276 ; id., Ann. Soc. Ent. France, Ixx, 1902, p. 585. 

Brown or ferruginous, slightly rugose. Vertex narrower than 
the eye, carinated in front on each side, frontal costa arched and 
rounded, projecting between the eyes. Pronotum much produced 
(or, in varieties, scarcely produced beyond the hind femora), back 
nearly smooth, the middle carina acutely compressed in front, 
with a raised line on each side of the disc between the shoulders, 
obsolete before and behind ; hinder angle of the lateral lobes 
acutely triangular. Tegmina rounded at the tip : wings 2 or 3 
millimetres longer than the pronotum in the typical form. Front 
femora with the carinae straight ; middle femora long and linear ; 



PARATETTrX. 03 

hind tarsi with the two basal pulvilli acutely pointed at the tip, 
the third pulvillus rather longer than the second. 

Length 710 mm.; pronotum, 9-11 mm.; hind femur, 5'5- 
6'5 mm. 

MADEAS : Madura ; BORNEO ; PHILIPPINES. 

Type in the British Museum. 



63. Paratettix (?) dorsifer, Walk. 

Tettix dorsifera, Walker, Cat. Derm. Salt. B.M. v, 1871, p. 825. 

Fawn-colour. Eyes very prominent, much raised above the 
vertex, which is narrower than an eye, 
slightly convergent in front, and con- 
siderably produced between the antennae, 
which are placed below the eyes ; the 
carina of the vertex is imperfect above. 
Front area of pronotum transversely ridged 
and tuberculate, with the carina much 
raised, the hinder part of the carina 
depressed and serrated ; on each side a 
short raised carina between the median 
carina and the shoulders ; behind the 
shoulders a triangular black mark on each 
side, the hinder part of the pronotum gran- 
ulose and very slender, extending much be- 
yond the hind femora. Tegmina oval, rather 
narrow ; wings extending beyond the 
pronotum, narrowly rounded at the ex- 
tremity, and with light and dark spots 
along the costa. Front femora widened 

and flattened, hind femora rugose and tuberculate. 
BOMBAY. 
The type in the British Museum does not agree well with 

Walker's description, but there is no other specimen to which it 

could apply. 




Fig. 5^. Paratettix 
dorsifer. 



64. Paratettix cingalensis, Walk. 

Tettix cingalensis, Walker, Cat. Derm. Salt. B.M. v, 1871, p. 827. 
Paratettix variegatus, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. xxxi, 1887, 
pp. 188, 272, 280 ; Hancock, Spol. Zeyl. ii, pp. 108, 144. 

Brown or ferruginous, or grey, varied with white. Head 
slightly raised, vertex truncated in front, as broad as the eye, 
frontal costa sloping towards the base in front. Pronotum much 
longer than the hind femora, rugulose punctate, sometimes spotted 
with brown and white; the middle carina compressed, continuous, 
strongly marked, raised and regularly arched in front ; a short 
-carina on each side on the anterior margin of the front lobe, each 



64 



ACRYDIIX.E. 



followed by a short transverse one. Lateral carinse incurved in 
front, and with a short straight carina thrown off opposite the 
curve, but not quite touching it in front ; hind lobe of lateral 
angles narrowly rotund-truncate at the tips with the outer 
margin subreflexed. Tegmina broadly rounded at the tips ; wings 




Fig. 56. Paratettix cingalensis. 

hyaline, brown on the costa, with indistinct pale spots towards 
the extremity ; much longer than the pronotum. Front femora 
slightly waved ; hind femora crenulated above, with a small lobe 
before the tip ; tibiae pale, spotted with brown, hind tibiae spined ; 
pulvilli acute at the tips, the third longer than the second. Anal 
appendages of female very large, and bifid at the extremities. 

Length 7-7*5 mm. ; pronotum, 9-10 mm. ; hind femur, 5-6 mm. ; 
expanse of wings, 14 mm. 

CEYLON. 

Type in the British Museum. 

Walker's type is a uniform brown specimen with all the 
markings obliterated, probably by spirit. There is, however, a 
second well-marked specimen in the collection, wanting only 
antennae. 



65. Paratettix Indians, Bol. 

Paratettix indicus, Bolivar, Anu. Soc. Ent. Belg. xxxi, 1887, pp. 188, 
272, 281 ; id., Ann. Soc. Ent. France, Ixx, 1902, p. 585. 

Pale red or brown. Vertex slightly narrowed in front, frontal 
costa somewhat sinuated behind the antenna, slightly produced 
before the eyes. Pronotum smooth, rather depressed, and very 
obtusely tectiform, middle cariua only slightly raised. Femora with 



PAEATETTIX. 65 

the carinse entire ; hind tarsi with the pulvilli sharply pointed, the 
third pulvillus longer thau the first two together. 

Length 8-10 min. ; pronotum, 10-11 mm. ; hind femur, 
5-6 mm. 

MADRAS : Madura ; CHINA. 

Types in the collections of Pantel and Bolivar. 



66. Paratettix hirsutus, Brunn. 

Paratettix hirsutits, Brunner, Ann. Mus. Geneva, xxxiii, 1893, p. 110 
pi. v, fig. 43. 

Allied to P. indicus. Vertex as broad as the eye ; frontal 
costa slightly produced, rounded. Pronotum with small granules ; 
rather broad between the shoulders and depressed behind, 
the front marginal carinse parallel, the middle carina continuous 




Fig. 57. Paratettix hirsittus. 

not waved. Wings extending 4 or 5 millimetres beyond the 
pronotum ; or shorter than the pronotum in the form in 
which the pronotum is shorter than the hind femora. 
Eemora compressed, dilated, not undulated ; hind femora with 
the upper carina narrowly serrated, and with a large raised 
tooth before the extremity ; hind tibiae with two whitish bands. 

Length 8-8-12 mm. ; pronotum, 11*8-14 mm. ; hind femur, 
6-5-7-5 mm. 

BURMA : Teinzo, Katha, Bhamo. 



66 



ACBYDI1N.E. 




Fig. 58.Paratettix 
semihirsutus. 



67. Paratettix semihirsutus, Brunn. 

ParatettLr semihirsidus, Brunner, Ann. Mus. 
Genovn, xxxiii, 1893, p. 110. 

Moderately stout. Vertex as broad as 
the eye ; frontal carina slightly produced, 
rounded. Pronotum with very small un- 
equal granules, not very broad between 
the shoulders, the anterior carinae con- 
verging behind, the median carina complete, 
undulated behind the shoulders. Wings 
2 mm. longer than the pronotum. Four 
front femora compressed and dilated, not 
undulated, rarely hairy ; hind femora with 
the upper carina very narrowly serrated, 
and terminating in a tooth before the 
extremity ; hind tibia3 brown at the base and 
pale towards the tips. 

Length 9 mm.; pronotum, 11 mm.; hind 
femur, 5-2 mm. 

BUBMA : Karen Hills. 



Genus ACRYDIUM. 

Acrydium, Fabricius, Syst. Ent. 1775, p. 278; Leach, Edinb. 

Encycl. ix, 1815, p. 120. 

Acridium, Schrank, Fauna Boica, ii, 1801, p. 30. 
Tetriv, Latreille, Hist. Nat. Crust. Ins. iii, 1802, p. 284, xii, 1804, 

p. 161 ; Hancock, Spol. Zeyl. ii, 1904, pp. 108, 110, 141 ; id., 

Gen. Ins., Orth. Tetrig. 1906, pp. 52, 57. 
Tettix, Charpentier, Germ. Zeitschr. Ent. iii, 1841, p. 315 ; Bolivar, 

Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. xxvii, 1887, pp. 187, 195, 257. 
Sulla, Schrank (nee Linn.), Enum. Ins. Austr. 1781, p. 242. 

TYPE, Gryllus subulatus, Linn. 

Range. Cosmopolitan. 

Body smooth, slightly rugose. Head not raised, vertex usually 
broader than the eye, with the sides more or less sinuated, 
carinated, subangulately rounded, in profile distinctly produced 
and slightly pointed before the eyes ; frontal costa generally 
sinuated before the antennae; antennae very short, not extending 
to the humeral angles and often shorter than the head, rather 
thick, with from 12 to 14 joints, and inserted hardly before the 
eyes. Pronotum with the back ridged, rarely depressed, only 
slightly expanded between the shoulders, truncated or angulated 
in Front, and pointed and produced behind about as far as the 
hind femora; humeral angles very obtuse, hinder angles of the 
lateral lobes slightly and obliquely turned outwards ; lateral 
margins of the lower ones straight, or subsinuated at the base. 
Legs simple, carinae of the femora rarely waved ; hind tibiae linear, 



ACEYDIUM. 67 

slender, sometimes slightly widened towards the tips ; the carinae 
serrulate, spiny, unarmed on the inner carina for the apical fifth ; 
first joint of hind tarsi distinctly longer than the third. 

When the pronotum is produced beyond the hind femora, 
tegmina and wings (extending beyond the pronotura) are usually 
present. 

Key to the Species. 

1 (2) Pronotum and wings extending far 

beyond the hind femora atypicale, Hanc., p. 67. 

2 (1) Pronotum and wings little, if at all, 

produced beyond the hind femora. [p. 69. 

3 (4) Pronotum with four black spots .... quadriplagiatum, Walk., 

4 (3) Pronotum with only two black spots. [p. 68. 

5 (6) Median carina of pronotum undulated, dilatatum, De Haan, 

6 (5) Median carina of pronotum regularly 

arched. 

7 (8) Body not hairy beneath biptmctatum, L., p. 68. 

8 (7) Body hairy beneath atypicale, form cei/lonum, 

[Hanc., p. 67. 

68. Acrydium atypicale, Hanc. 

Tettix atypicalis, Hancock, Spol. Zeyl. ii, 1904, pp. 108, 142, 155, 
pi. iii, tig. 14. 

Body slender, granulate-punctate, grey or reddish, legs ringed 
with brown. Vertex as wide as the eye and produced in front ; 
antennas rather short, filiform. Pronotum truncate in front, 
produced behind considerably beyond the hind femora ; a brown 
spot on each side behind ; raised between the shoulders, humeral 
angles acute, median carina continuous, regularly arched in front, 
and somewhat depressed behind. Tegmina oval, rounded at the 
tips; wings considerably longer than the pronotum. Femora 
slightly compressed, the cariuaa finely serrulate ; hind tibiae 
spinose, first and third joints of hind tarsi of nearly equal length, 
pulvilli pointed at the ends, third as long as the first two together. 
Margins of legs, mouth-parts, and under surface hairy. Ovipositor 
short, the upper part rather wide. 

Length 11-5-14 mm. ; hind femur, 5'5 mm. 

CEYLON : Kandy, Peradeniya, Dikoya. 

Taken on grassland and at light in February, July, and 
November. 

Micropterous Form. 

Acrydium atypicale ceylormm, Hanc. 

ix atypical 
142, 143. 

A small form, with the pronotum and wings more or less 
abbreviated, and the middle femora expanded in the male. 



68 ACBYD1INJE. 

Length 6'9-10 mm. ; hind femur, 4*2-5 mm. 

CEYLON : Maskeliya, Pundaluoya. 

Takeu in January, March, April, and August. 



69. Acrydium dilatatum, De Haan. 

Acridium (Tettix) dilatatum, De Haan, Temminck, Verhandel.,. 

Ortli. 1842, pp. 167, 169, pi. xxii, fig. 12. 
Tettix dilatatus, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. xxxi, 1887, pp. 187, 

257, 260 ; Brunner, Ann. Mus. Geneva, xxxiii, 1893, p. 109. 



Ferruginous brown. Vertex broad, frontal carinse compressed, 
raised, and sinuated ; eyes prominent. Pronotum truncated in 
front, dilated, produced behind to the extremity of the abdomen, 
sometimes as far as or further than the hind femora ; median 
carina tectiform before the middle; depressed behind the shoulders, 
and partly obliterated by a row of tubercles. Wings abbreviated, 
twice as long as the tegmina. Femora with waved carinaa, the 
hind femora spined at the tips, and with the outer area tuberculate 
or rugose ; hind tibiae spinose. 

Length 9-14 mm. ; hind femur, 5-5 mm. 

BUEMA : Karen Hills, 4000-4300 ft. ; JAYA. 



70. Acrydium bipunctatum, L. 

Gryllus (Bulla) bipunctatus, Linnseus, Syst. Nat. (ed. x), 1758, 

p. 427. 
Tettix bipunctatus, Brunner, Prodr. Ent. Orth. 1882, pp. 234, 235 ; 

Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. xxxi, 1887, pp. 187, 258, 263 ; id., 

Ann. Soc. Ent. France, Ixx, p. 585. 
Acrydium bipunctatum, Kirby, Syn. Cat. Orth. iii, 1910, p. 33. 

The extensive synonymy of this species is given by Brunner von, 
Wattenwyl and Kirby, and need not here be repeated. 




Fig. 59. Acrydium Iripunctatum. 

Rather stout, colour excessively variable ; brown or luteous, 
varied with grey and brown ; nearly always with two triangular 
satiny black spots on the pronotum behind the shoulders. Vertex 
a little broader than the eye, and slightly produced in front ; 
frontal costa slightly waved behind the antenna?. Pronotum 
truncated in front, not produced behind beyond the hind femora, 



ACRYDIUM. ERGATETTIX. 



69 



\ 




Fig. GQ.Acrydiun 
bipunctatum. 




Fig. l.Acrydium 
quadriplagia turn. 



and often shorter, carina continuous, 
raised and gradually arched in front, and 
slightly depressed behind; front carinae 
slightly waved. Wings as long as the 
pronotum in the male; in the female 
much shorter and nearly obsolete. Hind 
femora thickened, the carinae sharp, but 
not undulated ; first joint of hiud tarsi 
with the pulvilli rounded beneath, the 
third as long as the first two together. 

Length 7-11*5 mm.; hind femur, 5-5-5 
mm. 

MADRAS ; Kodaikanal ; ]S T . & W. ASIA ; 
EUROPE. 

71. Acrydium quadriplagiatum, Walk. 

Tettix quadriplaqiata, Walker, Cat. Derm. 
Salt. B.M. v, 1871, p. 828. 

Brown, stout, granulated, apterous. 
Vertex wider than the eye, raised above 
the eye into an obtuse angle, and forming a 
rounded projection between the antennas ; 
cheeks and front of pronotum with raised 
granules. Median carina on pronotum 
raised between the shoulders, straight, 
continuous, and tectiform ; cariuse of front 
area distinct ; disc with two black spots 
on each side before the middle, the hinder- 
most pair the larger: the apex extending 
about as far as the hiud femora and 
covering the abdomen as far as the base 
of the appendages. Legs paler than the 
body, and obscurely banded with blackish; 
middle femora considerably compressed 
and expanded, hind femora with several 
incomplete longitudinal rows of small 
blackish spots on the upper and lower 
outer areas ; hind tibia? spinose ; first 
joint of hind tarsi much longer than the 
third, the pulvilli pointed beneath, the first 
two of equal length, and the third half 
as long again as the second. 

NORTH IXDIA. 

Type in the British Museum. 



Genus ERGATETTIX, nov. 
TYPE, Ergatettix tarsalis, sp. nov. 
Eyes moderately prominent, separated by a space equal to 



ACRYDIIX-E. 



nearly one of them ; antennae slender, moderately long, inserted 
just below the eyes, beneath which the front projects slightly. 
Pronotum somewhat rugose ; the median carina distinct, undu- 
lating, extending considerably beyond the hind femora and the 
abdomen, which are of about equal length, but rather shorter than 
the wings ; beyond the level of the abdomen it is very slender. 
Four front femora compressed and widened; hind femora 
thickened, somewhat nodulose ; middle tibia? compressed and 
widened towards the base; hind tibia? with terminal spines, those 
in the carina? very small ; bind tarsi Avith the first joint much 
longer than the third, with four moderate equal pulvilli beneath. 



72. Ergatettix tarsalis, sp. nov. 

Dark brown or reddish brown, the antenna? sometimes with 




Fig. G2.Ergatcttix tarsalis. 

pale rings. Pronotum usually with a 
more or less distinct transverse black 
band, or two large spots just behind the 
level of the hind coxa?. Hind femora 
often with one or two black spots above, 
towards the extremity ; hind tibia? black, 
with two white bands. 

Length, from head to tips of wings, 
12-15 mm. 

BEKCJAL : Calcutta. 

Types in the British Museum and 
Calcutta Museum. 

Genus SPADOTETTIX. 

Spadotettix, Hancock, Spol. Zeyl. vi, 
1910, p. 146. 

TYPE, Spadotettix fetcJieri, Hanc. 
Range. Ceylon. 

Apterous, face very oblique, vertex 
broader than the eye ; median carina 
angulate, produced before the eyes. 
Pronotum truncate anteriorly, extending 

to the eyes, lateral lobes with the hinder angles slightly reflexed 
outwards, obtuse and obliquely truncate behind. 




Fig. V&.Ergatettix 

tarsalis. 



SPADOTETTIX. HEDOTETTIX. 71 

73. Spadotettix fletcheri, Hanc. 

Spadotettix fletcheri, Hancock. Spol. Zeyl. vi, 1910, p. 147, figs. 1, 2. 

Small, apterous, dark brown. Vertex wide, produced beyond 
the eyes, with a projecting median carina, face oblique, eyes 
small ; antenna? slender, with 13 or 14 joints, inserted opposite 
the anterior lower angle of the eyes. Pronotum granulated, 
median carina biuudulate. Front and middle femora compressed, 
hind femora with the lower margin " triundulate, bearing a small 
median lobe"; hind tibiae black, with a slight yellow ring behind 
the knee ; carinae serrate-spinose ; first joint of hind tarsi slightly 
longer than the third ; first joint with the first and second 
pulvilli pointed, the third more flattened below. 

Length 8 mm. 

CEYLON : Madulsima, 3500 ft. 

" On mossy rocks." 



Genus HEDOTETTIX. 

Hedotettix, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. xxxi, 1887, pp. 188, 195, 
283; Hancock, Spol. Zeyl. ii, 1904, pp. 108, 111, 148; id., Gen. 
Ins., Orth. Tetrig. 1906, pp. 52, 60. 

TYPE, Acridium ( Tettix} gracile, De Haan. 

Ranye. Indian Eegion, Australia, Africa, Madagascar. 

Body slender, nearly smooth or only slightly granulated. Head 
not prominent, vertex not broader than the eye, carinated in the 
middle, generally expanded and transversely carinated in front, 
frontal costa arched between the antennae, not sinuated between 
the eyes; antennae filiform, rather short, inserted between the 
eyes. Pronotum truncated and obtusely angulated in front, long 
and pointed behind, the median carina slightly compressed and 
continuous ; hinder angle of the lateral lobes very narrowly 
rotund-truncate, or slightly pointed. Tegmina rounded at the 
tip, rarely pointed ; wings generally as long as the pronotum. 
Legs compressed, front femora entire or indistinctly undulated, 
hind femora with the carinae granulated ; tibia? regularly spined ; 
first joint of the hind tarsi long, the third joint shorter than the 
first. 



Key to the Species. 

1 (2) Frontal carina widely sxilcate, the rami 

widened between the eves gracilis, De Haan. 

2 (1) Frontal carinse nearly straight, not 

suddenly divergent between the eyes. . . . attenuatus.. Hanc. 

Species incertse sedis lineifera. Walk. 



72 

74. Hedottetix gracilis, De Haan. 

Acridium (2'ettix} qracile, De Haan, Temminck, Yerhandel. Orth. 

1842, pp. 167, 169. 
Hedotettix gracilis, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. xxxi, 1887, pp. 188, 

283, 284 ; Hancock, Spol. Zeyl. ii, 1904, pp. 108, 149, 156, pi. iii, 
fig. 19. 

Tettix discalis, Walker, Cat. Derm. Salt. B.M. v, 1871, p. 826. 

Tettix umbrifera, Walker, op. cit., 1871, p. 824. 

(?) Tettix liwata, Walker, op. cit. Suppl. 1871, p. 90. 

Hedotettix festivus, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. xxxi, 1887, pp. 188, 

284, 286, pi. v, fig. 24. 

Hedotettix gracilis abortus. Hancock. Spol. Zeyl. ii, 1887, pp. 188, 

284, 286, pi. v, fig. 24. 
Tettix obliquifera, Walker, op. cit. p. 825. 
Var. Tettix vittifera, Walker, op. cit. p. 824. 
Var. Tettix nigricollis, Walker, op. cit. p. 826. 

Long and slender, very variable in colour, yellow, varied with 
brown and rosy, or brown and green, with pale or reddish central 
and lateral carinse, a black oblong spot on each side before the 
lateral carina in front, and a narrow angulated black mark 
touching the lateral carinse just behind the shoulder. Vertex as 
broad as the eye, front rounded, face nearly straight and slightly 
oblique. Pronotum truncated in front, acute behind, and produced 
considerably beyond the hind femora ; hinder angles of lateral 




Fig. ^.Hedotettix gracilis. 



lobes slightly angulated, with the outer margin thickened. 
Tegniina blackish, oval, rounded at the ends ; wings as long as 
or much longer than the pronotum, extending nearly or quite to 
the tips of the tibiae. Legs pale, often with darker rings ; front 
femora compressed and carinated, especially the middle ones; 
hind femora with the upper outer area blackish, the slightly 
oblique wrinkles separated by paler lines ; hind tibiae finely 
spinose ; first joint of hind tarsi nearly twice as long as the 
third, pulvilli pointed at tips, the third scarcely longer than 
the second. 

Length 12-15 (in micropterous form, 9-10) mm.; hind femur, 
4-9-6 mm. 

N. INDIA ; BOMBAY ; MADRAS : Trichinopoly ; BURMA : Teinzo, 
Rangoon ; JAVA : Krawang ; CELEBES : Tondano. 



HEDOTETTIX. 



7:5 



75. Hedotettix attenuatus, Hanc. 

Hedotettix attenuatus, Hancock, Spol. Zeyl. ii, 1904, pp. 108, 149, 
151, pi. iii, fig. 18; id., Gen. Ins., Orth. Tetrig. 1906, p. 60, 
fig. 23. 

Body very slender, vertex narrower than one of the eyes, 
subtruncate in front, and scarcely raised above the eyes ; median 
carina of pronotum hardly compressed. Colour very variable, 
sometimes with a broad longitudinal stripe of emerald green, 
which fades after death. 

Length 10'5-14 mm. ; hind femur, 4-5-6-7 mm. 

CEYLON: Colombo. 





Fig. 65. Hedotettix 



Fig. 66. Hedotettix lincifera. 



76. Hedotettix (?) lineif era, Wall:. 

Tettix lineifera, Walker, Cat. Derm. Salt, v, 1871, p. 824. 

Differs from H. gracilis in the pronotum being slightly raised 
and undulated along the central keel ; the upper surface is brown, 
with several raised longitudinal whitish lines. 

Length, to end of pronotum, 16 mm. ; to end of wings, 18 mm. 

BOMBAY. 

I should have regarded this insect as another variety of the 
very variable H. gracilis, but for the longitudinally ridged pro- 
notum. It should perhaps form a new genus ; but I have only 
two specimens before me in too bad condition to describe in detail. 



74 ACEYDIIN.E. 

Genus COPTOTETTIX. 

Coptotettix, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. xxxi, 1887, pp. 188, 195, 
287 ; Hancock, Spol. Zeyl. ii, 1904, pp. 108, 111, 152; id., Gen. 
Ins., Orth. Tetrig. 1906, pp. 52, 65. 

TYPE, Coptotettix aspemtus, Bol. 

Range. Indian Eegion, Australia, West and East Africa. 

Body more or less rugose or granulated. Head not prominent, 
vertex smooth, narrowed in front, the frontal carinulae interrupted 
internally, or recurved ; frontal costa rounded, more or less 
produced ; antennae long, filiform, inserted between the eyes. 
Prouotum truncated in front, produced behind only as far as 
the hind femora ; or else very long and pointed ; median carina 
almost always depressed, very rarelv ridged. Tegmina oblong : 
wings often abbreviated. Front femora generally long, with 
parallel carinae ; hind femora long, with the carinae entire or 
crenulated ; first joint of hind tarsi longer than the third. 

Key to the Species. 

1 (4) Tegmina and wings absent. 

2 (3) Colour black; hind femora with a 

tooth above before the extremity . . latifrons, Brunn., p. 74. 

3 (2) Colour luteous ; hind femora with no 

tooth above before the extremity . . acKtetermimitus,'Bn\Tm., 

4 (1) Tegmina and \vings present. [p. 75. 

5 (8) Pronotum not extending beyond the 

tip of the abdomen ; wings more or 
less rudimentary. 

6 (7) Median carina of pronotum ridged. ... fossulatus, Bol., p. 70. 

7 (6) Median carina of pronotum depressed, capitatus, Bol., p. 76. 

8 (5) Pronotum and wings extended beyond 

the abdomen. 

9 (10) Pronotum very rugose testaceus, Bol., p. 77. 

10 (9) Pronotum only slightly rugose interruptus, Bol., p. 78. 

77. Coptotettix latifrons, Brunn. 

CoptotcttLv latifrons, Brunner, Ann. Mus. Genova, xxxiii, 1893, 
p. 112, pi. v, fig. 44. 

Black, stout, rugose. Vertex about twice as broad as the eye ; 




Fig. (>7. Coptotettix latifrons, $. 

antennae slender, inserted between the eyes ; the frontal carinae 
distinctly converging. Pronotum with the carina ridged and 



COPTOTETTIX. 75 

arching in front, where it is parallel to the two short 
frontal carinse; pronotum as long as the abdomen, the surface 
with numerous raised granules. Tegmina and wings obsolete. 
Legs very hairy, front femora and tibia3 compressed and expanded, 
and the former strongly carinated ; hind femora denticulated 
above, with a strong tooth before the extremity ; the upper outer 





Fig. ^. Coptotettix latifrons, tf. Fig. . Coptotettix latifrons, $. 

area with a row of large granules, and the middle area trans- 
versely striated, with another row of tubercles above its lower 
margin ; hind tihia3 strongly spinose ; hind tarsi reddish, with 
the first joint longer than the third, and the pulvilli pointed and 
of nearly equal length. 

In the male the hind tibia? are dull orange, tipped with black. 

Length 10 mm. ; hind femur, 6-5 mm. 

BENGAL : Pusa ; BTJBMA : Pegu. 

Taken in May and November. 



78. Coptotettix acuteterminatus, Brunn. 

Coptotettix acuteterminatiis, Brunner, Ann. Mus. Geneva, xxxiii, 
1893, p. 112. 

A smaller species than the last, and testaceous. Pronotum 
less strongly granulated, the median carina ridged throughout, 
the margins of the lateral lobes more arched, and spotted at that 
place with black ; the pronotum shorter and more pointed at the 



extremity, and the upper carina of the hind femora continuous, 
without any antegenicular tooth. 




Fig. 70. Coptotettix aciitelcrminatus. 

Lenyili 7 mm.; hind femur, 5 mm. 
BUBMA : Pegu. 

79. Coptotettix fossulatus, Bol. 

Coptotettix fossulatus, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. xxxi, 1887, 
pp. 188, 287, 288 ; Hancock, Spol. Zeyl. ii. 1904, pp. 108, 153. 

Pale grey, varied with brown, rugose-tuberculate. Head not 
prominent, vertex as broad as the eye, slightly pitted on each side, 
not produced in front, frontal costa between the eyes considerably 
arched and rounded ; antennae inserted between the eyes. 
Pronotum tectiform in front, flattened behind, and as long as the 
abdomen ; disk rugosely tuberculate, concave behind the shoulders ; 
median carina raised in front, and several times interrupted 
behind ; hinder process on both sides with a slightlv compressed 
irregular carina towards the lateral carinae, the deflexed lobes 
much sinuated beneath ; hinder angle of the lateral lobes broad, 
with the tip roundly truncate. Tegmina very small, slightly 
pointed ; wings rudimentary. Intermediate femora rather broad, 
the upper carina scarcely raised behind the middle ; hind femora 
broad, hind tibiae slightly spinose ; first joint of hind tarsi much 
longer than the third ; pulvilli pointed at the tips, the third joint 
longer than the second. 

Length 8 mm.; hind femur, 4-5 mm. 

CEYLON. 



80. Coptotettix capitatus, Bol. 

Coptotettlv capitatus, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. xxxi, 1887, 
pp. 188, 287, 289: Brunuer, Ann. Mus. Geneva, xxxiii, 189:3, 
p.lll. 

Dull ferruginous, rugose. Head not prominent, vertex con- 
siderably broader than the eye, flattened, distinctly narrowed in 
front and produced before the eyes ; frontal costa arched and 
produced between the eyes ; antenna? inserted almost between the 
eyes. Pronotum flattened, rugosely tuberculate ; median carina 
continuous, little raised, and slightly sinuated before the 
shoulders ; frontal lateral carinae parallel ; disk with two short 



COPTOTETTIX. 77 

oblique ridges between the shoulders, converging behind ; humeral 
angles obtuse, and within them a nearly straight carina running 
backwards to the tip of the pronotum, the latter not covering 
the abdomen ; hinder angle of the lateral lobes narrowly and 
roundly subtruncate at the tips. Tegmina very small ; wings 
rudimentary. Front femora very long, with nearly straight 
carinse, hind femora with the apical half more slender ; pulvilli of 
the first joint of the hind tarsi pointed, but not spinose at the tip, 
the third pulvillus rather longer than the second. 

Length 11 mm. ; hind femur, 7'5 mm. 

BUBHA : Karen Hills, 4700-5000 ft. ; JAVA. 



incertce sedis. 
Acrydium indicum, Oliv. 
Acrydium indicum, Olivier, Encycl. Me*th., Ins. vi, 1791, p. 234. 

Uniform blackish. Pronotum smooth, median carina3 not much 
raised ; produced behind rather beyond the abdomen, but much 
shorter than the wings, which are transparent, with the outer 
border brown. 

Size of T. subiilatus, L. 

EAST INDIES. 

[In a note Mr. Kirby suggests that this may be Coptotettix 
capitatus, Bol.] 

81. Coptotettix testaceus, Bol. 

Coptotettix testaceus, Bolivar, A.nn. Soc. Ent. Belg. xxxi, 1887, 
pp. 189, 288,291 ; Hancock, Spol. Zeyl. ii, 1904, pp. 108, 153. 

Testaceous yellow, varied with brown and grey. Head not 
prominent, vertex narrower than the eye, narrowed in front, not 
produced before the eye when seen from above: frontal costa 
arched and slightly sinuated before the median ocellus ; antenna? 
inserted between the eyes. Pronotum produced beyond the 
abdomen, the disk flattened, rather convex between the shoulders, 
with round tubercles ; depressed before the shoulders, with the 
front marginal lateral carina? short ; hind part of pronotum with 
scattered elongate wrinkles ; hinder angle of the lateral lobes 
triangular, with the tip narrowly subtruncate. Tegmina oblong, 
with the tips rounded ; wings fully developed. Femora banded 
with brown, narrow, long, with the carinae very slightly waved ; 
hind femora strongly granulose ; first joint of the hind tarsi much 
longer than the third, and distinctly serrulated above ; third 
pulvillus shorter than the first two together. 

Letiytli 10 mm.; pronotum, 12'5 mm. ; hind femur, 7 mm. 

CEYLOX. 

Type in the collection of I. Bolivar. 



78 

82. Coptotettix interruptus, Bol. 

Coptotettix interruptus, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. xxxi, 1887, 
pp. 189, 288, 291. 

Dull ferruginous-brown. Vertex much narrower than the eye, 
somewhat narrowed in front, not produced before the eye, with 
the anterior carinae much interrupted on the inner side ; frontal 
costa much arched and produced between the eyes, distinctly 
sinuated before the median ocellus ; antennae inserted between 
the eyes. Pronotum produced beyond the abdomen, with the 
disc flattened, nearly smooth, but sometimes finely granulate, 
rugose, with two short carinae before the shoulders ; median 
carinae slightly raised and compressed, straight, crested in front, 
but towards the front margin suddenly depressed and obliterated ; 
frontal lateral carina diverging in front, hinder angle of the 
lateral lobes with the tip rounded. Tegraina short, oval ; wings 
much longer than the pronotum. Femora long, with the carinae 
crenulated ; first joint of hind tarsi with the third pulvillus 
scarcely longer than the second. 

Length 9 mm. ; pronotum, 11 mm. ; hind femur, 6 mm. 

BURMA : Bhamo, Rangoon, Karen Hills ; JAVA. 



Group VI. BATRACHIDIIN1. 

One genus only is represented within the geographical limits of 
this work. 



Genus SAUS8URELLA. 

i 

" PP- 



Saussurella, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. xxxi, 3887, pp. 189, 19G, 
303; Hancock, Gen. Ins., Orth. Tetrig. 1906, pp. 67, 72. 

TTPE, Acridium ( Tettix) cormitum, De Haan. 

Range. The Indian Region. 

Body granulose. Vertex broad, convex, but not spiny, shortly 
carinated on each side near the eyes, face slightly oblique ; frontal 
costa depressed, slightly raised between the antennae, and suddenly 
depressed between the eyes, very broadly sulcate, with the carinae 
nearly parallel ; antennae inserted between the eyes, which are 
slightly prominent; palpi moderately compressed. Pronotum 
produced in front above the head, with a straight median carina : 
produced behind beyond the hind femora, the deflexed lobes 
Insinuated behind, with the lower sinus arched. Tegmina ovate ; 
wings perfectly developed. Femora multicarinate ; front femora 
above sulcated, intermediate femora mucronate at the tip, hind 
femora slender, with the cnrinse serrulated ; the femoral spine 
small, the genicular spine moderately produced ; hind tarsi with 
the carinae nearly parallel and equally spinose, and with the first 
and third joints of equal length. 



SAUSSURELLA. 



79 



Key to the Species. 



1 (2) Front of pvonotum straight 

2 (1) Front of pronotum ending in a decurved 



process 



cucullifera, Walk. 
decurva, Brunn. 



83. Saussurella cucullifera, Walk. 

Tettix cucullifera, Walker, Cat. Derm. Salt. B.M. v, 1871, p. 829. 
Saussurella cornuta, Bolivar (nee De Haan), Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 

xxxi, 1887, pp. 189, 303 ; Brunner, Ann. Mus. Geneva, xxxiii, 1893, 

p. 113, pi. v, fig. 45. 

Eeddish grey, vertex twice as broad as the eye, but entirely 

covered by the pronotum, on 
the sides of which the pro- 
minent eyes are conspicuous ; 
antennae rather long and slen- 
der, filiform, inserted between 
the eyes ; the frontal carina 
slightly projecting between 
the antennae. Pronotum pro- 
jecting rather beyond the eyes 
in front, where it is obtusely 
pointed, and extending be- 
hind, where it is more gra- 
dually and acutely pointed, 
beyond the abdomen and the 
hind femora ; strongly ridged, 
and the median carinae con- 
tinuous and slightly raised 
between the shoulders, the 
sides and hind part of the 
pronotum being somewhat, depressed ; the surface appears finely 
pubescent. Tegmina black, with pale bands ; wings hyaline, 
fawn-coloured along the costa. Legs unicolorous, except that the 
knees of the middle and hind legs, and the terminal joints of the 
tarsi, are black. 

Length 13-16 mm. ; hind femur, 6-4-8 mm. ; exp. of wings, 
22 mm. 

BORMA : Pegu, Palon ; CHINA : Amoy, Hong Kong. 
Type in the British Museum (from Amoy). 
Confounded by authors with Acridiwn ( Tettix) cornutum, De 
Haan, from Java and Borneo ; but in that species the frontal pro- 
jection of the pronotum is longer and more slender than in 
S. cucullifera, and there is a conspicuous yellow spot on the hind 
femora. 

84. Saussurella decurva, Brunn. 

Saussurella decurva, Brunner, Ann. Mus. Genova, xxxiii, 1893, 
p. 113, pi. v, fig. 46. 

Larger than the last species, with the frontal extremity of the 




Fig. 71. SaussureUa cucullifera. 



EUMASTACINjE. 



pronotum longer, more slender and hooked downwards at the tip, 
and the lateral lobes more produced externally. 

Length, pronotum, 19 mm.; hind femur, 8 mm. 

BURMA : Palon. 



Subfamily II. EUMASTACIN^. 

Key to the Groups. 

1 (4) Frontal costa between the antennae 

smooth, more or less dilated. 

2 (3) Pronotum tectiform and foliaceous ; 

hind femora dilated and com- 

pressed ...................... Xiphicerini, p. 80. 

3 (2) Pronotum with the back smooth ; 

hind femora not dilated ........ Erianthini, p. 86. 

4 (1) Frontal costa narrow, subsulcated. 

5 (6) Antennae generally long, more or 

less clavate .................. Gomphomastacini, p. 93. 

6 (5) Antenna? shorter than the front 

femora, not clavate ............ Eruciini, p. 94. 

Group I. XIPHICERINI. 

Key to the Genera. 

(4) Front smooth or granulated. 

Hind tibia lobate ; wings caudate . . XIPHICERA, p. 80. 

3 (2) Hind tibiae not lobate; wings not 

caudate ...................... PHYLLOCHOREIA, p. 82. 

4 (1) Front rugose, with raised tubercles. 

5 (6) Pronotum shorter than the height of 

the head and not covering it; 
teginina obliquely truncate at ex- 
tremity ...................... SCIUTOTYPUS, p. 84. 

6 (5) Pronotum longer than the height 

of the head, and covering the 
fastigium of the vertex ; tegmina 
lanceolate at extremity .......... ORCHETYPUS, p. 84. 



1 (4) 

2 (3) 



Genus XIPHICERA. 

Xiphicera, Lamarck, Anim. s-ins Vertebres, iv, 1817, p. 243. 
Xyphicera, Latreille, Cuv. Regne Anim. (ed. 2) v, 1829, p. 186. 
Chorotypus, Serville, Ins. Orth. 1839, p. 751. 
CJioroetypus, De Haan, Temminck, Verhandel. Orth. 1842, p. 164. 

TYPE, Gryllus gallinaceus, F. 

Eange. India, Singapore, Java, Borneo. 

Head perpendicular or slightly oblique ; eyes long, oval, approxi- 
mating above, front raised above the eyes into an obtuse or 
slightly bifid point directed forwards ; antennae short, 12-jointed. 



XIPHICERA. 81 

Prothorax greatly compressed and foliaceous, covering the head 
and a great part of the abdomen. Tegmina coriaceous, pointed 
at the tip, with the hind margin oblique ; rather shorter than the 
wings, which are hyaline, with brown tips and margins ; tip 
pointed, hind margin with a deep concavity below. Abdomen 
compressed, with a strong middle carina. Legs compressed, 
carinated, hind femora strongly serrated, hind tibia? laminated 
and spinose above, and first joint of tarsi serrated beneath. 

Key to the Species. 

Pronotum uniform brown rugifrons, sp. n. 

Pronotum with a vitreous spot feneatrata, Serv. 

[85. Xiphicera rugifrons, WaterJiouse, sp. nov.* 

5 . Bather dark brown, the back of the head, the lateral lobes 
of the pronotum, and the lower part of the posterior femora some- 
what paler. Head flat in front, with numerous rugulae, two of 
which start at a short distance front the front margin and diverge 
to the anterior angles. Pronotum finely asperate. Tegmina 




V 



Fig. 72. Xiphicera rugifrons. 

narrow, reticulate, obliquely truncate at the apex. Wings ex- 
tending a short distance beyond the tegmina, transparent smoky- 
yellow, the costa near the apex and the apex itself dark brown r 
strongly arcuate towards the apex, and then sinuate, with a deep 
rectangular incision behind, so that the apex is caudiform. Front 
femora very broad ; the intermediate ones less so. Posterior 
femora with seven acute teeth on the upper carina. 

Length 33 mm. 

CEYLON. 

Type in the British Museum.] 

86. Xiphicera fenestrata, Serv. 

Choreotypus fenestratus, Serville, Ins. Orth. 1839, p. 753. 

Uniform dead-leaf colour. Thorax with well-marked oblique 
lateral nervures, its front edge vertical and the upper extremity 
produced into a point over the head. A perfectly round vitreous 
spot about the middle of the side of the pronotum. 

Length 20-22 mm. 

[*A figure of this species had been prepared by Mr. Kirby, but he had not 
named or described it. C. O. W.] 



82 ETTJIASTACIN^. 

BENGAL. 

Type in the Paris Museum. 

I am very doubtful as to the identification of this species ; 
and I should not be surprised if Choreotypus fenestratus proved 
to be a species of Phyllochoreia. 

Genus PHYLLOCHOREIA 

Phyltochoreia, Westwood, Mag. Nat. Hist. n. s. iii, 1839, p. 495. 
TYPE, Phyllochoreia unicolor, Westw. 

Range. India, Ceylon, Borneo. 

Body greatly compressed. Face perpendicular, pointed and 
sometimes slightly curved forward above, broader below than 
above. Antennae short and slender, with distinct joints, the t\vo 
basal joints thicker. Pronotum raised into a high leaf-like 
expansion, truncated in front, or slightly curved forward over 
the head, triangularly produced behind, and overshadowing more 
or less of the abdomen. Tegmina and wings more or less abbre- 
viated, not caudate. Prosternum not spined. Legs long, simple ; 
hind femora thickened, hind tibiae curved, hind tarsi 3-jointed, 
the first joint undulated beneath ; arolium between the claws very 
large. 

Key to the Species. 

1 (2) Dorsal carina of pronotum nearly 

straight, slightly depressed beyond 

the middle unicolor. Westw., p. 82. 

2 (1) Dorsal carina of pronotum regularly 

arched. 

3 (4) Tegmina rather broad, lanceolate . . equa, Burr, p. 83. 

4 (3) Tegmina very narrow, obliquely 

truncated at the extremities asina, Burr, p. 83. 

87. Phyllochoreia unicolor, Westw. 

Phyllochoreia unicolor, Westwood, Mag. Nat. Hist. n. s. iii, 1839, 
p. 495, and p. 492, fig. 6 ; Saussure, Rev. Suisse Zool. xi, 1903, 
pp. 55, 58, 

Phyllochoreia sulcata, Saussure, Rev. Suisse Zool, xi, 1903, 
pp. 55, 59. 

Browu. Antennas 14-jointed ; head finely granulated, the 




Fig. 73. Phyllochoreia unicolor. 
summit pointed, when seen in profile ; a slender black line 



PHYLLOCHOBEIA. 83 

running from the eyes to the mandihle. Pronotum finely granu- 
lated, the dorsal carina nearly straight and slightly depressed 
beyond the middle, extending nearly to the apex of the abdomen. 
Tegmina and wings moderately broad, slightly pointed at the 
extremity, and about as long as the pronotura, which is only 
slightly shorter than the abdomen. Hind tibiae greenish. 

Length 29-32 mm. 

MADRAS : Malabar. 

Type in the Oxford Museum ; that of P. sulcata in the British 
Museum. 

88. Phyllochoreia equa, Burr. 

Phyttochoreia equa, Burr, Ann. Soc. Espaii. xxviii, 1899, p. 301. 
Phyllochoreia cequa, Saussure, Rev. Suisse Zool. xi, 1903, pp. 55, 56, 
pi. iii, fig. 2. 

Green or ochreous. Antennas 10-jointed ; head narrowed 
and rather pointed above, very broad below the eyes, with a short: 
black line on each side near the lower end of the face. Pronotal 
crest more or less projecting roundly over the head, regularly 
arched above, and extending nearly to the middle of the abdomen. 
Tegmina rather broadly pointed at the extremity, with a row of 
6-8 long black spots in the discoidal area. Wings subhyaline, 




Fig. 74. Phyllochoreia equa. 

straight, parallel, rounded at the extremity. Hind femora broad, 
much compressed, denticulated above; hind tibiae slender, with 
the upper carinae closely denticulated. 

Length : $ 26-44 mm., <$ 16 mm. 

CEYLON. 

Type in the Oxford Museum. 

89. Phyllochoreia asina, Burr. 

Phyllochoreia asina, Burr, Ann. Soc. Espan. xxviii, 1899, pp. 301, 
302. 

Pale testaceous. Front smooth. Pronotum with the front 
angles rounded, the crest not much arched, its hinder angle acute, 
with the hind margin obliquely truncated. Hind femora much 

G2 



84 . EUMASTACIX.E. 

compressed. Tegmina rather narrow, projecting beyond the hind 
femora, and dark at the tip. 

Length 13 mm. 

CEYLOX: Hambantota. 

Type in the Oxford Museum. 

Genus SCIRTOTYPUS. 

Scirtotypus, Brunner von "Wattenwyl, Abb. Senckenb. Ges. xxiv, 
1898, pp. 216, 220 ; Burr, Gen. Ins., Orth. Eumast. 1903, pp. 3, 4. 

TrPE, Scirtotypus aberrans, Brunn. 

Range. Ceylon, Borneo, ~\V. Africa. 

Fastigium of the vertex obtuse, but the occiput raised behind 
it, and obtusely pointed and carinated. Prouotum closely granu 
lated, shorter than the height of the head, with the crest raised 
and serrulated. Tegmina broader towards the extremity, and 
obliquely truncated ; wings shorter than the tegmina. All the 
femora much compressed and dilated, with the hind pair serrated 
above ; hind tibiae armed above with large spines, and with a 
large triangular lobe near the base. Valves of the ovipositor 
smooth. 

90. Scirtotypus greeni, Burr. 

Scirtotypus greeni, Burr, Ann. Soc. Espaii. xxviii, 1899, pp. 99, 100. 

cf . Brown. Fastigium of the vertex perpendicular, truncated 
at the tip. Pronotum compressed, strongly crested, with the 
dorsal carina oblique in front, and strongly excavated behind, 
with the hind margin acuminate, with the point in the form of a 
hook. Tegmina narrow, parallel-sided, obtusely truncated, brown 
at the base, then hyaline; tip brown, with a hyaline spot towards 
the extremity of the inner margin. Wings longer than the 
tegmina, with the tips brown and caudate. All the femora much 
compressed, with the upper carina denticulated ; hind tibiae sub- 
sinuate, lobate, with the lobes not denticulated, brown, with 
indistinct pale rings, and the spines with pale markings. Abdomen 
compressed, carinated ; cerci short, conical, incurved ; subgenital 
lamina short. 

Length 9'75 mm. ; pronotum, 2*75 mm. ; tegmina, 10 mm. ; 
hind femur, 9 mm. 

CEYLON: Pundaluoya. 

Type in the Oxford Museum. 

Genus ORCHETYPUS. 

Orchetyirus, Brunner, Abb. Senckenb. Ges. xxiv, 1898, pp. 216, 220'; 
Burr, Gen. Ins., Orth. Eumast. 1903, pp. 3, 5. 

TYPE, Orchetypus subti-uncatus, Bruun. 



ORCHETYPUS. 85 

Range. Ceylon, Congo. 

Characters of Scirtotypus, but the front rugose and the pro- 
noturn less strongly so, and with some obsolete nervures ; tegmina 
lanceolate, shorter than the wings. Ovipositor with the lower 
valves serrulated. 

Key to the Species. 

1 (2) Dorsal carina strongly excavated before 

the extremity .* subtnmcatus, Bruiiu. 

2 (1) Dorsal carina not strongly excavated before 

the extremity. 

3 (4) Dorsal carina regularly rounded rotundatus, Brunn. 

4 (3) Dorsal carina arched in front and depressed 

behind ceylonicus, Karsch. 

91. Orchetypus rotundatus, Brunn. 

Orchetypus rotundatus, Brunner, Abh. Senckenb. Ges. xxiv, 1898, 
pp. 216, 220. 

Crest of the pronotum regularly rounded. 

Length 30 mm. ; prouotum, 13 mm. 

CEYLON. 

Type in the collection of Brunner von Wattemvyl. 

92. Orchetypus ceylonicus, Karsch. 

Choroetypus ceylonicus, Karsch, Ent. Nadir, xv, 1889, p. 8 ; Burr, 

Ann. Soc. Espan. xxviii, 1899, p. 300. 
Orchetypus ceylonicus, Saussure, Kev. Suisse Zool. xi, 1903, p. 73, 

pi. iii, fig. 6. 

Yellowish green, with brown markings. Antennae filiform, with 
the joints longer than broad ; front very rugose ; fastigium of 
the vertex truncated at the extremity. Dorsal carina of the 
pronotum arched in front, and depressed behind, with the hind 
margin sinuated. Tegmina rounded behind, not extending beyond 
the abdomen. All the femora strongly foliaceously dilated ; hind 
tibiae Avith a terminal foliaceous lobe. Terminal appendages with 
the tips hooked in opposite directions ; the upper valves strongly 
dentated above, and the lower ones below. 

Length 26-28 mm. ; tegmina, 19 mm. ; hind femur, 13 mm. ; 
height of pronotum, 11*5 mm. ; greatest breadth of tegmina, 

5 mm. 
CEYLON. 

Type in the Berlin Museum. 

93. Orchetypus subtruncatus, Brunn. 

Orchetypus subtnmcatus, Brunner, Abh. Senckeub. Ges. xxiv, 1899, 
p. 221, pi. xvii, fig. 28. 

Crest of prouotum rounded and almost pointed in front, with 
the apical third deeply excavated. 



86 EOI A STAGING. 

Length 32 inm. ; prouotum, 12 mm. 

CEYLON. 

Type in the collection of Brunner von Wattenwyl. 



Group II. ERIANTHINL 
Key to Hie Genera. 

Fastigium of the vertex raised; vertex viewed 

from the front acuminate or bifid ERIAXTHUS, p. 86. 

Fastigium of the vertex horizontal ; vertex 

viewed from the front truncate BENMA, p. 91 . 

Genus ERIANTHUS. 

Erianthus, StSl, Bih. Svensk. Akad. Handl. iii (14), 1875, p. 36 ; 
Brunner, Abh. Senckenb. Ges. xxiv, 1898, p. 221 ; Burr, Gen. 
Ins., Orth. Eumast. 1903, pp. 6, 7 ; Saussure, Rev. Suisse Zool. 
xi, 1903, pp. 75, 77. 

TYPE, Mastax guttata, Westw. 

Range. The Indo-Malayan Region. 

Fastigium of the vertex erect, tapering, with the tip straight or 
slightly reflexed, and obtuse ; front flattened, rugose, with a 
smooth dilated ridge between the antennae. Pronotum smooth, 
slightly raised, truncated in front, obtusely produced behind, and 
longitudinally carinated. Tegmina narrow, broader toAvards the 
extremity, with a few veins, and more or less subhyaline. "Wings 
triangular, subhyaline, not longer than the tegmina. Femora 
slightly compressed, carinated above, and produced into a tooth 
behind ; hind femora slender, serrated above ; hind tibiae with 
from 20-25 equal spines on the inner carina, and 25 on the outer ; 
first joint of hind tarsi sulcated above, and dentated on the outer 
carina. Abdomen with the eighth segment expanded in the male, 
and the anal appendages very large ; in the female bifid at the 
extremity, and grooved on each side ; lower valves with the basal 
plates smooth and punctured, and the upper border dilated. 

Key to the Species. 

1 (4) Vertex bifid or (in a supposed variety 

of the male) truncate. 

2 (3) Wings of ordinary form affinis, "Westw., p. 87. 

3 (2) Wings strongly sinuated apically, the 

apex itself very acute bifidus, sp. n., p. 87. 

4 (1) Vertex not bifid. 

5 (8) Vertex pointed, subreflexed. [p. 89. 

6 (7) Tegmina acutely pointed acutipennis, Snuss., 

7 (6) Tegmina obtuse'ly pointed yuttatus, Westw., p. 88. 

8 (5) Vertex more or less rounded. 

9 (10) Wings brown lut/ubris, Brunn., p. 89. 

10 (9) Wings more or less yellowish hyaline. 



EBIANTHUS. 87 

11 (12) Tegmina brown, with or without 

whitish spots defioratm, Brunn., p. 89. 

1-2 (13) Tegmina pale. [p. 90. 

13 (14) Tegmina hyaline, unspotted fa<mbertianus,S&uss., 

14 (13) Tegmina spotted. 

15 (16) Tegmina with two hyaline spots flavipes, Sausa., p. 90. 

16 (15) Tegmina with one hyaline spot .... birmanicus, Sauss., p. 90. 



94. Erianthus affinis, Westw. 

Mastax affinis, Westwood, Arcana Ent. ii, 1843, p. 54, note. 
Erianthus aeuticarinatus, Brunner, Ann. Mus. Geneva, xxxiii, 1893, 

p. 117, pi. v, fig. 48; Saussure, Rev. Suisse Zool. xi, 1903, 

pp. 78, 80, pi. iii, fig. 11. 

Brown, inclining to rufous, Pastigium of the vertex erect, 
very broad, and more or less bifid at the extremity. Pronotura 

rugose, with a high irregular 
median. cariiia. Tegmina 
with ferruginous network, the 
spaces between subhyaline, 
especially above the prin- 
cipal nervure, and an oblique 
whitish stripe at about four- 
fifths of the inner margin, 
running towards the tip. 
AVings fulvo - hyaline, with 
ferruginous nervures, and a 
narrow brown hind margin. 
Abdomen ferruginous brown, 

'.; ,';' especially at the extremity. 

The upper appendages of the 

Fig. 75. Erianthus affinis. female are finely serrated, not 

coarsely and irregularly, as in 

Saussure's figure, and the lower appendages have three small 
teeth before the extremity. The male has a small white spot 
towards the apex of the tegmina. Femora blackish, strongly 
compressed and laminate-carinate above and below ; hind femora 
with three white bands, and the upper carina terminating in a 
sharp triangular tooth. 

Length 25-32 mm. ; exp. of tegmina, 35-48 mm. 
ASSAM : Sylhet ; BURMA : Teinzo. 

Type in the Oxford Museum ; that of acuticarinatus in the 
Genoa Museum. 



95. Erianthus foifidns, sp. nov. 

Dark brown, with the carinae of the face pale, and the legs 
with rather indistinct pale spots. Vertex almost perpendicularly 
raised between the eyes, and slightly notched at the extremity ; 




88 



pronotum strongly ridged, 
rectangular beyond the 
middle, and pointed behind. 
Tegmina slightly widened 
towards the apex, and trun- 
cated at the tip, hyaline, 
broadly brown along the lon- 
gitudinal nervures, brownish 
towards the base, and with 
the outer third brown, 
marked with two or three 
irregular hyaline spots. 
Wings transparent, with the 
tip very acute and brown. 
Front femora broadened and 
flattened ; hind femora 
strongly serrated above ; 
hind tibiae with a large 
triangular excrescence near 
the base, and with numerous short spines, interrupted by a few 
longer ones ; the legs are black, with paler spots, and the tibial 

spines are mostly black, but 
the appendage and the 
spines placed on the pale 
spaces are pale. Antennae 
short, the basal half whitish, 
except the second joint which 
is black ; the outer half is 
brown. 

Length 15 mm. ; expanse 
Fig. 77. Erianthus bifidus (larva). 




Fig. 76. Erianthus bijidit 




Type in the British Museum. 
Taken 



o f tegmina, 25 mm. 
CEYLON : Kandy. 



October. 



26th July, 1910: also larvae in June, July, and 



96. Erianthus guttatus, Westw. 

Mastax yuttata, Westwood, Arcana Ent. i, 1841, p. 100, pi. xxvi, 

fig. 3. 
Erianthus quttatus, Brunner, Abb. Senckenb. Ges. xxiv, 1898, 

pp. 222, 223. 
Erianthus versicolor, Brunner, op. cit. pp. 222, 224. 

Blackish, face and head below the eyes more or less yellow. 
Fastigium of the vertex erect, pointed ; antennae thickened in 
the male, filiform in the female. Pronotum nearly smooth, with 
a slight median carina, and obtusely angulated behind ; the sides 
broadly and the extremity narrowly yellow. Tegmina brown, the 
interspaces subhyaline, and two large white spots, one on the 
costa near the tip and the other at five-sixths of the length 



EHIANTHUS. 89 

of the hind margin ; hind margin regularly oblique. Wings 
hyaline, clouded towards the extremities. Abdomen much 
thickened before the extremity, and the lower valves in the 
female thick and strongly recurved. 

Length 17-18 mm. ; expanse of tegmina, 32-42 mm. 

BURMA : Karen Hills, Pegu ; MALAY STATES : Singapore ; 
CAMBODIA; SUMATRA; PHILIPPINES. 

Type in the British Museum ; that of E. versicolor in the 
collection of Brunner von Wattenwyl. 

Westwood does not mention, nor represent in his figure, 
the yellow borders of the pronoturn. 

97. Eriantlms lugubris, Brunn. 



Erianthus lugubris, Brunner, Abh. Senckenb. Ges. xxiv, 1898, 
pp. 222, 225 ; Saussure, Rev. Suisse Zool. xi. 1903, pp. 78, 83. 

Olive-brown, face and under surface pale yellow. Fastigium 
of the vertex short, obtuse. Pronotum rounded at the tip, and 
sharply carinated above. Tegmina narrow . parallel-sided, uniform 
chestnut-brown ; wings blackish, with white spots and markings 
towards the tip, or brownish hyaline, with blackish white-spotted 
tips . 

Length 30 mm., tegmina, 17-21 mm. 

SlKKIM. 

98. Erianthus defloratus, Brunn. 

Erianthus defloratus, Brunner, Ann. Mus. Geneva, xxxiii, 1893, 
p. 116; id., Abh. Senckenb. Ges. xxiv, 1898, pp. 222, 224; 
Saussure, Rev. Suisse Zool. xi, 1903, pp. 78, 81. 

Chestnut-brown, face olive, sides of pronotum often yellowish. 
Fastigium of the vertex obtuse, carinated. Median carina of 
pronotum acute, but not lobate. Tegmina brown, more or less 
subhyaline towards the base, and with or without a subhyaline 
spot at three-quarters of the inner margin ; wings yellowish. 
Hind femora unspotted. 

Length 18 mm. ; tegmina, 19 mm. 

BURMA : Bhamo. 

Type in the Genoa Museum. 

99. Erianthus acutipennis, Sauss. 

Erianthus acutipennis, Saussure, Rev. Snisse Zool. xi, 1903, p. 78, 
pi. iii, fig. 8. 

Uniform chestnut-brown. Fastigium of the vertex raised, 
rather pointed, rugose in front. Pronotum strongly carinated, 
rectangular and truncated behind. Tegmina hooked and pointed 
at the tip, with two hyaline spots. Wings yellowish hyaline, 
darker towards the extremity, with two hyaline spots : the hind 



90 EUMASTACIIO;. 

margin slightly sinuated, and the tip pointed. Hind femora with 
brown and pale bands on the inner surface and beneath ; the 
upper margin denticulated and the tip with a long hook ; hind 
tibiae obscurely banded with yellow. 

Length 31 mm. ; tegmina, 22 mm. 

ASSAM : Khasi Hills. 

Type in the Geneva Museum. 

100. Erianthus flavipes, Saws. 

Erianthus Jlavipes, Saussure, Eev. Suisse Zool. xi. 1903. pp. 78, 79, 
pi. iii, fig. 10. 

Chestnut-brown or reddish. Pastigium of the vertex rounded, 
cheeks rugose-punctate ; face yellow to the vertex. Prouotum 
carinulated, not pointed in front. Tegmiua pale chestnut, sub- 
hyaline, with two pale spots ; obliquely truncated before the tip. 
Wings narrow, golden-hyaline. Pour front legs concolorous ; 
hind femora pale yellow, the tip narrowly black, and the base 
brownish. 

Length 28 mm.; tegmina, 23 mm. 

BURMA : Karen Hills. 

Type in the Geneva Museum. 

101 . Erianthus birmanicus, Sauss. 

Erianthus lirmanicus, Saussure, Rev. Suisse Zool. xi, 1903, pp. 78, 
82, pi. iii, tig. 12. 

Head olive; fastigium of the vertex parallel-sided, truncated 
at the tip, slightly arched, as is also the occiput. Pronotum 
black, with a slightly crested and nearly straight carina. Tegmina 
narrow, subhyaline chestnut, with one hyaline spot at one-third of 
the length of the inner margin. Wings yellowish hyaline. Front 
legs slender, hind femora yellowish, more or less trifasciate with 
black ; tibiae and tarsi and abdomen above yellow. 

Length 17'5 mm. ; tegmina, 18'5 mm. 

BURMA : Bhamo. 

Type in the Geneva Museum. 

102. Erianthus humbertianus, Sauss. 

Erianthus humbertianus, Saussure, Rev. Suisse Zool. xi, 1903, 
pp. 78, 83, pi. iii, fig. 9. 

Chestnut, varied with yellow. Head rather large, face broad ; 
front between the antennae broad, scutellum rather broader than 
long, foveolate ; fastigium of the vertex short, quadrate, sub- 
convex, broadly truncated at the tip. Pronotum saddle-shaped, 
carinulate. Tegmina very narrow, rounded at the tip, sub- 
hyaline, with brown nervures, and finely spotted with brown 
at the tip. Wings hyaline, rounded and slightly brownish at 



BEXNIA. 91 

the tips. Legs rather thick ; front femora scarcely dilated, hind 
femora not banded with black ; tibiae with four yellow rings ; 
tarsi yellow. 

Length 26'5 mm. ; tegmina, 21 mm. 

CEYLON. 

Type in the Geneva Museum. 



Genus BENNIA. 

Bennia, Burr, Ann. Soc. Espafi. xxviii, 1899, pp. 88, 94, 106 ; id., 
Gen. Ins., Orth. Eumast, 1903, pp. 6, 9. 

TYPE, Mastax innotata, Walk. 

Range. Yunnan, Bhutan. 

Fastigium of the vertex projecting horizontally beyond the 
eye, and truncated at the extremity ; eyes very large, oval, 
and prominent ; antenna subclavate ; face with lateral carinse 
curved inwards at the eyes, middle carinse moderately divergent, 
but united at the extremities. 

Key to the Species. 

Tegmina not spotted at base innotata, Walk. 

Tegmina spotted with brown at base oberthuri, Bol. 

103. Bennia innotata, Walk. 

Mastax innotata, Walker, Cat. Derm. Salt. B.M. v, Stippl. 1871, 

p. 88. 

Bennia innotata, Burr, Ann. Soc. Espafi. Hist. Xat. xxviii, 1899, 
p. 106 . 

[Ferruginous, slender. Head elongate, obliquely but abruptly 
ascending ; tip of vertex conical, prominent, slightly bilobed". 
Face long, oblique, with four well-defined keels ; inner keels 

forming the frontal costa con- 
verging and meeting at a 
short distance from the cly- 
peus ; antennae black, short, 
pale at the base ; eyes ellip- 
tical, prominent. Prothorax 
short, widened posteriorly, 
with a slight median carina. 
Posterior femora as long as 
the abdomen ; tibiae slender, 
piceous, a little longer than 
the femora ; spines small. 

Fig. 73. Bennia innotata. Tegmina narrow, very slightly 

infuscate, hyaline, with two 

pale spots near the apex, the anterior one very small, the posterior 
one occupying six or eight of the cells. Wings slightly paler 




92 EUMASTACINJE. 

than the teginina, transparent ; the apical half of the costal 
margin dark brown. 

Length 14 mm. ; pronoturn, 3 mm. ; tegmina, 20 inin. ; posterior 
femur, 8 mm.] 



Type in the British Museum. 

104. Bennia oberthuri, Bol 

Bennia oberthuri, Bolivar, Bol. Soc. Espaii. iii, 1903, p. -303. 

[Olivaceous. Head reddish, striped with fuscous behind the 
eyes ; eyes red, variegated with yellow. Pronotum rugulose, 
anterior margin somewhat reflexed, median carina narrow, slightly 
compressed, posterior margin obtuse-angular ; the deflexed lobes 
posteriorly distinctly higher, lower margin sinuate. Tegmina of 
male scarcely projecting beyond the apex of the hind femora, 
fuscous, with the veins olivaceous, the base spotted with fuscous ; 
those of the female not reaching the apex of the femora. Wings 
of male obscurely fuscous, those of the female spotted with 
yellow. Posterior tibia3 reddish. 

LengtJt, <$ , body 20; pron. 2-8 ; tegui. 16 : fern. post. 12 mm. 
2, ,, 81; 4; ,, 16; ,. 16 

BBITISH BHUTAN : Maria Basti. 

Dr. Bolivar states (I. c.) that he has had this species in his 
collection under the manuscript generic name of Butania, but not 
being satisfied that it is distinct from Bennia, Burr, which is 
imperfectly defined, he adopts Bennia pending further investiga- 
tion, and gives the following characters of his species : 

" Fastigium verticis dimidia longitudine oculi muito brevius 
obtusum, subhorizontaliter product urn, antice truncation. Occiput 
obtuse carinatum. Frons valde obliqua, elongata. Costa fron- 
talis ante apicem abbreviata, ante ocellum subcoarctata, inter 
antennas ampliata atque deplanata ; carinis lateralibus fronte prope 
oculos fractis. Oculi elongati. Antenna breves. Pronotum in 
modum generuni Eupatridem constructum. Elytra apicem fe- 
morum posticorum baud vel vix superantia apicem versus indis- 
tincte ampliata apice oblique rotundato-truncata. Ala3 haud 
cycloideae, fuscse, parte antica apice rotundata. Femora compressa, 
carinis haud dilatatis. Femora postica elongata parum pone 
medium filiformia, supra carinis duabis denticulatis, subtus carina 
media rnutica. Tibiae posticac superne carina exterua spinulis 
parvis aeque longis, carina interna spinis longioribus inaequalibus 
numero 20-22 arrnata. Metatarsus posticus superne carinis 
ambobus denticulatis. Abdomen J apice valde clavatum. Val- 
vula3 superiores ovipositoris elongata) serrulatae ; inferiores grosse 
dentate."J 



GOMPHOMASTAX. 93 

Group III. GOMPHOMASTACINI. 

Genus GOMPHOMASTAX. 

Gompohmasta.i; Brunner, Abh. Senckenb. Ges. xxiv, Mav 1898, 
p. 232 ; Burr, Ann. Soc. Espan. xxviii, 1899, pp. 89, 94, 107 ; id., 
Gen. Ins., Orth. Eumast. 1903, p. 9; Jacobs & Bianchi, Prem. 
Loz. Ross. Imp. 1902, pp. 164, 175, 211. 

Parerudus, Krauss, Ann. Mus. Zool. Pe"tersb. iii, June 1898, p. 108. 

TYPE, Gomphomastax antennatus, Brunn. 

Range. N.W. India, Central Asia. 

Body slender. Frontal costa narrow between the antenna?, 
deeply sulcated, and produced to the labrum. Antennae half as 
long as the head, with distinct joints, and more or less clavate. 
Pronotum short, subimpressed, with a median carina, and trun- 
cated behind. Tegmina and wings wanting. Anal segment 
narrow in the male ; supra-anal lamina triangular, sulcated ; 
subgenital lamina large and rounded. In the female the upper 
valves are crenulated, and the lower ones armed with a few teeth. 
Legs slender ; as long as the abdomen in the female ; longer in 
the male. 

Key to the Species. 

Antennse nearly as long as the body, strongly 

thickened antennatus, Brunn. 

Antennse half as long as the body, slightly 

thickened ". constrictus, Brunn. 



105. Gomphomastax antennatiis, Brunn. 

Gomphomastax antennutus, Brunner, Abh. Senckenb. Ges. xxiv, 
1898, p. 232, pi. xviii, fig. 34; Jacobs & Bianchi, Prem. Loz. 
Ross. Imp. 1902, pp. 175, 212. 

Testaceous brown. Antennae nearly as long as the body, 
clavate at the tips. Pronotum slightly compressed, olive-brown, 
banded with black on each side, and a black band interrupted ' by 
an oblique pale line on the first segment of the abdomen. 

Length 15 mm. ; pronotum, 2 mm. ; hind femur, 12 mm. 

KASHMIE. 

Type in the collection of Brunner von "Wattenwyl. 

106. Gomphomastax constrictus, Brunn. 

Gomphomastax constrictus, Brunner, Abh. Senckenb. Ges. xxiv, 
1898, p. 233. 

Antennse scarcely half as long as the body, slightly thickened 
towards the tips. Pronotum rugose, with the deflexed lobes 
black, and the interior margin pale. 

Length 11 mm. ; pronotum, 2 mm.; hind femur, 9 mm. 

PUNJAB. 

Type in the collection of Brunner von Wattenwyl. 



94 EUMASTACIXJE. 

Group IV. ERUCIINI. 

Genus MASTACIDES. 

Mastacides, Burr, Ann. Soc. Espafi. xxviii, 1899, pp. 89, 94, 111 ; 
id., Gen. Ins., Orth. Eumast. 1903, pp. 10, 11 ; Bolivar, Ann. Soc. 
Ent. France, Ixx, 1902, p. 086 ; Saussure, Rev. Suisse Zool. xi 
1903, p. 86. 

TYPE, Mastacideg pupceformis, Burr. 

Range. South India. 

Head obliquely ascending; frontal ridge between the antennae 
very narrow, sulcated ; fastigium of the vertex very slightly 
raised, front sloping, carinated ; antennae very short ; eyes round, 
prominent. Pronotum truncated in front, with a very slight median 
carina indented behind. Tegmina rudimentary, wings wanting. 
All the femora thickened ; the four front tibiae with three small 
spines ou each side ; hind femora slightly denticulated above, 
first joint of hind tarsi spiny on the outer margin. Abdomen 
slender, carinated, with the last segment expanded in the male into 
a large subgenital lamina ; the supra-anal lamina lobate. In the 
female the upper and lower laminae are long, slender, and entire. 

Key to the Species. 

1 (4) Vertex simple. 

2 (3) Carinze of vertex slightly raised .... pupceformis, Burr, p. 94. 

3 (2) Carinae of vertex not raised pterolepis, Burr, p. 95. 

4 (1) Vertex with two slight elevations . . vaginalis, Sauss., p. 95. 

107. Mastacides pupaeformis, Burr. 

Mastacides pupaformis, Burr, Ann. Soc. Espafi. xxviii, 1899, pp. 89, 
91, 112; Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, Ixx, 1902, p. 587, 
pi. ix, fig. 27. 

Pubescent, green, front yellow. Carina of the vertex slightly 
raised ; eyes black ; antennae reddish, except the basal joint. 
Pronotum with the outer margin slightly waved. Tegmina very 
narrow, as long as the metanotum, yellow, with or without a 
brown line. Hind femora reddish on the inner side ; hind tibi 
very narrow, pilose, with black-tipped spines ; first joint of hind 
tarsi spined on the inner side only. Abdomen with the last dorsal 
segment deeply cleft in the male, and divided into two lobes 
sinuated on their inner side ; supra-anal lamina of the male 
large, broad, oblong, sinuated on both sides at the tip, and sul- 
cated in the middle ; in the female it is lanceolate ; subgeuital 
lamina in male large, cucullated, with the hind margin truncated, 
turned up and thickened ; subgenital lamina of female deeply 
excised. 

Length 12-16 mm. ; pronotum, 1*8-2 mm. : hind femur, 9- 
10 ram. 

MADRAS : Kodaikanal. 

Type in the collection of Dr. Bolivar. 



MASTACIDES. 95 

108. Mastacides pterolepis, Burr. 

Mastacides pterolepis, Burr, Ann. Soc. Espafi. xxviii, 1889, pp. 89, 
111, 112; Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, Ixx, 1902, p. 588, 
pi. ix, fig. 28. 

Greenish, front yellow. Fastigium of the vertex scarcely raised 
above the eyes, with the margins scarcely thickened ; eyes very 
prominent. Tegmina very short, like yellow scales, only extend- 
ing to the hind border of: the mesonotum. Last dorsal segment 
of the abdomen in the male broadly and semicircularly sinuated, 
with the lateral angles sharply produced, and the median sinus 
bidentate. Supra-anal lamina broadly longitudinally carinated in 
the middle, and lanceolate in the female. Subgenital lamina 
large, obtusely triangular in the middle behind, and in the female 
deeply excised. 

Length 13-14 mm. ; pronotum, 2 mm. ; hind femur, 9-11 mm. 

MADRAS : Madura, Kodaikanal. 

Type in the collection of Dr. Bolivar. 

109. Mastacides vaginalis, Sauss. 

Mastacides vaginalis, Saussure, Rev. Suisse Zool. xi, 1903, p. 87, 

Green or yellow. Costal ridge sulcated, bicarinate, with the 
summit somewhat broader, and bipupillate. Tegmina squami- 
form, very narrow, lateral, hardly passing the mesonotum. Front 
legs slender, tibiae spined beneath ; tibia3 and tarsi yellow (some- 
times rosy in dried specimens) with black-tipped spines ; the hind 
femora sometimes brown and black on the outer surface ; the 
first tarsal joint rufescent, finely sulcated. The eighth dorsal seg- 
ment of the abdomen wholly visible, obtuse- angularly incised, 
with the lateral angles rectangular, or rounded off. Supra-anal 
lamina long, ovate-lanceolate, blunt at the tip. Genital valves 
long, very slender, styliform, hardly sulcated, nearly straight, 
with the margins entire, blunt above at the tip, with a very small 
hook beneath. 

Length 14 mm. ; tegmina, 1-5 mm. ; hind femur, 10 mm. 

MADRAS : Kodikam Hills. 

Type in the collection of the late Capt. Finot. 



Subfamily III. TRYXALTN^E. 

Key to the Genera. 

[1 (6) Head conically ascending. Fastigium 
broad, laminate and truncate at 
extremity. 

2 (5) Eyes near the apex. 

3 (4) Sexes similar ; front margin of teg- 

mina opaque, densely reticulated. ACKIDA, L., p. 97. 



90 TRYXALINJE. 

4 (3) Sexes dissimilar; front margin of 

tegmina in the male in part trans- 
parent and traversed by regular 
transverse nervures ACRIDELLA, Bol., p. 100. 

5 (2) Eyes nearer the base than the apex. ASWATTHAMANUS, g. n., 

6 (1) Head not ascending. Fastigmm [p. 101 

broad or narrow, more or less 
rounded at extremity. 

7 (20) Foveolse of vertex obsolete or not 

visible, from above. 

8 (15) Scapular area in the tegmina of the 

male not dilated, opaque, reti- 
culated. 

9 (14) Lateral carinae of pronotum straight, 

continuous. 

10 (11) Wings perfectly developed PHI^EOBA, Stil, p. 102. 

11 (10) Wings not developed ; tegmina rudi- 

mentary. 

12 (13) Lateral carinse of fastigium obtuse ; 

foveolae imperfectly indicated ; 
pronotum eniarginate behind ; 
tegminanarrow,subparallel-sided, 
rounded at apex PHLJEOBIDA, Bol., p. 107. 

13 (12) Lateral carinse of fastigium acute ; 

foveolae absent; pronotum trun- 
cate behind; tegmina lanceolate. PARAPHL^EOBA, Bol., 

14 (9) Lateral carinae of pronotum diverging [p. 108. 

posteriorly CEUACRIS, Walk., p. 110. 

15 (8) Scapular area dilated, hyaline, reti- 

culated with oblique veins, 

16 (17) Foveolse of fastigium very narrow, 

inferior ; antennae depressed, sub- 
ensiforin ; lateral carinse of pro- 
notum straight ; metastertial lobes 
contiguous for some distance be- 
hind the foveae OCIIRILIDIA, StSl, p. 115. 

17 (16) Foveoke wider ; antennae filiform ; 

lateral carinae of pronotum flexu- 
ous ; metasternal lobes subcon- 
tiguous behind the foveae. 

18 (19) Tegmina extending beyond the apex 

of abdomen GYMNOBOIHUUS, Bol., 

19 (18) Tegmina reaching the middle of the [p. 113. 

abdomen MADUUEA, Bol., p. 114. 

20 (7) Foveolae of vertex visible from above, 

rhomboidal, oblong or triangular. 

21 (22) Tegmina rudimentary ; foveolae of 

vertex triangular, extended to 

apex of fastigium ZYGOPIILJEOBA, Bol., 

22 (21) Tegmina and wings developed. [p. 105. 

23 (34) Intercalated vein wanting or inter- 

rupted. 

24 (33) Valvulae of ovipositor exserted, free. 

25 (32) Pronotum constricted. 

26 (29) Mediastinalareaof tegmina gradually 

narrowed to the apex. 



ACBIDA. 97 

27 (28) Upper and lower valves of ovipositor 

furnished with a tooth STENOBOTHRUS, Fischer, 

28 (27) Valves without teeth. [p. 120. 

29 (26) Mediastinal area rapidly narrowing, 

not generally extended beyond 
the middle of the tegmen. 

30 (31) Lateral carinse of pronotum angu- [p. 127. 

lated STAURODKRUS, Bol , 

31 (30) Lateral carinae parallel CHORTHIPPUS, Fieb., 

32 (25) Pronotum not constricted ; lateral [p. 128. 

carinse entirely dorsal AULACOBOTHRUS, Bol., 

33 (24) Valves of ovipositor covered by the [p. 123. 

supra-anal lamina DOCIOSTAURUS, Fieb., 

34 (23) Intercalated vein present. [p. 116. 

35 (36) Intercalated vein in the middle of 

cell or nearer the radial vein. . . . yoLOPUS, Fieb., p. 121. 

36 (35) Intercalated vein nearer the ulnar 

than the radial MECOSTETHUS, Fieb., 

[p. 112. 

Genus ACEIDA. 

Gryllus Acrida, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. (ed. x) i, 1758, p. 427. 
Acrida, Stal, Recens. Orth. i, 1873, pp. 88, 95 ; Burr, Trans. Ent. 

Soc. Lond. 1902, pp. 149, 155. 
Truxalis, pt., Fabricius, Syst. Ent. 1775, p. 279 ; Serville, Ins. Orth. 

1839, p. 578. 
Ti-i/xalis, Brulle", Hist. Nat. Ins. ix, 1835, p. 216 ; Bolivar, Feuille 

Jeunes Nat. xxiii, 1893, p. 161. 

TYPE, Acrida turrita, L. 

Range. Old World. 

Head very long, sloping upwards, fastigium oF the vertex 
extended considerably in front of 
the eyes, broader than the space 
between them, and roundly trun- 
cate at the extremity ; beneath 
the extremity there is a double 
carina, traversing the face to the 
end of the clypeus, and enclosing 
the median ocellus ; below the 
eyes, and f of the length from 
the tip of the fastigium are 
the antennae, which are short, 
broad, depressed, and tapering ; 
behind each antenna runs a 
lateral carina below the eye, and 
there are two more behind each 

Fig. 79.-Side view of head of W be *| des a . sli g ht fedian 

(A) Acrida, (B) Steuroderu*. carina > tae e >' es lon g> oval 5 the 

foveolae of the vertex small, 

triangular, and inferior. Pronotum tricarinate above, and with 
obscure carinse on the sides ; lateral carinae straight, at least on 
the front area, the upper carina of the lateral lobes parallel to 




98 TRYXALINyE. 

the dorso-lateral carina, or slightly diverging from it towards the 
front border. Tegmina and wings long, narrow, and pointed ; 
tegmina similar in both sexes, with the mediastinal and scapular 
areas not expanded and irregularly reticulated and coloured ; the 
third radial nervure of the tegmina and the first branch of the 
radial nervure of the wings branching at or before the middle. 
Front legs short, hind legs arid abdomen long ; hind tibiae with 
the upper interior spur nearly one-half shorter than the lower 
one ; claws of the tarsi short ; arolium large. 

Key to tlie Species. 

1 (4) Wing-cells not centred with fuscous. 

2 (3) Body and tegmina without pinlush 

markings; pronotum without black 

lines turrita, L., p. 98. 

3 (2) Body and tegmina with pinkish mark- 

ings yigantea, Hbst., p. 98. 

4 (1) Wing-cells centred with fuscous. 

5 (6) Tegmina very narrowly edged with pink- 

ish-brown ; length of body 30 mm. . . lugubris, Burr, p. 99. 

6 (5) Tegmina without distinct coloured mar- 

gin ; length of body 50 mm , . . exaltata, Walk., p. 99. 



110. Acrida turrita, L. 

Gryttus Acrida turritus, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. (ed. x) 1758, p. 427. 
Gryllus Acrida nasutus, pt., Linnaeus, Mus. Ludov. Ulric. 1764, 

p. 118. 
Truxalis nasutus, Fabricius, Syst. Ent. 1775, p. 279. 

Green; tegmina long, narrow and pointed, extending when 
closed beyond the abdomen ; head slender, longer than the pro- 
notum by the length of the fastigium in front of the eyes ; wings 
hyaline, pointed at the extremity. 

S. EUROPE " AFRICA ; ASIA.. 



111. Acrida gigantea, Hbst. 

Truxalis giganteus, Herbst, Fuessly, Archiv. Ins. 1794, p. 191, pi. Hi, 
fig. 6. 

Head slightly, if at all, longer than the pronotum, and often 
shorter. Green ; head and pronotum with 2 or 3 pale pink bands 
on each side; tegmina with two broad pink longitudinal bands, 
between which is often a whitish line, generally broken into long 
spots, bordered with blackish ; wings hyaline. Lateral carinae of 
pronotum edged within with a black line. In one specimen 
the wings are tessellated with brown, almost as in A. lugubris. 

Lengtfi 50-60 mm. 

NEPAL; A.FRICA. 



ACRIDA. 



112. Acrida exaltata, Walk: 

Truxalis exaltata, Walker, Ann. Nat. Hist. (3) iv, 1859, p. 222. 
Try.valis brevicollis, Bolivar, Feuille Jeunes Nat. xxiii, 1893, 

pp. 102, 164 ; id., Ann. Soc. Ent. France, Ixx, 1892, p. 588. 
Acrida brevicollis, Burr, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1902, pp. 157, 170. 

Green ; the head and pronotum of about equal length ; tegraiua 
obtusely pointed, scarcely longer than the hind femora ; wings 
yellowish hyaline, the cells in the posterior part cloudy in the 
middle. 

Length 53 mm. 

CEYLON. 

\ 




Fig. 81 Acrida litgubris. 



). Acrida exaltata. 



113. Acrida lugubris, Burr. 

Acrida lugubris, Burr, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1902, pp. 157, 170. 

Green ; head only slightly longer than the pronotum, and the 

antenna about as long as the head and pronotum together. 

Tegmina green, hardly longer than the wings, and moderately 

pointed; often narrowly bordered with pink, and with - ~~ 

H2 



few 



100 TRYXALIX^E. 

dusky spots towards the extremity. Wings byaline, tessellated 
with brown. 

Length 33 mm. 

KASHMIR : Hunza ; MADRAS. 

Genus ACRIDELLA. 
Acridella, Bolivar, Feuille Jeunes Nat. xxiii, 1893, p. 163. 

TYPE, (Truxalis unguiculala, Eamb. = ) Acrida nasnta, L. 

Range. S. Europe, Africa, Southern and Western Asia. 

General characters of Acrida, but the tegmina are differently 
formed in the sexes. In the males the mediastinal and scapular 
areas are enlarged towards the middle of the tegmina, and their 
spaces are usually transparent, and traversed by more or less 
regular nervures ; the third radial uervure of the tegmina and 
the first branch of the radial nervure of the wings branch 
beyond the middle of the tegmina and the wings respectively. 
The lateral carinae of the pronotum are flexuous, and curve 
upwards in front, being convex and divergent towards the 
metanotum. The upper inner terminal spur of the hind tibioe 
is one-half shorter than the lower inner spur; claws of the tarsi 
sometimes half as long as the third joint of the tarsi ; arolium 
small. Wings generally brightly coloured ; always with the 
transverse nervures thickened. 

114. Acridella nasuta, L. 

Gryllus Acrida nasutus, Linnseus, Syst. Nat. (ed. x) i. 1758, p. 427. 
Truxalis scalaris, Klug, Symb. Phys. 1830, pi. xv, figs. 2-4. 
Truxalis miniata, Klug, "Symb. Phys. 1830, pi. xviii, figs. 3, 4 

(nee I, 2). 

Truxalis variabilis, Klug, Symb. Phys. 1830, pi. xvii, figs. 3-6. 
Truxalis procer a, King, Symb. Phys. 1830, pi. xvi, figs. 2, 3. 
Truxalis conspnrcata, Klug, Symb. Phys. 1830, pi. xvii, fig. 1. 
Truxalis unyuiculata, Rambur, Faune Andal. ii, 1839, p. 72. 
Acrida nasuta, Stgl, Recens. Orth. i, 1873, p. 99. 

A rather slender species. Colour greenish brown, head and 
pronotum darker above than on the sides. Head as long as or 
longer than the pronotum, fastigium above with a central ridge. 
Pronotum considerably raised behind, with lateral carinae edged 
with black ; median carina almost obsolete ; seen laterally there 
are two waved carinse on the upper part of the pleura, and on the 
hinder half an oblique white one below them. Antennae broadly 
flattened, tapering at the extremity. Tegmina narrow, pointed, 
longer than the wings, green, with the costal area subhyaline, 
especially in the male ; a brown bar, undulated above, and followed 
by detached spots, runs longitudinally through the middle of the 
wing ; the inner marginal area is often reticulated with reddish 
in the male. Wings moderately broad, pointed at the tips, 
hyaline, or yellowish hyaline, with all the oblique nervures tessel- 
lated with black ; the basal half is red in the female, and often in 
the male, the extreme base being marked with bluish. 



ASWATTHAMA^US. 



101 



Length, body, 35-70 mm.; expanse of tegmina, 60-121 mm. 
SOUTH EUROPE ; AFRICA ; WESTERN ASIA ; BALUCHISTAX; 
IXDIA ; CEYLON ; BURMA. 

Geuus ASWATTHAMANUS, nov. 

TYPE, Asivattliamanus cylindricus, sp. nov. 

Range. India. 

Head and pronotum smooth, cylindrical ; eyes large, oval ; head 
not raised ; fastigium of the vertex very long, extending as far 
beyond the eye as the length of the prouoturn, and narrowed and 
obtusely rounded at the apex; frontal ridge narrow, sulcated, 
obsolete towards the mouth, lateral carina not strongly marked, 
but distinct, and continuous with the lower lateral border of the 
pronotum ; frontal tubercle very small. Antennae much widened 
and flattened towards the base, and tapering to a point at the 
extremity, about as long as the head and pronotum together ; 
inserted on the lower surface, just before the tip of the fastigium. 
Tegmina and wings very long, narrow, and pointed. Front and 
middle legs very short, hind legs very long and slender, hind tibiae 
with 10-11 spines on the outer (terminal spine absent) and 12 on 
the inner edge. 

115. Aswatthamanus cylindricns, sp. nov. 

Light brown, inclining to reddish ; tegmina very long, narrow, 
and pointed, subhyaline, with rufous nervures ; wings hyaline, 




Fig. 82. 
Aswatthamanus cylindricus, C J . 



Fig. 83. Aswatthamanus cylindricus, $ . 

long, narrow, and pointed, but much shorter than the tegmina ; 
hind tibiae red. 



102 TRYXALIN.E. 

Length 40-50 mm.; head, 14 mm.; pronotum, 8 mm.; antenna?, 
20 mm. ; tegmina, 40 mm. ; wings, 35 mm. 
BENGAL : Pusa. 
Common on grass from July to November. 



Genus PHUEOBA. 

Phlaoba, Stil, Eugenie's Resa, Orth. 1860, p. 360. 
TYPE, Gomphocews (Phlceoba) rusticus, Stl. 

Range. The Oriental Eegion. 

Head as long as, or shorter than, the pronotum, and equally 
broad ; face somewhat oblique, fastigium produced as far before 
the eye as the head behind the eye, as broad as the length of the 
eye, and obtusely rounded at the extremity; the branching lateral 
carinse run within each eye, often continuous on the head, and a 
continuous median carina traverses the head and pronotum ; face 
with a double median carina, diverging below, and with carinse 
within the eyes, also curving outwards. Antennae ensiform, as 
long as or longer than the head and pronotum together, with 
the basal half widened and flattened. Wings and tegmina of 
equal length, perfectly developed, and as long as or rather longer 
than the abdomen. Legs moderately long, without special arma- 
ture ; hind femora moderately thickened at the base and as long 
as the abdomen ; hind tibiae spinose. 

Key to the Species. 

[1 (6) Wings more or less fuscous at apex. 

2 (3) Antennae unicolorous infitmaia, Brunn., p. 103. 

3 (2) Antennae ringed or tipped with obscure 

yellow. 

4 (5) Posterior tibiae sordid blue or reddish . antemiata, Brunn., p. 102. 

5 (4) Posterior tibiae testaceous aiioustidorsis, Bol., p. 104. 

6 (1) Wings hyaline. 

7 (8) Posterior tibiae unicolorous ; pro- 

notum very rugulose panteli, Bol., p. 104. 

8 (7) Posterior tibiae with a distinct yellow 

ring near the base ; pronotum com- 
paratively smooth cinctalis, sp. n., p. 105.] 



116. Phlaeoba antennata, Brunn. 

Phlaoba attennata, Brunner, Ann. Mus. Genova, xxxiii, 1893, 
p. 125, pi. v, fig. 49. 

Olive-brown, with a broad yellow band running from the 
vertex to the end of the tegmina, at least in the male. Antennae 
ensiform, half as long again as the head and pronotum together 
(shorter in the female) ; black, generally tipped with yellow. 



PHL^EOBA. 



103 



Pronotum smooth, with the three carinae well marked, and the 
hind border only slightly convex. Tegmina narrow, the costa 
slightly expanded near the base, especially in the female ; the 
extremity obtusely rounded off. Wings bluish hyaline, some- 
times with the dividing line yellow ; infuscated towards the tips. 
Legs reddish in the male ; the hind legs with the knees and base 




Fig. 84.Phl(eoba antennata, 




Fig. 8o.Phl(soba antennata, $>. 



and tip of the tibiae blackish ; hind legs uniform blackish in the 
female ; sometimes the hind tibiae are bluish instead of reddish, 
as described by Brunner. 

Length, body, 18-32 mm. ; antennae, 10-13 mm. ; pronotum, 
3'5-6-5 mm. ; tegmina, 13-23 mm. ; hind femur, 12-19 mm. 

ASSAM : Sylhet ; BURMA ; MALAY PENINSULA ; SUMATRA ; 
BORNEO, <fcc. 



117. Phlaeoba infumala, Brunn. 

PMcsoba infumata. Brunner, Ann. Mus. Geneva, xxxiii. 1893, 
p. 124. 

Uniform brownish testaceous. The fastigium of the vertex 
rather short and obtuse, concave above, with a continuous median 
carina extending along the head and pronotum. Antennae ensi- 
form, as long as or longer than the head and pronotum together. 
Pronotum rugose, with a rudimentary carina on each side between 
the median and lateral carinae. Tegmina and wings longer 
than the abdomen ; wings fusco-hyaline, infuscated towards the 



104 TRYXALINJE. 

extremity. Hind femora dotted with black on the outer carinae; 

hind tibiae with white spines tipped with black ; hind tarsi 
reddish. 




Fig. 86.Phl<eoba infmnata, 3 . 

Length 25-29 mm. ; antennae, 10-5-11-5 mm. ; pronotum, 
4-2-6-4 mm. ; tegmina, 19-27 mm. ; hind femur, 13-18 mm. 
BUEMA : Pegu ; TENASSEBIM. 



118. Phlaeoba angustidorsis, Bol. 

Phlatoba anyustidorsis, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, Ixx, 1892, 
p. 590. 

Ferruginous brown, the male with a yellow band extending to 
the tip of the tegmina. Fastigium of the vertex shorter than the 
eye, smooth, carinated in the middle. Pronotum very narrow, 
with the lateral carinaa parallel, or slightly convergent behind in 
the male. Tegmina barely reaching the tip of the abdomen, or 
shorter. Wings bluish hyaline, infuscated towards the tips. 
Hind femora pale ferruginous, with brown knees ; hind tibiae 
testaceous. 

Length 39-32 mm. ; antenna?, 10-12 mm.; pronotum, 4-6 mm. ; 
tegmina, 10-12 mm. 

MADRAS : Kodaikanal. 

Types in the collections of Messrs. Pantel and Bolivar. 



119. Phlseoba panteli, Bol. 

Phlceoba panteli, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, Ixx, 1902, p. 589. 
Phteoba walhousci, Kirby, Syn. Cat.Orth. iii, 1910, p. 138. 



PHL.EOBA. ZYGOPHL.EOBA. 



105 



Xiplwcera fumida, var., Walker, Cat. Derm. Salt. B.M. iii, 1870, 
p. 513. 

Ferruginous brown, with scattered black dots. Antennae nar- 
rowly ensiform, shorter than the head and pronotum together, 
brown at the tips. Vertex horizontal, 
with the marginal carinae converging be- 
hind the eyes, fastigium broad, rounded 
in front, the median carina continued on 
the head and pronotum ; front slightly 
oblique, all the frontal caring spotted with 
black. Pronotum truncated in front, and 
very obtusely angulated behind, the head 
and prouotum very rugose, the callosities 
being irregularly striated ; the three dorsal 
carina3 parallel. Tegmina moderately 
broad, longer than the abdomen, nar- 
rowed and obliquely truncated towards 
the tip ; wings narrow, bluish hyaline, 
with many of the nervures greenish. 

Length 30 mm. ; pronotum, 4 mm. ; 
tegmina, 26 mm. ; hind femur, 17 mm. 

MADRAS : Madura. 




i I 
Fig, 87.Phl(eoba panteli. 



Types in the collections of Messrs. Pantel 
and Bolivar. 



120. Phlaeoba cinctalis, sp. nov. 

Brown, with a broad dull yellowish band on the back, between 
the lateral carinae, which is continued along the inner margin of 
the tegmina ; lateral carinse edged below externally with a rather 
narrow blackish stripe; tegmina subhyaline brown, with the 
longitudinal nervures darkened and slightly thickened, the inner 
margin yellowish. AVings hyaline, antennae brown. Hind tibiae 
blue-black, with a pale band near the base. 

Length 23-33 mm. ; wing, 50-64 mm. 

BENGAL : Pusa. 

Type in the British Museum. 

Common on grass, sweet potatoes, &c., in July and August. 



Genus ZYGOPHLJEOBA. 

ZygopMaoba, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, Ixx, 1902, p. 591. 

TYPE, Zygophhvoba sinuatocottis, Bol. 

Range. India. 

Body moderately long, compressed. Fastigium of the vertex 
triangular, with the margins raised, and above with triangular 
foveolae extending to the tip of the vertex ; the latter with the 
median carina obsolete behind, and with an incomplete curved 
lateral carina approximate to the eyes ; face sloping ; frontal 



106 

carina sulcated, expanding towards the clypeus. Antennae 
flattened at the base, and suddenly arched in the middle. Pro- 
notum in front roundly truncate, behind truncate or excised, 
with three complete parallel carina?, and the lateral cariuae twice 
interrupted, the hind sulcus placed much behind the middle, and 
the metazona itnpressed-punctate. Tegmina and wings rudi- 
mentary. Hind femora short, with the outer area moderately 
convex. Mesosternal lobes narrow, transverse, separated by a 
space equal to one of them ; metasternal lobes contiguous behind 
the foveoke in both sexes. Abdomen carinated above, the first 
segment furnished with an open tympanum. 



121. Zygophlaeoba sinuatocollis, Bol. 

Zygophlceoba sinuatocolhs, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, Ixx, 
1902, p. 591. 

Pale ferruginous, dotted with black. Face oblique ; frontal 
costa (A'iewed from the side) sinuated between the median ocellus 
and the antenna; ; foveolae of the vertex extending nearly to 
the tip of the fastigium. Pronotuin excised behind. Tegmina 
oblong, subparallel-sided, rounded at the tip. Mesosternal lobes 
very narrow, strongly transverse. Abdomen above with a longi- 
tudinal subcallous ridge on each side. 

Length 15'5 mm. ; pronotum, 2 mm.; tegmina, 1'8 mm. ; hind 
femur, 6-8 mm. 

MADRAS : Trichinopoly. 

Type in the collection of St. Joseph's College, Trichinopoly. 



122. Zygophlaeoba truncaticollis, Bol. 

Zyqophkeoba truncaticollis, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, Ixx, 
1902, p. 591. 

Grey, varied with brown. Face moderately oblique ; frontal 
ridge entire, not sinuated ; foveolse of the vertex trapezoidal, the 
space between them convex. Pronotum truncated behind, with 
the lateral carinae whitish, the deflexed lobes bordered within 
with brown. Tegmina oblong-lanceolate, grey, with the outer 
margin brown. Mesosternal lobes less transverse than in 
Z. sinuatocollis. Abdomen without lateral carinae, but banded 
with brown on the sides. 

LenglJi 17 mm.; pronotum, 3 mm.; tegmina, 3 mm.; hind 
femur, 9 mm. 

MADJRAS : Trichinopoly. 

Type in the collection of St. Joseph's College, Trichinopoly. 



PHL^OBIDA. 107 

. Genus PHLJEOBIDA. 

Phteobida, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, Ixx, 1902, p. 592. 

TYPE, Paraplilceoba angnstipennis, Bol. 

Itanye. India. 

Body moderately long and moderately compressed. Fastigium 
of the vertex triangular, with the lateral carinae obtuse and 
continued as a short carina behind each eye ; foveolae imperfectly 
developed ; vertex with a median carina extending from the base 
to the end of the fastigium ; face sloping, frontal ridge between 
the antennae moderately elevated, smooth, then sulcated, the 
marginal carinae somewhat expanded at the base, slightly 
approximating at the ocellus, and diverging towards the clypeus. 
Antennae with the basal half depressed, much longer than the 
head and pronotum together in the male, and scarcely so long 
in the female. Pronotum tricarinate above, with the lateral 
carinae almost parallel; truncated in front, and convex behind, 
with a transverse sulcus intersecting the carinae behind the 
middle. Tegmina very short, narrow, nearly parallel-eided, and 
rounded at the tips ; wings obsolete. Hind femora long, smooth 
externally. Mesosternal lobes united by a space nearly equal 
to their breadth, subcontiguous behind in the male, and slightly 
separated in the female. First abdominal segment with an open 
tympanum ; abdomen compressed, carinated above ; subgenital 
lamina in the male shortly acuminate ; valves of the ovipositor 
short. 

123. Phlaeobida angnstipennis, Bol. 

Paraphlaoba angustipennis, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, Ixx, 
1902, pp. 592, 503, pi. ix, fig. 30. 

Pale reddish, punctured with brown and with grey pubescence ; 
a broad brown stripe running from the eyes to the tip of the 
abdomen ; or the head and pronotum not striped. Fastigium of 
the vertex oblong or triangular, with the margins obtuse and 
punctured, and furnished with indistinct triangular foveolae ; 
vertex with a slight median carina, obsolete behind. Pronotum 
angularly excised behind, the lateral carinae almost parallel as far 
as the hind sulcus, which is situated much behind the middle, and 
then widely diverging. Tegmina narrow, the margins parallel, 
and the tip rounded. Lobes of the mesosternum separated by a 
rather narrow space ; the metasternal lobes contiguous behind 
the foveolse in the male, and slightly separated in the female. 
Hind femora banded with brown externally. 

<$ . Length 15 mm.; pronotum, 2*8 mm. ; tegmina, 2*5 mm. ; 
hind femur, 9 mm. 

5. Length 24 mm.; pronotum, 4'5 mm. ; tegmina, 3'5 mm. ; 
hind femur, 13 mm. 

MADEAS : Trichiuopoly. 

Types in the collection of St. Joseph's College, Trichinopoly. 



108 TEl'XALIN^E. 

Genus PARAPHLJEOBA. 

Paraphlaoba, Bolivar. Ann. Soc. Ent. France, Ixx, 1902. pp. 592, 
593. 

TYPE, Paraplilceoba platyceps, Bol. 

Range. India, Ceylon. 

General characters of Phlceobida, but the carinae of the vertex 
are acute, without foveolse, the pronotum is truncated both before 
and behind, and the rudimentary tegmina are more or less 
pointed. 

Key to the Species. 

1 (2) Pronotum expanded behind, with the dorsal 

carinaa distinctly converging behind .... platyceps, Bol., 

2 (1) Pronotum not expanded behind, with the [p. 108. 

lateral cavinae parallel, not diverging 

behind. [p. 108. 

3 (4) Pronotum nearly smooth carinata, Bol., 

4 (3) Pronotum rugulose simoni, Bol.,p. 109. 

124. Paraphlaeoba platyceps, Bol. 

Paraphlccoba platyceps, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, Ixx, 1902, 
p. 593, pi. ix, fig. 29. 

Eusty grey, or brown, pubescent. Frontal ridge almost com- 
pletely sulcated, towards the clypeus deeply impress-punctate ; 
fastigium of the vertex smooth, triangular, transverse in the 
male, and in the female as long as broad, and forming an obtuse 
angle in front ; the median carina interrupted by a transverse 
sulcus before the tip. Pronotum with the surface rugulose, 
impresso-punctate behind, truncated, often very slightly excised 
in the middle, with the lateral carinae callous, distinctly diverging 
behind, and externally bordered with brown ; the deflexed lobes 
with the hind margin sinuated, and the lower margin obtusely 
angulated behind the middle. Hind knees infuscated. Abdomen 
with a broad brown fascia on each side, with a narrow pale 
border within. 

cJ. Length 15 mm.; pronotum, 2*8 mm. ; tegmina, 2-8 mm. ; 
hind femur, 10 mm. 

$ . Length 26 mm. ; pronotum, 4'5 mm. ; tegmina, 4-5 mm. ; 
hind femur, 15 mm. 

MADRAS : Kodaikanal. 

Types in the collections of Messrs. Pantel and Bolivar. 



125. Paraphlaeoba carinata, Bol. 

Paraphlccoba carinata, Bolivar, 
pp. 593, 594. 

Greyish brown or ferruginous, with grey pubescence. Frontal 



Paraphlccoba carinata, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, Ixx, 1902, 
pp. 593, 594. 



PAEAPHL^OBA. 109 

ridge sulcate nearly to the base, indistinctly punctured towards the 
clypeus ; fastigium of the vertex convex, triangular, with no 
transverse sulcus ; the median carinae not intersected in front. 
Pronotum with the surface nearly smooth, the metazona impress- 
punctate; the lateral carinae parallel, pale, interrupted by the 
usual sulcus, and bordered with brown externally, the dettexed 
lobes with the hind margin sinuate, and the lateral margin 
sinuated in front, and roundly subangulate in the middle. 
Tegmina extending to the first segment of the abdomen, acutely 
lanceolate, rather convex, the lower margin moi*e or less sinuated 
before the tip; red, brownish beneath. Abdomen with a broad 
brown band on each side, lined with yellow internally. 

c? . Length 12 mm. ; pronotum, 2 - 2 mm. ; tegmina, 2'8 mm. ; 
hind femur, 8-5 mm. 

$ . Length 20 ram. ; pronotum, 3'8 mm. ; tegmina, 3'8 mm. ; 
hind femur, 12-5 mm. 

MADRAS : Madura. 

Types in the collections of Messrs. Pantel and Bolivar., 



126. Paraphlaoba simoni, Bol. 

Paraphlceoba simoni, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, Ixx, 1902, 
pp. 593, 594. 

Reddish brown. Frontal ridge 
narrow as far as the eyes, parallel- 
sided, and then considerably ex- 
panded ; fastigium of the vertex tri- 
angular, moderately produced, smooth, 
with the carinae distinctly raised. An- 
tennae slightly dilated, subfiliform, ex- 
tending rather beyond the hind border 
of the pronotum in the male. Pronotum 
with the surface rugulose, the lateral 
carinae parallel, the deflexed lobes with 
the hind margin indistinctly sinuated, 
and the lower margin obtusely nar- 
rowed. Tegmina extending to the 
third segment of the abdomen, acutely 
lanceolate, convex. Abdomen with a 
broad brown band on the sides. 

d . Length 1-1 mm. ; pronotum, 3 mm. ; 
tegmina, 4 mm. ; hind femur, 9-5 mm. 

CETLOX : Nuwara Eliya. 

Type in the collection of Dr. 
Bolivar. 

Fig. 88. 
Paraphlceoba simoni, rf. 




110 TRYXALINJE. 



Genus CERACRIS. 

Ceracris, Walker, Cat. Derm. Salt. B.M. iv, 1870, p. 790. 
TYPE, Ceracris nigricornis, Walk. 

Range. India, Burma. 

Moderately stout; head and pronotum punctured; antennae 
filiform, much longer than head and pronotum together ; fastigium 
of the vertex horizontal, produced beyond the eyes about as far 
as the length of the head behind the eyes ; eyes very large, 
slightly oval and oblique, separated at the narrowest point by a 
space nearly equal to that of the fastigium before them ; fastigium 
slightly curving outwards in front of the eyes, and then obtusely 
rectaiigulated in front ; the sides strongly carinated as far as the 
eyes, and the space between depressed, with a slight carina in 
front only ; face moderately oblique, with the median carinse 
well separated and nearly parallel above, and divergent below ; 
and lateral carinae running downwards from within the eyes. 
Pronotum rugose-punctate, with three not very strong carinae, the 
lateral ones distinctly diverging behind, and cut by three sulci, 
the space behind the last more thickly and finely punctate. 
Abdomen with a very strong raised median carina, not quite 
extending to the extremity. Tegmina and wings well-developed, 
as long as or longer than the abdomen, as are also the hind 
femora. Four front tibiae slightly pilose, shortly spinose beneath 
beyond the middle ; hind femora rather slender, with the usual 
angulated ridges on the outer central area ; hind tibiae spined 
above. 

Key to tJie Species. 

1 (2) Hind femora partly red beneath .... versicolor, Brunn., p. 111. 

2 (1) Hind femora not red beneath. 

3 (4) Hind tibiae wholly blue beyond the 

yellow ring near the base deflorata, Brunn., p. 112. 

4 (3) Tibiae varied with black and yellow 

beyond the yellow ring near the 

base nigricornis, Walk., p. 110. 

127. Ceracris nigricornis, Walk. 

Ceracris nigricornis, Walker, Cat. Derm. Salt. B.M. iv, 1870, p. 791. 

Testaceous-brown. Head rugosely punctate, slightly convex 
above, with a dusky longitudinal curved depression on each side, 
but without distinct carinae behind the eyes ; a black band behind 
each eye, followed by a black line below the lateral carinae ; 
antennae black, and a black spot on each side at the lower corners 
ot the clypeus ; the sutures of the mouth-parts slightly blackish, 



CERACRIS. 



Ill 



Tegmina yellowish along the inner margin ; wings hyaline. Hind 
femora with a blackish baud near 
the extremity, interrupted above, and 
the sides and base beneath of the 
terminal thickening black ; a broad 
pale-coloured himiua on each side at 
the extremity beneath ; hind tibiae 
black at the base with a yellow spot 
above ; then follows a broad yellowish 
ring, then a black ring continued 
nearly to the extremity by a black 
line above and another below, the 
rest being yellowish ; spines tipped 
with black, 10 on each side, in- 
creasing in length towards the tip, 
in addition to the usual terminal 
ones. 

Length 32 mm. ; hind femur, 
16 mm. ; expanse of tegiuina, 
50 mm. 

SIKKIM: Darjiling. 

Type in the British Museum. 

Fig. 89. Ceracris nigricomis. Walker describes this insect as 
"gracillimum," probably because the 

body of the type has been laterally flattened. 




128. Ceracris versicolor, Brunn. 

Duronia versicolor, Brunner, Ann. Mus. Geneva, xxxiii, 1893, 
p. 126. 

Olive-brown, legs varied with black, yellow, and red. Fastigiurn 
of the vertex obtuse. Antennae filiform, much longer than the 
head and pronotum together. Pronotum wholly impress-punctate, 
with the lateral carinse slightly indicated, and the principal 
transverse sulcus placed somewhat behind the middle. Tegmina 
rather louger than the abdomen, the costal area smooth, green, 
and the deflexed area brownish olive ; wings bluish-hyaline, 
slightly clouded. Abdomen uniform olive. Hind femora 
brownish olive, beneath red to the middle, then black, with a 
yellow apical ring ; hind tibiae black at the base, followed by 
a yellow ring, the longitudinal sulcus above black to the extremity, 
the sides blue, and 9 or 10 white spines tipped with black on 
each side. 

Length 26 mm. ; antennae, 12 mm. ; pronotum, 5*8 inm. ; 
tegmina, 22 mm. ; hind femora, 16 mm. 

BURMA. : Karen Hills. 

Type in the Genoa Museum. 



112 TRYXALINJE. 



129. Ceracris deflorata, Brunn. 

Durania deflorata, Brunner, Ann. Mus. Genova, xxxiii, 1893, 
p. 126. 

Dull olive, the femora not ringed. Vertex less obtuse than in 
C. versicolor. Pronotum above nearly smooth, with the lateral 
carinae well marked, bordered with straight black bands and 
diverging behind the transverse sulcus, which is placed in the 
middle. Tegmina one-fourth longer than the abdomen, with 
the costal area smooth, pale, the deflexed area brown ; wings 
yellowish-hyaline, slightly clouded. Hind femora testaceous, 
darker at the tip ; beneath suffused with red, with no ring. 
Hind tibiae black at the base, followed by a yellow ring, then 
wholly blue, with 11 or 12 black-tipped spines on each side. 

Length 28 mm.; antenna?, 12-5 mm..; pronotum, 5-5 mm.; 
tegmina, 27 mm. ; hind femur, 16 mm. 

BURMA : Bhamo. 

Type in the Genoa Museum. 



Genus MECOSTETHUS. 

Mecostethus, Fieber, Ivelch, Orth. Oberschles. 1852, p. 1. 
Parapleurus, Fischer, Orth. Eur. 1853. pp. 297, 363. 

TYPE, Grylliis parapleurus, Hagenb. 

Runge. Europe, Asia. 

Fastigium of the vertex horizontal, broader than long, rounded 
at the sides, and roundly truncate in front, the surface depressed, 
with a central carina, very slightly continued on the rest of the 
head; foveolae obsolete. Antenme filiform, twice as long as head and 
pronotum together in the male, and scarcely equal to the pronotum 
in the female ; eyes prominent, subrotund ; face slightly oblique ; 
frontal carina rather broadly sulcated from the middle ocellus to 
the clypeus. Pronotum with the median carina strongly marked ; 
the lateral carinae obsolete ; cut by three transverse sutures, the 
hindmost about the middle ; the deflexed lobes slightly oblique 
behind, and the lower edge slightly sinuated ; pronotum hardly 
rounded in front, and only slightly behind. Tegmina narrow, 
longer than the abdomen, with the mediasterual area extending 
nearly to the rounded tip ; the base not expanded, with an 
intercalated nervure in the middle of the discoidal area. Wings 
perfectly developed, rather narrow. Hind femora moderately 
thickened, as long as the abdomen. Subgenital lamina of male 
long, pointed ; valves of the ovipositor long, slender, and 
pointed. 



MECOSTETHrS. CYMXOBOTHRTTS. 1 13 

130. Mecostethus fasciatus, Brunn. 

Mecosfethus fasciatus, Bruuner, Ann. Mus. Geneva, xxxiii, 1893, 
p. 127. 

Keddish brown, with a broad pale central stripe running along 
the head, pronotura, and tegmina. JTastigium of the vertex 
triangularly produced, concave above. Antennae filiform, black, 
with the tip paler. Pronotum rugose, with a narrow continuous 
median carina, the last transverse sulcus placed rather behind the 
middle, behind which the lateral carinae are visible iu the female 
only. Tegmina extending for one-fourth of their length beyond 
the abdomen, with the accessory nervure distinct ; brown, with a 
yellow line on the front margin, and a pale stripe on the hind 
margin, very distinctly marked; wings slightly clouded. Hind 
femora pale reddish, with the tip browner, or black (in the male) ; 
hind tibiae black at the base with a pale ring, the rest dull blue, 
with 10 spines on the outer cariua. Subgenital lamina of the 
male shortly and obtusely pointed. 

Length 11-21 mm.; antennae, 9-10 mm.; pronotum, 3'3-4mm.; 
tegmina, 13-39 mm.; hind femur, 10-13 mm. 

BURMA : Metanja, Palon. 

Types in the Genoa Museum. 

Genus GYMNOBOTHRUS. 

Gymnobothrus, Bolivar, Jorn. Sci. Lisb. (2) i, 1889, p. 100. 
TYPE, Gymnobothrus linea-alba, Bol. 

Range. Africa, India. 

Fastigium of the vertex triangular, but narrowly rounded in 
front, excavated above, with the margins between the eyes more 
or less carinately produced ; foveolae triangular or subtrapezoidal, 
mostly filled up, very oblique or perpendicular, not visible from above ; 
frontal carina convex between the antennae, then sulcated, and 
continued to the clypeus. Antennas filiform, or slightly depressed 
before the middle, about as long as the head and pronotum 
together. Pronotum tricarinate, with three transverse sulci, the 
deflexed lobes higher than long. Tegmina perfectly developed, 
the discoidal area with a distinct intercalated nervure, the ulnar 
nervures diverging at the base, with an accessory nervure between 
them. Wings hyaline or slightly infuscated at the tips. Meta- 
sternal lobes more or less converging behind the foveolae, but in 
the male always contiguous. 

131. Gymnobothrus indicus, BoL 

Gymnobothrus indicus, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, Ixx, 1902, 
p. 596, pi. ix, fig. 31. 

Testaceous, varied with brown. Foveolae of the vertex sub- 
quadrate, filled up with black; frontal carina impress-punctate, 



114 TBYXALIN^E. 

sulcate at the ocellus for a long space in the male, and a short 
space in the female. Antennae filiform, slightly depressed. 
Pronotum pale above, the lateral carinse straight before the hind 
sulcus, parallel, but considerably diverging behind ; the deflexed 
lobes broadly brown internally, often with an oblique whitish 
ridge. Tegmina subhyaline, with a yellow scapular line, and 
brown discoidal spots ; the mediastinal area expanded at the base, 
and continued behind the middle ; scapular area rather broad, 
dilated in the male beyond the middle, with waved transverse 
hyaline nervures ; wings hyaline, slightly clouded at the tip. 
Hind femora with four brown bands, often obsolete on the outer 
side, the lower carina of the outer area marked with black 
dots. Metasternal lobes converging and contiguous behind the 
foveolae. 

Length 11-17 mm.; pronotum, 2-3 mm.; tegmina, 10-14 mm.; 
hind femur, 710 mm. 

MADRAS : Madura. 

Types in the collections of Messrs. Pantel and Bolivar. 

132. Gymnobothrns (?) simplex, Walk. 

Stenobothru* simplex, Walker, Cat. Derm. Salt. B.M. v, 1871, 
Suppl. p. 82. 

Ferruginous brown, paler beneath. Vertex obtusely rounded 
in front, face very oblique, the median line sulcated throughout, 
the space between narrow, and of uuiform width ; foveolse verv 
small, not visible from above. From the back of the eye runs a 
broad black band over the back of the head and the pleura, 
bordered above and below with slight pale lines ; on the metapleura 
it becomes evanescent. Antennae scarcely as long as the head and 
pronotum, rather thick filiform. Pronotum tricarinate, with a 
sulcus behind the middle, not cutting the middle carina : behind 
this, both the pronotum and pleura are strongly punctured. 
Tegmina longer than the abdomen, rufo-testaceous, with a short 
black stripe at the base of the costa, an indistinct pale line con- 
tinuous with that above the black band of the pronotum, and a 
longitudinal row of obscure dusky spots. Hind femora appa- 
rently spotted with black at the base. 

Length, to end of tegmina, 18 mm. 

Type in the British Museum. 

Genus MADUREA. 

Madurea, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, Ixx, 1932, p. 596. 
TYPE, Madurea cephdlotes, Bol. 

Range. India. 

Fastigium of the vertex obtusely angulated, distinctly sloping 
when viewed from the side, in the male as long as broad, in the 



MADUREA. OCHBILIDIA. 115 

female transverse; foveolae subtrapezoidal, inferior, not visible 
from above ; front convex, slightly oblique in the female. 
Antennae filiform. Pronotuin constricted in the middle, with the 
hind sulcus placed scarcely beyond the middle ; the median carina 
slender, continuous, intersected by the hind sulcus ; the lateral 
carinae obliterated in the middle. Lobes of the mesosternum 
transverse, separated by a rather narrower space; lobes of the 
metasternurn contiguous, or, in the female, separated by a short 
space behind the foveolae. Tegmina extending to the middle of 
the abdomen. Hind femora thickened, with the outer area 
convex. 



133. Madurea cephalotes, BoL 

Madurea cephalotes, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, Ixx, 1902, 
p. 597, pi. ix, fig. 32. 

Pale yellow, varied with brown and ferruginous. Head large, 
tumid in front in the female, the tip of the front punctured, the 
median carina expanded towards the tip, punctured and sub- 
sulcated; vertex with a very slight median carina. Pronotum 
more subreflexed in the male than in the female ; the back pale, 
or with a 'broad pale central fascia, the sides reddish, with the 
hiud border obtusely and roundly angulate ; the deflexed lobes 
brown in the middle, with a pale submedian callosity. Tegmina 
in the male scarcely extending beyond the middle of the femora ; 
in the female shorter, lanceolate, with the radial area spotted 
with brown. Hind femora rather shining, with three narrow 
reddish-brown bands, more or less obliterated externally, and the 
knees reddish brown ; hind tibiae blue, with a pale ring at the base, 
and the condyle infuscated. Abdomen varied with brown, with a 
pale median longitudinal stripe ; supra-anal lamina of the male 
triangular, with the median sulcus narrowed posteriorly, and sub- 
sinuated behind on each side near the tip ; cerci short, conical ; 
subgenital lamina obtusely produced ; valves of the ovipositor 
sinuated before the tip, but not dentated. 

Length 9-17 mm. ; pronotum, 2 mm. ; tegmina, 6'5 mm. ; hind 
femur, 6-5-9 mm. 

MADRAS: Madura. 

Types in the collections of Messrs. Pautel and Bolivar. 

Genus OCHRILIDIA. 

Ochrilidia, Stfil, Recens. Orth. i, 1873, pp. 92, 104 ; Brunuer, Prodr. 

Eur. Orth. 1882, pp. 83, 91. 
Brachycrotaphus, Krauss, Sitz. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-nat. Cl. 

Ixxvi (i), 1877, p. 47. 

TYPE, Opomola tryxalicera, Fisch. 
Mange. S. Europe, N. & W. Africa, W. Asia, India. 
Head as long as the pronotum ; fastigium of the vertex produced 

i2 



116 TRYXALIN.E. 

considerably beyond the eyes and fully as long, slightly ascending, 
convex, tricarinate, the foveolse narrow, inferior, the frontal carina 
sulcate to the base. Antennae as long as the head and pronotuiu 
together, ensiform, flattened towards the base, and filiform towards 
the tip. Pronotum short, subcylindrical, the middle carina dis- 
tinct, the lateral carinae obsolete. Prosternum with a very short 
tubercle ; mesosternal lobes contiguous in front, and diverging 
behind ; metasternal lobes contiguous. Tegmina narrow, sub- 
hyaline, longer than the abdomen, and rounded at the tips, with 
the scapular area dilated in the male, and with no intercalated 
nervure ; wings hyaline, shorter than the tegmina. Front legs 
very short, middle femora extending a little beyond the base of the 
hind coxae, hind femora short, narrow ; all the tibiae shorter than 
the femora. Supra-anal lamina broad, narrower behind, trisulcate, 
with the hind border quadri-lobate ; the cerci short, simple, incurved 
before the tips ; the subgenital lamina short, cuneiform, impressed 
above as far as the obtuse tip. 

134. Ochrilidia longiceps, Bol. 

Ochrilidia longiceps, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, Ixx, 1902, 
p. 595. 

Pale, more brown on the back, with a pale band running behind 
the eyes as far as the margin of the outer lobes of the prouotum. 
Antennae rather longer than the head and pronotum together. 
Fastigium of the vertex longer than the eye, tectiform above, 
distinctly narrowed in front, and narrowly rounded at the tips ; 
foveola? very long. Pronotum with the carinaa obsolete, except 
the middle carina which is visible in the hinder area ; the deflexed 
lobes longer than high. Mesosternum with the lobes contiguous 
behind, and slightly separated in front. Tegmina considerably 
longer than the abdomen, costal area much dilated, hyaline, 
crossed by 14 nervules, the anterior ulnar nervure suddenly 
approximating to the third radial nervure near the base. Hind 
femora shorter than the abdomen. Supra-anal latniua black on 
the sides ; cerci sinuated above ; subgenital lamina rather short 
and subsinuated at the tip. 

Length 25 mm. ; pronotum, 3'5 mm. ; tegmina, 20 mm. ; hind 
femur, 10-2 mm.' 

MADRAS: Madura. 

Type in the collection of M. Pantel. 

Genus DOCIOSTAURUS. 

Dociostaw-us, Fieber, Lotos, iii, June 1853, p. 118. 
Stauronotus, Fischer, Orth. Eur., Nov. 1853, pp. 297, 351. 

TYPE, Gryllus cruciatus, Charp. ( = Gi-yllus maroccanus, Thunb.). 
Eange. S. Europe, Asia, N. & W. Africa. 



DOCIOSTAUEUS. 117 

Head large, slightly ascending ; fastigium of the vertex triangular, 
separated on each side from the eye by a well-marked carina ; 
foveolae of the vertex rather superior, broad, rhomboidal, con- 
verging towards the tips. Antennae filiform, as long as the head 
and pronotum together ; face slightly oblique, flattened, and 
hardly sulcated. Pronotum strongly constricted before the 
middle, tricarinate, the lateral carinae angulated inwards. The 
sulci scarcely indicated ; the deflexed lobes much higher than 
long, with a short curved pale carina on the metapleura. Tegmina 
and wings perfectly developed ; tegmina rather long and narrow, 
obtusely rounded at the extremity, and with the costal area 
widened in the male ; wings rather shorter than the tegmina, 
hyaline. Hind femora as long as the abdomen, simple. Hind 
tibise spinose, with the two inner apical spurs subequal ; hind tarsi 
very slender, with the claws and arolium small. Subgenital 
lamina horizontally produced in the male ; valves of the ovipositor 
smooth, short. 

Key to the Species. 

[The manuscript here leaves doubt as to the author's intention respecting 
the following species of Walker's. This is probably due to the very 
unsatisfactory condition of the types. The following notes may help 
to distinguish the species : 

1 (2) Tegmina shorter than abdomen, 

with 3 or 4 nearly black spots 
in discoidal area, separated by 
yellow spots of smaller size ; 

wings slightly infuscate at apex, apicalis, Walk., p. 117, and 
turbatus, Walk.* p. 118. 

2 (1) Tegmina longer than abdomen, 

with 3 or 4 small light brown 
spots in discoidal area; wings 
entirely clear. 

3 (4) Pronotum without distinct median 

stripe ; tegmina with some 
vague small spots on radial 

area mundu*, Walk., p. 119, and 

epachromoides,\J s\]s.., p. 119. 

4 (3) Pronotum with distinct median 

stripe ; tegmina with three large 

spots on radial area decisus, Walk., p. 120.] 



135. Dociostaurus apicalis, Walk. 

Stenobothrus apicalis, Walker, ' 
Suppl. p. 80. 

Brown, abdomen and under surface testaceous. Antennae 
* Possibly sexes of same species. 



Stenobothrm apicalis, Walker, Oat. Derm. Salt. B.M. r, 1871, 
Suppl. p. 80. 




118 TBYXALIK-E. 

testaceous, slightly thickened and brown towards the tips. Space ou 

the depression of the fastigium pale, continuous with a pale median 

stripe running to the back of the 

Mhead; face subcarinate, punctured, 
hardly sulcate. Pronotum short, 
ftS r = ^ f ^ obtusely angulated behind, the carina? 
whitish, a yellow stripe running 
obliquely upwards from the end of the 
metapleura. with a blackish spot 
beyond its extremity. Tegmina sub- 
hyaline, the costal area brown at the 
base, then hyaline, and much expanded 
to its extremity at three-fourths of 
the length of the teginen. Central lon- 
gitudinal area with four spots, the two 
basal ones dark brown, the two outer 
Fig. 90. Z>oczoste?M-Ms <y?2^' s - ones reticulate ; beyond them, nearer 
the costa, are two more spots, one 

brown and one light brown ; the hind area of the tegmina is yel- 
lowish brown, traversed for half its length bya brown stripe tapering 
from the base. AVings hyaline, slightly clouded towards the tips, 
rather shorter than the tegmina. Hind femora testaceous, in- 
distinctly banded with brown, knees brown, tibise testaceous, brown 
at the base, and on the upperside in the middle, with about 10 
small blackish spines on each carina. 

Length 13 mm. ; expanse of tegmina, 21 mm. 

BOMBAY. 

Type in the British Museum. 

136. Dociostaurus turbatus, Walk. 

Stenobothms tttrbatus, Walker, Cat. Derm. Salt. B.M. v, 1871, 
Suppl. p. 81, 

Lighter and darker brown and testaceous. Head brown, with 
a testaceous stripe running through the middle of the depression 
on the fastigium (there is a dark spot in the angle on each side) 
to the back of the head, and a broad testaceous line running from 
between the eyes and antennse outwards and downwards, till it 
nearly meets another broad testaceous line running from the 
lower back corner of the eyes to the lower part of the cheeks ; 
face with four slight carinae ; not sulcated, but flattened and punc- 
tured between them ; antennae testaceous, filiform, slightly brown 
at the extreme tip ; foveolae of the vertex rhomboidal. Tegmina 
with alternate yellowish and light i-eddish-brown longitudinal 
lines ; central area yellowish, with a row of six brown oblong spots, 
longer than broad, extending from the base nearly to the extremity. 
Legs testaceous, hind femora very obliquely banded with brown 
above and within, and stippled with brown on the outer area ; 
hind tibiae with about 10 or 11 small black spines on each carina. 



DOCIOSTAUB17S. 119 

Length 16 mm. 
BOMBAY. 

Type in the British Museum. 

137. Dociostaurus mundus, Walk. 

Stenobothrus mundus, AValker, Cat. Derm. Salt. B.M. v, 1871, 
Suppl. p. 79. 

Testaceous, face more rufous, not sulcated, with the carinae 
indistinct. Fastigium of the vertex subtriangular, rounded at the 
extremity, the carina< running backwards to within the eyes ; 
foveolae superior, oblong, punctured within. Pronotum tricarinate, 
the lateral carinae angulated inwards halfway between the base and 
the suture, which is placed about the middle of the pronotum. 
Tegmina subhyaline, tinged with rufo-testaceous towards the base, 
costal area more brownish at base, subcostal space with a row of 
five narrow brown spots, continued by more or less distinctly marked 
paler brown spots and dots on the outer surface of the tegmina. 
Wings hyaline. Hind femora as long as the abdomen, indistinctly 
banded above with brown, knees marked with blackish ; tibia? 
whitish, with 11 small black spines on the outer row, and 9 on 
the inner. 

BOMBAY. 

Ltngth 17 mm. ; expanse of tegmina, 36 mm. 

Type in the British Museum. 

Probably a discoloured specimen of the next species. 

138. Dociostaurus epacromoides, Walk. 

Stenobothms epncromoides, Walker, Cat. Derm. Salt. B.M. v, 1871, 
Suppl. p. 81. 

Apparently a better-coloured example of D. mundus. Testa- 
ceous ; face with a black spot under each eye, and a curved carina 
running from between each eye and the antennas to the extremity 
of the clypeus ; it is marked with a black spot at its extremity, 
and two black dots above. A black band runs behind the eye over 
the head and pronotum, crossing the whitish lateral carinae, the 
hinder half of which it borders within, but not to the extremity ; 
on each side of the median carina, however, are two rudimentary 
blackish carinse, at the extremity of the pronotum. On the sides 
of the head a broad dusky band runs backwards from the black 
spot below the eye ; on the pleura it becomes more distinct, and 
in the middle of the pleura is a white callous spot surrounded 
with black. Tegmina nearly as in D. mundus, but the brownish 
spots are mostly larger and more crowded. Wings hyaline. 

Length 19 mm. ; expanse of tegmina, 36 mm. 

BOMBAY. 

Type in the British Museum. 



120 



TBYXALJN^. 



139. Dociostaurus decisus, Walk. 

Stenobothrus decisus, Walker, Cat. Derm. Salt. B.M. v. 1871, Suppl. 
p. 80. 

Brown ; fastigiura of the vertex subtriangular, the foveolae 
oval, sides of face below the eyes and behind the lateral carinae 
paler; a pale stripe runs from the fas- 
tigium over the head and pronotum ; the 
lateral carin narrowly pale ; three trans- 
verse sutures indented on the sides of the 
median carina, the hindmost at the middle 
of the pronotum. Pleura brownish, with 
an oblique pale carina behind. Tegmina 
rufo-testaceous, with a row of large brown 
spots along the central area, and with 
smaller brown dots between these and the 
costa ; wings hyaline, with the nervures 
of the costal area reddish. Abdomen 
carinated above. Hind femora testaceous, 
brown on the outer side nearly to the 
extremity ; tibiae red, yellowish towards 
the base, with about 12 small black spines 
on each carina. 

Length 23 inm.; expanse of tegmina, 
38 mm. 




Fig. 91. 

Dociostaurus decisus. 



BOMBAY. 

Types in the British Museum. 



Genus STENOBOTHRUS. 
Stenobothrus, Fischer, Orth. Eur. 1853, pp. 290, 313. 

TYPE, Oryllus lineaius, Panz. 

Range. Europe, N. & W. Asia, N. Africa, Madagascar, Australia, 
Chile. 

Vertex triangular, obtuse ; foveolse superior, long, narrow ; front 
only slightly sloping, prominent, more or less sulcated ; antennae 
filiform. Pronotum tricarinate, constricted in the middle, with 
one transverse sulcus. Tegmina and wings generally perfectly 
developed, hyaline or subhyaline. Hind femora unarmed, hind 
tibia? spinose. Pectus broad, inesosternal lobes widely separated, 
metasterual lobes produced behind the foveolae, and distant. 
Tympanum on the first abdominal segment covered ; anal segment 
longitudinally sulcate ; supra-anal lamina in male obtusely tri- 
angular ; subgenital lamina in male recurved, obtuse or pointed at 
the tip. Valves of ovipositor short, exserted, sometimes with a 
lateral tooth at the base. 



STENOBOT1IEUS. JEOLOPUS. 121 

140. Stenobothms (?) luteipes, Walk. 

Stenobothrus luteipes, Walker, Cat. Derm. Salt. B.M. v. 1871, Suppl. 
p. 82. 

Testaceous, mottled and stippled with dusky markings ; vertex 
rounded in front, and backwards at the sides as far as a broad 
pale stripe extending across the head, pronotum and closed 
tegmina ; the outer angles of the vertex form small black de- 
pressions ; foveolae oval, visible from above ; face slightly oblique, 
sulcated in the male, but scarcely so in the female, and with curved 
lateral carinae running from between the eyes and the antennae. 
Head with three broad blackish stripes behind the eyes, the first 
running across the head, pronotum, and the whole central longi- 
tudinal area of the tegmina, the second straight, hardly reaching 
the extremity of the pronotum, and the third very broad, covering 
the hinder part of the head and the pleura except the metapleura. 
Tegmina with the centre dusky, and the costa and inner margin 
broadly pale ; wings subhyalirie. Hind femora testaceous, with 
three blackish bands above, and the knees black ; outer area 
brownish, or at least with some blackish dots along the upper 
border ; tibiae red, yellowish towards the base, with 12 small black 
spines on the outer, and 10 on the inner border, Tegmina and 
hind femora about as long as the abdomen. 

Length 20-22 mm. 

BOMBAY ; KASHMIR : Baltistan. 

Type in the British Museum. 

Genus .ffiOLOPUS. 

Aiolopus, Fieber, Lotos, iii, May 1853, p. 100 ; id., Svn. Eur. Orth. 

1854, p. 11. 

Epaeromia, Fischer, Orth. Eur., Nov. 1853, pp. 296, 360. 
JEolopus, Kirby, Syn. Cat. Orth. iii, 1910, p. 120. 

TYPE, Gryllus thalassinus, F. 

Mange. Europe, Africa, Asia, Malay Archipelago, Australia. 

Vertex triangular, extending as far in front of the eyes as the 
length of the head behind them, concave above, the foveolae longer 
than broad, punctured, not contiguoiis ; front continuous, but 
rarely sulcated, lateral carinaa running from below the antennae to 
the clypeus, and a short carina running obliquely forward below 
the eye ; the cheeks more strongly punctured than the rest of the 
face. Antennae filiform, rather longer than the head and 
pronotum. Pronotum constricted in front, tricarinate, the lateral 
carinae incurved, slightly marked, generally with a pale border ; 
three transverse sulci, the hindermost only cutting the median 
carina and placed a little before the middle of the pronotum. 
Tegmina long, obtusely rounded at the extremity, with the media- 
stinal nervure extending to the tip, and the mediastinal area 
expanded at the base, and traversed by an accessory nervure ; 
wings ample, rather shorter than the tegmina, subhyaline. Hind 



122 TRYXALIXJE. 

femora slender, as long as the abdomen, red or yellow, with dark 
bands or spots ; tibiae red or blue, with yellow and brown bands, 
spinose ; hind tibia? with small arolia. First abdominal segment 
with an open tympanum ; supra-anal lamina in the male divided 
from the anal segment by a transverse sulcus ; anal segment 
longitudinally sulcated, and the lamina rounded ; valves of ovi- 
positor rather long, free, unarmed. 

Key to the Species. 

Apical half of hind tibiae red tumulus, F. 

Apical half of hind tibise blue ajfinis, Bol. 

141. JEolopus tamulus, F. 

Gryllus tamulus, Fabricius, Ent. Syst. Suppl. 1798, p. 195. 
Gryllus dorsalis, Thunberg, Mem. Acad. Pe"tersb. v, 1815, p. 229. 
Gomphocertu tricoloripes, Burraeister, Handb. Ent. ii. 1838, p. 649. 
Epacromia simulafrir, Walker, Cat. Derm. Salt. B.M. iv, 1870, 
p. 773. 

Green, brown, or reddish, generally with two parallel brown 
stripes on the vertex, running within each eye to the back of the 
head ; and a broad brown band running from the back of each 
eye to tbe end of the pronotum, and ex- 
tending over more or less of the pleura, 
which is then marked with several white 
spots ; the upper side of the dark band is 
generally bordered by a slender white line 
in front, which afterwards intersects it, 
turning obliquely outwards. Tegmina rather 
long, varied with brown and subhyaline ; 
mediastinal area with two alternate long 
brown and whitish spaces, the outermost of 
each broader ; below the first brown space 
runs a bright green stripe to the first white 

Fig. 92 JEolopiis stripe; and below the green stripe are often 

tamulus. some small white spots on a light brown 

ground. The outer part of the tegmina is 

generally subhyaline, more or less spotted with brown ; wings 
greenish hyaline, more or less dusky towards the hind margin. 
Hind femora slender, as long as or longer than the abdomen; 
green, yellow, or reddish, transversely banded with brown ; hind 
tibiae yellow towards the base, with a blackish spot before and 
behind, blue towards the middle, and red towards the extremity. 
Length 18 mm. 
MADEAS. 
Type of E. simulatrix in the British Museum. 

142. JEolopus affinis, Bol. 

Epacromia affinis, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, Ixx, 1902, p. GOO. 
Rufous-brown, sometimes with a rather irregular pale median 




^EOLOPUS. AULACOBOTHIirS. 123 

band on the head and pronotum. Scutellutn of the vertex sub- 
triangular, obtusely rounded off in front ; costal ridge flattened, 
punctured. Pronotum with a median carina, considerably ex- 
panded beyond the nricidle, the sutures indistinct, the hind border 
obtusely angulated. Abdomen yellowish, with a more or less 
suffused row of dark dorsal spots. Hind femora rather short and 
broad, yellowish, banded with black ; hind tibiae reddish towards 
the base, with the apical half blue. Tegmina extending one-third 
beyond the hind femora, subhyaline, varied with darker and lighter 
brown, and with yellowish and whitish spots along the costa ; 
wings greenish hyaline. 

Length 19-24 mm.; pronotum, 3-2-4 mm.; tegmina, 18-22 
mm. ; hind femur, 10-5-12 mm. 

MADRAS : Madura ; BOMBAY : Bandra. 

Types in the collections of Messrs. Pantel and Bolivar. 



Genus AULACOBOTHKUS. 
Aulacobotlirus, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, Ixx, 1902, p. 597. 

TYPE, Aulacobotlirus strictus, Bol. 

Range. India. 

Vertex triangular, pointed in the male, and concave above ; 
foveola? superior, well-marked, oblongo-rhomboidal ; antenna? 
filiform ; costal ridge convex, smooth or strongly sulcated. 
Pronotum flattened, iingulated behind ; middle carina continuous, 
only intersected by the hind sulcus, with the lateral carinse dis- 
tinctly beyond the margins of the disk, intersected by the three 
sulci, and diverging behind ; deflexed lobes higher than long, with 
the hinder angle straight. Tegmina completely developed, or 
abbreviated ; mediastinal area with an adventitious nervure, which 
is complete in the male, and sinuated, extending to the front 
margin of the tegmina; nervures of the scapular area oblique, 
sinuated, regularly reticulated, and more dilated in the male than 
iu the female ; intercalated nervure more or less distinct ; ulnar 
nervures diverging. Wings fully developed or rudimentary. 
Hind femora above distinctly spotted, with the outer area slightly 
convex ; hind tibiae red ; the two inner spurs of the tibiae dis- 
tinctly marginal, the apical spur straight, only curved at the tip. 
Metasternal lobes produced behind the foveolae, and contiguous in 
both sexes, or rarely, very slightly separated in the female. First 
abdominal segment with an open tympanum on the side; supra- 
anal lamina in the male acutely triangular ; cerci short, conical ; 
valves of the ovipositor short, projecting. 

[The species of this genus are only known from descriptions 
from which it has been found to be impossible to draw up a 
key.] 



124 TRYXA.LIN.<E. 

143. Aulacobothrus strictus, Bol. 

Aulacobothrus strictus, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, Ixx, 1902, 
p. 598. 

Size rather large ; body somewhat compressed. Colour varied 
with pale and brown markings. Foveolffi of the vertex elongated ; 
frontal ridge sulcated, with impressed punctures, the margins 
thickened ; antennae brown. Pronotum nearly rectangular 
behind, with the hinder area rugose, and the principal sulcus 
placed in the middle ; the lateral carinae nearly straight, diverging 
behind, often intersected by a black band. Tegmina perfectly 
developed, extending beyond the hind femora, infuscated towards 
the tip ; mediastinal, radial, and ulnar areas with a spurious 
nervure. Space between the inesosternal lobes narrower than the 
lobes ; metasterual lobes contiguous in both sexes. Hind femora 
with the knees brown on both sides ; tibiae red, with a pale ring 
at the base. 

Length 15-21 mm.; pronotum, 3-4 mm. ; tegmina, 12-19 mm. ; 
hind lemur, 9-12-5 mm. 

MADRAS : Kodaikanal. 

Types in the collections of Messrs. Pantel and Bolivar. 

144. Aulacobothrus socius, Bol. 

Aulacobothrm socius, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, Ixx, 1902, 
p. 599. 

Moderately compressed, varied with pale and greyish-brown 
markings. Foveolae of the vertex rhomboidal ; frontal ridge 
convex, impress-punctate ; antennae concolorous. Pronotum ob- 
tusely angulated behind, or rectangular, the hinder area hardly 
rugose, the typical sulcus placed in the middle, the lateral carinae 
waved, approximating to the median carina? in the middle, and 
widely divergent behind, a slender ridge externally separating the 
dorsum from the deflexed lobes. Tegmina perfectly developed, 
extending rather beyond the hind femora ; the cliscoidal area with 
a row of black subquadrate spots, the mediastinal, radial, and 
ulnar areas with a more or less distinct spurious nervure. Space 
between the mesosternal lobes somewhat narrower than the lobes; 
metasternal lobes contiguous behind the foveolae in both sexes. 
Hind femora with three oblique brown bands, and the knees 
brown ; tibiae red, with a pale ring at the base. 

Length 13-20 mm.; pronotum, 2-8-3-8 mm.; tegmina, 11-15 
mm.; hind femur, 811 mm. 

MADRAS : Kodaikanal, Madura. 

Type in the collection of St. Joseph's College, Trichinopoly. 



145. Aulacobothrus infernus, Bol. 

Aulacobothrus infernus, Bolivar, 
p. 599. 

Body moderately compressed; pale grey varied with brown, 



Aulacobothrus infernus, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Eut. France, Ixx. 1902, 
p. 599. 



AT7LACOBOTHEUS. 125 

sometimes with a continuous pale stripe above. Foveolae of the 
vertex oblong-rhomboidal, not elongated ; frontal ridge convex, 
impress-punctate; antennae concolorous. Pronotum obtusely 
angulated behind, with the hinder area punctate, and the principal 
sulcus placed distinctly behind the middle, the lateral carinae 
angulately inflexed in the middle. Tegmina imperfectly developed 
(at least in the female), only extending as far as the middle of the 
hind femora ; mediastinal area with a distinct spurious nervure. 
Mesosternal lobes separated by a rather narrower space than 
their width ; metasternal lobes closely approximating behind the 
foveolse. Hind femora indistinctly banded with brown ; hind 
tibiae red, with a slightly paler ring at the base. 

Length 17 mm. ; pronotum, 3*8 mm.; tegmiua, 7'5 mm.; hind 
femur, 10*5 mm. 

MADRAS : Kodaikanal. 

Type in the collection of St. Joseph's College, Trichinopoly. 

146. Aulacobothrus tseniatus, Sol. 

Aulacobothrus tceniatns, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, Ixx, 1902, 
p. 600. 

Body moderately compressed ; pale reddish. Antennae rather 
long, extending as far as the hind coxae in the male. Foveolae of 
the vertex rhomboidal, broader in front; frontal ridge impress- 
punctate, rather broad at the base, and impressed as far as the 
eyes ; head often with a broad brown band behind the eyes, con- 
taining a pale line. Pronotum obtusely angulated behind, the 
disk rather smooth, the margins intersected by a brown band, the 
lateral carina3 nearly parallel in front, but slightly flexuous in the 
middle, and often rather indistinct in the male ; on the hinder 
area they are wide apart, and the callus white ; upper half of the 
deflexed lobes brown. Tegmina extending nearly to the tip of 
the hind femora, the anal area paler, and the mediastinal area 
occupying the basal third in the male ; the scapular area in the 
male expanded in the middle, and marked in the female with a 
narrow pale line ; the third radial nervure in the female forked in 
the middle of the tegmina, and the discoidal area reticulated, the 
ulnar veins diverging behind. Metasternal lobes contiguous in the 
male, and almost so in the female. Hind femora with the outer 
area infuscated to the upper carina, and indistinctly trifasciate 
with brown, and the knees brown on both sides ; hind tibiae 
reddish, with grey pubescence. 

Length 15-20 mm. ; pronotura, 2-8-4 mm. ; tegmina, H'5-15 
mm. ; hind femur, 9-1 1*5 mm. 

S. lUDIA. 

Type in the collection of St. Joseph's College, Trichinopoly. 

147. Aulacobothrus physopoda, Nav. 

Scyllina physoiwda, Navas, Bol. Sci. Aragon, iii, 1904, p. 133. 
<J . Ferruginous brown. Head shorter than the pronotum, with 



126 

a longitudinal line on the head ; the fastigium of the vertex 
moderately sloping, the front very oblique, and the costal ridge 
suleated, the carinae distinctly diverging from the base to the tip ; 
eyes large, much larger than the lower part of the cheeks, oval, 
moderately approximating on the vertex; behind the eyes is a 
brown band continuous with a lateral band on the pronotum. 
Pronotum with the metazona shorter than the prozona, the front 
margin obtusely angulated, a middle carina continuous with the 
line on the vertex, the lateral lobes longer than broad, with the 
front and hind margins straight and parallel, the outer margin 
oblique, and convex beyond the middle. Tegmina longer than 
the abdomen, narrow, rounded at the tip, with the front and inner 
margins nearly parallel, very broadly sinuous, the spurious ner- 
vures indistinct, with no intercalated nervure ; but in the middle 
of the discoidal area, at two-thirds from the base, is an adventitious 
intercalated nervure formed by a sinuous confluence of nervures. 
Wings hyaline, with brownish black nervures. Four front femora 
thickened, curved above, hind femora compressed, longer than the 
abdomen, but shorter than the tegmina, and with small genicular 
lobes ; hind tibiaa with a terminal spine, the inner spurs unequal, 
the inner one almost twice as long as the outer. 

Length 13 mm. ; pronotum, 3 mm. ; antennae, 4 mm. ; tegmina, 
10*4 miu. ; hind femur, 8 mm. 

SIKKIM : Kurseong. 

in the collection of Father Navas. 



148. Anlacobothrus rubripes, Nav. 

Scyllina rubripes, Navas, Bol. Soc. Aragon, iv, 1905, p. 53. 

$ . Ochreous brown, with the hind tibiaa bright red. Head ochra- 
ceous, finely dotted with brown ; fastigium of the vertex moderately 
sloping, the temples distinctly margined above ; frontal ridge 
suleated in the middle ; lateral carinae sinuated ; eyes pyriform, 
ocelli brownish black. Antennae filiform, yellowish at the base, 
and blackish at the tips. Palpi pale, the first and second joints 
spotted with brown. Pronotum with the prozona shorter than 
the metazona, carinated in the middle, the carina only intersected 
by the typical sulcus ; the front margin straight, the hind margin 
produced into an acute angle ; the lateral lobes transverse, with 
the front and hind margins parallel, nearly straight, oblique exter- 
nally, sinuated, with the disk thickly infuscated in the metazona 
on the hind margin ; meso- and meta-sternal lobes not contiguous. 
Abdomen pale beneath, unspotted. Tegmiua and wings longer 
than the abdomen, the former brown, with small distinct sub- 
hyaline ochreous spots, and a large irregular one, and white 
transverse nervures beyond the middle ; before the middle closely 
reticulated ; an intercalated nervure at the middle of the discoidal 
area, not extending to the base. Wings hyaline, sulphureous from 
the base as far as one-fourth in front and as far as the anal 
margin behind ; the first three lobes iufuscated at the tip. Four 



AULACOBOTHEUS. STAXJEODERUS. 127 

front legs with numerous brown rings, the hind legs blotched with 
brown ; hind femora longer than the abdomen, with the lower 
sulcus wholly bright red ; hind tibiae shorter than the femora, 
bright red, with the base narrowly brown, and with two or three 
indistinct spots on the side near the base ; spines brownish, the 
inner spurs unequal, the outer nearly twice as long as the inner ; 
9 short spines on the outer, and 10 on the inner margin, red, 
tipped with black ; tarsi pale brown. 

Length 23 mm. ; pronotum, 5 mm. ; tegmiua, 25 mm. ; hind 
femur, 14 mm. 

SIKEJM : Kurseong. 

Type in the collection of Father K"avas. 

Genus STAURODERUS. 

Stauroderus, Bolivar, Ann. Sci. Nat. Porto, iv, 1897, p. 224, v, 1898, 
p. 4. 

TYPE, Stenobothrm morii, Brunn. (nee J?ab.). 

Range. Europe, Asia, N. & ~W. Africa. 

Vertex subtri angular, obtuse ; foveolae superior, narrow, well- 
marked ; antennae filiform ; front hardly oblique, frontal ridge 
carinated. Prouotuin with the lateral carinse sharply angulated 
inwards before the middle ; tegmina longer than the abdomen, the 
mediastinal area slightly expanded on the costa near the base, 
and not extending beyond the middle of the tegmina ; wings 
hyaline. 

149. Stauroderus bicolor, Cliarp. 

Gnjllus bicolor, Charpentier, Hor. Soc. Ent. Ross. 1825, p. 161. 

Beddish-brown, greenish, or black, with a slight median carina 
on the head and pronotuin, which are lined 
with black, or are more largely black, the 
white angulated lateral carinae of the pro- 
notum being usually very distinctly 
marked. Antenna? half as long again 
as the head and pronotum together, and 
of equal length in both sexes. Tegmina 
subhyaline, greenish along the costa, 
sometimes more or less varied with pale 
and dusky spots ; wings hyaline, some- 
times clouded at the tips. Legs generally 
yellowish or reddish, femora often with 
dusky streaks or markings ; tibiae with 
about 12 small black-tipped spines on 
each side. Abdomen brown, paler be- 
Fig.93. neath, and sometimes tipped with red. 

Stauroderus bicolor. Length 15-24 mm.; pronotum, 2'5-4'8 

mm. ; tegmina, 12-21 mm. 

EUEOPE ; N. AFEICA ; INDIA ; BUBMA ; CHINA : JAPAN. 




128 TBYXALINJE. (EDIPODIN.E. 

Genus CHORTHIPPUS. 

Chorthippits, Fieber, Kelch, Orthopt. Oberschles. 1852, p. 1. 

TYPE, Gryllus elegans, Charp. (= Acrydiwn albomaryinatum, 
de Geer). 

Range. Europe, Asia, North America. 

General characters of Stauroderus, but the carina} of the pro- 
notum are subparallel, the lateral carina3 only diverging slightly 
beyond the middle. 

150. Chorthippus dorsatus, Zett. 

Gryllus dorsatus, Zetterstedt, Orth. Suec. 1821, p. 82. 

Colour variable, green, testaceous, or brown. Antennae sub- 
depressed, longer than the head and pronotum together. Pronotum 
with the transverse sulcus placed about the middle, the head not 
carinated above, the pronotum strongly tricarinate, the median 
carina slightly raised, the lateral carinae slightly incurved before 
the middle, and then diverging. Tegmina longer than the abdo- 
men in the male, usually shorter in the female, subhyaline, some- 
times with a longitudinal yellow scapular line ; wings hyaline, 
with brown nervures. Pectus and front legs pilose. Legs not 
spotted ; hind tibiae with about 12 small spines, decreasing in size 
towards the base. Subgenital lamina in the male incurved, 
pubescent ; valves of the ovipositor unarmed. 

Length 14-26 mm. ; pronotum, 3-5 mm.; tegmina, 10-21 mm. 

EUROPE ; N. & W. ASIA ; BURMA. 



Subfamily IV. (EDIPODIN.E. 

Key to the Genera. 

[ 1 (18) Carina of pronotum complete, or cut 
by one groove. 

2 (14) Thorax rather short. 

3 (17) Basal half of tegmina opaque. 

4 (13) Transverse veins in apical part of 

tegmina erect, the cells square or 
oblong. 

5 (10) Wings without well-marked fascia. 

6 (9) Tegmina narrow, with square or 

elongate cells. <- -JOQ 

7 (8) Internal calcaria of posterior tibi* , TJITTOPTERNJS, Sauss., 

not greatly unequal, normal . . . . j LERmAj Bo] ^ p 13g > 

* This genus is unknown to me. The author says that it differs from 
Dittopternis and Heteropternis in having the calcaria normal. C. O. W. 



(EDIPODIN-E. 



129 



8 (7) Internal calcaria of posterior tibiae 

greatly unequal, the lower one 
much longer than the other, 
abruptly hooked at apex, very 
acute 

9 (6) Tegniiua relatively broad, with 

square or oblong cells ; body 



10 (5) Wings with well-marked fascia. 

11 (12) Pronotum without colour marks . . 

12 (11) Pronotum with pale marks arranged 

so as to form an x 

13 (4) Transverse veins of apical part of 

tegmina oblique, arranged zig-zag. 

14 (2) Thorax long. 

]"> (16) Pronotum with strong crest or 
acutely tectiform, without rugae ; 
wings without black at apex .... 

10 (15) Pronotum with well-marked median 
carina, and Avith numerous longi- 
tudinal rugae 

17 (3) Basal and apical portions of tegmina 

both subhyaline 

18 (1) Dorsum of pronotum or its carina 

cut by two grooves. 

19 (26) Pronotum without very distinct 

crest. 

20 (21) Tegmiua of male rather short and 

dilated, the apical third strongly 
curved backwards ; antennae acu- 
minate at apex 

21 (20) Tegmina normal ; antennae filiform. 

22 (23) Body very robust ; tegmina rather 

broad ; radial veins of wings some- 
what thickened, especially in the 
male, and then attenuated at apex. 

23 (22) Body normal; tegmina long and 

narrow. 

24 (25) Pronotum short, broadly rounded 

behind, or very slightly angular. . 

25 (24) Pronotum distinctly angular behind; 

basal third of tegmina generally 
opaque 

26 (19) Pronotum with well-marked crest, 

which, when viewed sideways, is 
strongly bilobed in front ........ 



[p. 141. 
HETEROPTERNIS, StSl, 

[p. 130. 
CHL<EBORA, Sauss, 

[p. 132. 

QuiROGUESIA, Bol., 

(EDALEUS, Fieb., p. 142. 
[p. 134. 
PTERNOSCIRTA, Sauss., 



[p. 144. 
GASTRIMARGUS, Sauss., 

[p. 137. 
MORPHACRIS, Walk, 

LOCUSTA, L., p. 145. 



[p. 147. 
MKCISTOPTEUYX, bau.ss., 



BRYODEMA, Fieb., p. 



[p. ir>2. 
ACROTYLUS, Fieb., 

[p. 153. 
SPHINGONOTUS, lieb., 



TRILOPHIDIA, StSl, 

[p. 148. 




Fig. 94. Side view of head of Locus/a danica. 



1 30 (EDIPODIN.5;. 



Genus CHLffiBORA, Sauss. 

Chtebora, Saussure, Me"m. Soc. Geneve, xxviii (9). 1884,' pp. 54. 
132; xxx (1), 1888, pp. 18, 19, 33. 

TYPE, Chlosbora grossa, Sauss. 

Range. India, Madagascar. 

Body stout. Antenme filiform, moderately thick, as long as 
the head and pronotum together in the female, and rather longer 
in the male. Vertex sloping into the clypeus, with scarcely an 
indication of a division ; face quadricarinate, the central pair 
commencing on the inner side of the upper surface of the eyes, 
curving inwards within the antennae, and then running down- 
wards, but not quite extending to the end of the clypeus; the 
outer carinae running from the eyes opposite the antennae, and 
curving forwards and then backwards to the outer lower corner of 
the clypeus. Pronotum with a strongly-raised median carina, not 
divided by the slightly-indicated sulci, with the hinder extremity 
subtriangular and obtusely truncated at the end ; lateral lobes 
higher than long, with the front and hind borders nearly parallel 
and the lower margin convex. Tegmina long, nearly parallel- 
sided, slightly expanded on the costa near the base, opaque and 
very thickly reticulated to beyond the middle, the outer area sub- 
hvaline, more or less closely reticulated. Wings ample, rather 
shorter than the tegmina, opaque at the base and hyaline on the 
margins. Hind femora thick, moderately long, very slightly 
serrulated on the upper carina? ; hind tibiae spinose, pubescent. 
Mesosternal lobes separated by a wide oval space between the 
narrow curved foveolae at the extremity of the mesosternum. 

Key to the Species. 

1 (4) Wings yellow at base. 

"2 (3) Crest of pronotum arched, tectiform 

in front grossa, Sauss., p. 130. 

3 ('2) Crest of pronotum nearly straight, more 

laniellated bramina, Sauss.. p. 131. 

4 (1) Wings red at base crtusa, Walk., p. 181. 



151. Chlcebora grossa, Sauss. 

Chlosbora grossa, Saussure, Me"m. Soc. Geneve, xxviii (9), 1884, 
p. 132; xxx (1), 1888, p. 33; Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, 
Ixx, 1902, p. 604. 

Yellowish grey; head large, rather smooth, especially at the 
sides, which are ashy ; face vertical, slightly arched ; vertex 
broad between the eyes, carinulated at the base of its scutellum, 
which is smooth, broad, rather short, and broadly truncated in 
front ; facial ridge punctate, rugulose, subparallel-sided, and 



CHLCEBORA. 131 

slightly narrowest by the vertex ; tempora trigonal and lanceolate. 
Pronotum above indistinctly tuberculate in the front and middle 
of the central area, obtusely angulated anteriorly, behind bluntly 
rectangular ; median crest continuous, subarcuate (seen laterally), 
tectiform in the front area, very slightly intersected by the 
principal sulcus ; lateral lobes between the sulci smooth, sparingly 
punctured, but elsewhere thickly ; the lower margin arched, the 
front margin oblique or slightly sinuated. Tegmina extending 
as far as the middle tibiae, coriaceous and mottled with black 
towards the base, with the apical third hyaline and reticulated ; 
iilnar area much broader than the median area, with an incom- 
plete arched intercalated nervure. AVings yellow (?) at the base, 
hyaline beyond, with a narrow brown marginal border. Hind 
legs long, hind femora obsoletely banded with brown, the carinae 
dotted with black, the lower margin arched, the upper very finely 
serrulated and the basal half dilated ; hind tibiae red, with a 
pale ring at the base ; arolia small, membranous ; hind tibiae with 
10 spines in the outer row 5 large and 5 rudimentary. 

Length 42 mm. ; tegmiua, 38 mm. ; hind femur, 20*5-24 mm. 

N. INDIA : Himalayas ; MADRAS : Trichinopoly. 

152. Chlcebora bramina, Sams. 

Chlwbora bramina, Saussure, Mem. Soc. Geneve, xxviii (9), 1884, 
p. 132 xxx (1), 1888, p. 33. 

Thick, rufo-testaceous, dotted with black. Head with the front 
rather augulated, facial ridge sulcated at the ocellus and punctate 
at the vertex ; scutellum of the vertex truncated in front and 
very shortly carinated behind ; tempora trigonal. Pronotum 
punctate and slightly granulated, the crest compressed, nearly 
straight, rectangularly produced behind. Tegmina brown, with 
two narrow pale fasciae, the basal half coriaceous beyond the 
middle, with irregular polygonal reticulations, the apical half 
spotted or tessellated with grey. Wings sulphur-yellow, with a 
rather broad transverse brown band, extending to the crenate 
hind margin ; tip brown. Hind tibiae red, with a pale ring at the 
'base. 

Length 23 mm. ; tegmina, 25 mm. 

INDIA. 

Type in the collection of Brunner von Wattenwyl. 



15J3. Chloebora crassa, Wall: 

(Edipoda crassa, Walker, Cat. Derm. Salt. B.M. iv, 1870, p. 741. 
Chlcebora crassa, Saussure, Mem. Soc. Geneve, xxx (1), 1888, 
p. 33. 

Brown, very stout, finely pubescent, sides of head and pronotum 
jinore or less varied with whitish. Head large, rounded, scutellum 



132 



(EDIPODIX.i:. 



of the vertex obsolete, very shortly carinulated at the base, and 
slightly arched at the tip, longer than broad in the female, and 

broader than long in the 
male; carinae bordering the 
costal ridge broadest above, 
converging below the ocellus, 
and then subparallel, but not 
extending to the end of the 
clypeus; outer carinae curved, 
complete; vertex with two in- 
distinct brown curved lines; 
eyes large, oval, but not very 
prominent. Pronotum sca- 
brous, with black markings, 
the carina very slightly 
arched, the hind border pro- 
duced and obtusely rounded. 
Abdomen dark red, with a 
median carina. Tegmina 
opaque and nearly covered 
with brown blotches (with 
some paler spaces in the 
male) on the basal half ; 
terminal half subhyaline, 
quadrately reticulated with 
rather thick brown nervures. 
AVings red in the basal half 
and hyaline beyond ; in the male the red is bordered by traces of 
an indistinct brown band. Hind femora broad, grey, with small 
black spots on the outside, and black, with two yellow bands, 
towards the tip, on the inside ; yellow above, indistincty banded 
with black ; hind tibiae red, with 10 black-tipped spines on the 
outer carina. 

Length 25-40 mm.; pronotum, 7'5-9 mm. ; tegmina, 25-33 mm. ; 
hind femur, 15-21-5 mm. 
Is. BENGAL. 
Types in the collection of the British Museum. 




Fig. 95. Chlcebora crassa. 



Genus dUIROGUESIA. 

Quiroguesia, Bolivar, An. Soc. Espan. xv, 1886, p. 515; Saussuiv,. 
M&n. Soc. Geneve, xxx (1), 1888, pp. 18, 84. 

TYPE, Acridium miniatum, Brulle. 

Range. Mediterranean Kegion to India. 

Pastigium of the vertex ovate, elongated, more than twice as 
long as broad, truncated in front; tempora indistinct, trigonal^ 
lateral, separated from the vertex; frontal ridge between the 



QUJEOGUESIA. 



133 



antennae only half as broad as between the eyes above, arched, 
punctured on the vertex. Pronotuin with a raised continuous 
carina, slightly intersected by the principal sulcus about the 
middle, expanded behind the sulcus, with the hinder extremity 
obtusely angulated and the tip rounded. Tegmina long, narrow, 
slightly expanded on the costa near the base, the hind margin 
slightly oblique and rounded off into the inner margin ; coriaceous 
to the middle, then subhyaline, regularly reticulated, with scattered 
dusky markings, the division between the two halves being almost 
perpendicular ; wings coloured, with the outer third hyaline, 
tipped with dusky. Hind femora not serrated. 



154. Quiroguesia blanchardiana, Sauss. 

Quirof/iiesia brullei, var. blanchardiana, Saussure, Mem. Soc. 
Geneve, xxx (1), 1888, p. 35 ; Biaiichi, Pram. Loz. Ross. Imp. 
1902, p. 252. 

Head bluish grey, with obscure reddish markings, of which the 
most constant are two stripes on the vertex. Pronotuin brown, 

generally with reddish mark- 
ings at the base and whitish 
blotches on the pleura ; 
median carinanearly straight, 
very slightly arched and not 
much raised. Abdomen black 
IBBifc^ above, carinated, more or 
- ? " ^ ess P a ^ e towards the tip. 

Tegmina with the basal half 
Egwp more or less varied with 
giS^ lighter and darker brown 
~';Jr and grey, apical half hyaline, 

with patches of the nervures 
more or less broadly black 
and the cells slightly in- 
fuscated. Wings greenish 
yellow or red in the basal 
half, bordered outside by a 
nearly straight black band, 
which then curves inwards 
round the hind margin to 
the anal angle ; beyond this 
is a broad hyaline band, the 
tip of the wings being black, 
Fig. 96. Quiroguesia blanchardiana. except that the cells of the 

terminal row are hyaline. 

Hind femora black, with pale bands, sometimes almost entirely 
pale on the outer side ; knees black ; hind tibiae reddish or 
yellowish, the extreme base black, often followed by a pale band ; 
with about 10 small regular black-tipped spines on each side. 




134 (EDIPODINJE. 

Length 23-43 mm. ; expanse of wings, 4878 mm. 

SOMALILAND ; ARABIA ; PALESTINE ; N.W INDIA ; BOMBAY. 

Types in the Paris and British Museums. 

Appears to be distinct from Q. notabilif. Walk. (= brulhi\ 
Sauss.) from the Canaries. Spain and Algeria. 

The only specimens of Q. blanchardiana at present in the 
British Museum from India arid East Africa belong to the red 
form. Those from Aden are of both colours. 



Genus PTERNOSCIRTA. 

Pternoscirta, Saussure, Mem. Soc. Geneve, xxviii (9), 1884, pp. 52 

127; xxx (1), 1888, p. 18. 
Prionidia, StSl (nee Leach), Recens. Orth. i, 1873, pp. 116, 127. 

TYPE, (Edipoda saturata, Walk. 

Range. The Oriental Region. 

Head short, somewhat rugose, the carinaj bounding the fronlal 
ridge not very prominent, strongly approximating between the 
antennae. Tegmina brown, varied "with paler markings on the 
basal half, then with a large subhyaline patch, and more or less 
varied with brown and subhyaline beyond, the cells being arranged 
in oblique quadrilaterals, angulated towards each other at the 
longitudinal nervures ; wings often coloured at the base, with no 
central black band ; hyaline beyond the middle, with the tip 
dusky. Legs and under surface pilose. 

Key to the Species. 

1 (2) Wings red at base cinctifemur, Walk., 

2 (1) Wings yellow at base. [p. 1.34. 

3 (4) Length of body 27 mm. ; tegmina with 

the whole of the apical half spotted [p. 1 35. 

with brown caliyino&a, De Haan, 

4 (3) Length 21 mm. ; tegmina with apical 

half with only a row of brown spots [p. 1 36. 

near front margin bimaeulatus, Thunb., 

155. Pternoscirta cinctifemur, Walk. 

Acridium cinctifemur, Walker, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (3) iv, 

1859, p. 223. 
(Edipoda saturata, Walker, Cat. Derm. Salt. B.M. iv, 1870, 

p. 740. 
Pternoscirta saturata, Saussure, Me"m. Soc. Geneve, xxx (1). 1888, 

p. 36. 
Pternoscirta humbertiana, Saussure, Me"m. Soc. Geneve, xxviii (9), 

1884, p. 127. 

Head and pronotum granulose, brown, mottled with pale 
markings ; abdomen shining black ; pronotum and abdomen with 



PTEKyOSCIRTA. 



135 



a continuous median carina, pronotum slightly produced and 

obtusely rounded behind. Tegtuina narrow, brown, slightly ex- 
panded on the costa near the base 
and rounded at the extremity ; 
two large pale spaces, one just 
beyond the costal expansion, and 
the other, paler, just beyond the 
middle ; the basal area is very 
closely reticulated and speckled 
with grey ; the outer area is 
brown, varied with subhyaline 
spaces, often forming short trans- 
verse lines and obliquely reticu- 
lated. Wings rose-colour on the 
basal half, then clouded hyaline, 
darkest towards the margins, 
which become brown towards the 
apex, sometimes forming two ir- 
regular spots. Hind femora buff 
or bluish grey outside, with black 
spots ; banded with black above 
and black on the inner side, with 
two pale bands before the black 
knees ; hind tibiae black, banded 

with yellow at the base and blue beyond, with 9 or 10 black 

spines ; hind tarsi yellow. 

Length 22-30 mm.; expanse of tegmiua, 46-58 mm. 

CBYLOX. 

Types in the British Museum. 

[The illustration is taken from the type of P. satumta, Walk.] 




Fig. 97. 

Pternoscirta cinctifem ur. 



156. Pternoscirta caliginosa, De Haan. 

Acridium ((Edipoda) calif/inosum, DeHaan, Tetnminck, Verhandel., 

Orth. 1842, p. 161, pl.'xxi, tig. 11. 
Pternoscirta caliginosa, Saussure, Mem. Soc. Geneve, xxviii (9), 

1884, pp. 127, 128. 

Rugose and granulated, reddish, irregularly marked with 
blackish. Head with the scutellum of the vertex strongly con- 
tracted above the antennae, the carinse then gradually diverging ; 
the lateral curved carinse running from between the eyes and 
antennae to the end of the clypeus well marked ; a pale spot 
within each eye, and another, bordered above and below with 
black, on the pleura. Pronotum with the median carina strongly 
marked, but nearly straight, cut by the principal sulcus distinctly 
before the middle ; hind border obtusely angulated. Abdomen 
yellowish, carinated above. Tegmina long, narrow, brown, mottled 
with yellowish grey, often with two pale spaces as in the last 
species. AVings much longer than broad, hyaline, yellow towards 



136 



(EUIPODl^.E. 



the base and brown towards the tips. Hind femora yellowish, 
banded with brown ; hind tibia? black, banded with yellow at the 
base and blue bevond ; about 8 spines on each side, tipped with 
black. 

Length 27-29 mm. ; expanse of tegmina, 50-60 mm. 

INI>IA ; MALACCA. 

Type in the Leyden Museum. 



157. Pternoscirta bimaculata, Thwih. 

Gryllus bimaculatus, Thunberg, MtSm. A cad. Petersb. v. 1815, 

p. 239. 
Epacromia turbata, Walker, Cat. Derm. Salt. B.M. iv, 1870, 

p. 776. 
Acrotylus humbertianus, Saussure, Me"m. Soc. Geneve, xxviii (9), 

1884, pp. 187, 189. 

Greyish-tawny, whitish beneath, pubescent. Scutellum of 
the vertex with black carinae and 
terminating in a transverse carina ; 
frontal ridge sulcated, punctured, 
cheeks granulated. Pronotuui short, 
with a blackish band behind the eye, 
extending over a great part of the 
pleura, but divided by a large tri- 
angular pale spot in front and a 
large round one in the middle ; de- 
flexed lobes much higher than long. 
Abdomen mostly black above. Teg- 
mina brown, with two transverse 
whitish bands or spots, and the 
discoidal area hyaline beyond the 
middle. Wings subhyaline, with 
the base yellow, the costa beyond 
the middle brown, and the marginal 
half clouded with brown, except 
below the dark costal line. Front 
legs yellowish, ringed with black ; 
hind femora banded with black and 
yellowish ; hind tibia) black at the 
base, followed by a white and a black band; the rest blue, with 
8 or 9 black-tipped spines. 

Length 21 mm.; tegmina, 19 mm. 

CEYLON. 

Type of P. turbata in the British Museum. 

[The description is taken from the type of P. tw'lata, Walk.] 




Fig. 98. 

Pternoscirta bimaculata. 
a. Apical half of tegmen. 



MORPHACRIS. 



137 



Genus MORPHACKIS. 

Morphacris, Walker, Cat. Derm. Salt. H.M. iv, 1870, p. 790. 
Cosmorhyssrt, Stal, Recens. Orth. i, 1873, pp. 116, 121 ; Sau<*sure, 

Me"m. Soc. Geneve, xxviii (9), 1884, pp. f>0, l'J3 ; xxx (1), 1888, 

pp. 18, 37. 

TYPE, Morphacris adusta, Walk. ( = Gryllas sanguiueus, Thunb., 
immature). 

Range. Africa, W. Asia, India, Greece (?). 

Bodf long and slender. Sciitellum of the vertex depressed, 
with a median carina, terminating in front in a slight ridge 
between the antennae ; costal ridge slightly prominent, sulcated ; 
lateral ca rinse obsolete. Pronotuin with the median carina strongly 
marked ; the principal sulcus is indistinct and placed considerably 
before the middle, and behind it are several strong continuous 
carinae on each side. Tegmina long, narrow, slightly expanded on 
the costa towards the base, the postradial area extending to the 
middle. Wings yellow or red at the base, separated by a dark 
band from the outer hyaline area. Femora long, rather slender, 
not serrulated. 

158. Morphacris citrina, Kirby. 

Morphacris citrina, Kirby, Syn. Cat. Orth. iii, 1910, p. 219. 
Cosmorhyssa xulcata, Saussure (nee Thunb.), Mem. Soc. Geneve, 
xxviii (9), 1884, p. 124 ; xxx (1), 1888, p. 37. 

Head brown, darker above and along the frontal ridge ; upper 
part of the sides of the face below 
the eyes yellowish to the end of the 
clypeus beside the costal ridge. Pro- 
notum brown, with a black band on 
the pleura, marked below with a 
raised yellowish line. Abdomen 
yellowish, with a shining black spot 
above near the base. Legs brown, 
hind femora within with two longi- 
tudinal black bands covering much of 
the surface ; hind tibiae yellow, with a 
dark band near the base. Tegmina 
brown, paler towards the inner 
margin, on which a few dark dots 
are visible ; outer area subhyaline, 
slightly shining, and reticulated with 
square cells. Wings light sulphur- 
yellow at the base, bordered by a 
broad blackish band ; outer , area 
hyaline, somewhat clouded towards 
the extremity. 

Length 20-27 mm. ; expanse of wings, 42-45 mm. 

INDIA ; CEYLON ; SYBIA ; ABYSSINIA. 

The South-African M. sulcata, Thunb., is darker and more 
heavily marked. 




Fig. 99. 
Morphacris citrina. 



138 (KDIPODIN.i:. 

Genus LERINA. 
Lerina, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, Ixx, 1902, p. 602. 

TYPE, Lerina cedipodioides, Bol. 

Range. IS. India. 

Body very slender. Head smooth, front shining, frontal ridge 
sulcated ; tempera trigonal, lanceolate, extending to the tip of 
the vertex, with the ridges acute ; scutellum of the vertex sub- 
transverse, carinated on the sides next to the eyes, distinctly 
narrowed in front, and truncated; ocelli distant from the margin 
of the vertex ; antennae filiform. Pronotum truncated in front, 
rectangular behind, smooth above, and carinated, the carina inter- 
sected before the middle by the principal sulcus. Pronotum sinuous 
in front, the lateral carina? being compressed before the sulcus, with 
smooth rounded lobes ; the deflexed lobes higher than long, with 
the hinder angles rectangularly rounded. Tegmina longer than 
the hind femora, narrow, subparallel-sided. with the discoidal area 
membranous from the central stigma to the tip, regularly reticu- 
lated with long rectangular cells, the spurious nervures complete ; 
the basal half submembranous and irregularly reticulated ; an 
intercalated nervure approximating to the median nervure, 
axillary nervure free. Wings with the discoidal nervure emitting 
two branches, the second closely approximating to the front 
ulnar vein, disk hyaline, with a curved brown band. Space 
between the metasternal lobes very narrow in the male, half 
as narrow as the space between the mesosternal lobes. Hind 
femora short, very broad at the base, with the upper carina very 
slightly serrulated ; tibia? with eight outer and nine inner spines, 
outer spurs rather shorter than the inner, and not pilose. Sub- 
genital lamina? conical, very short. 



159. Lerina oedipodioides, Bol. 

Lcrina tedipodioides, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, Ixx, 1902, 
p. (508. 

Pale yellowish, varied with brown, and head and prouotuii) 
spotted with brown. Tegmina with three brown bands. Wings 
hyaline, pale yellow at the extreme base, behind with a suffused 
brown marginal band, not extending to the tip. Hind femora 
brown, broadly pale at the base, and with a narrow pale ring 
before the tip ; hind tibia? brown, with a narrow space near the 
base, and a broad one near the tip, pale. 

Length, <3 , 16 mm. ; pronotum, 3 mm. ; tegmina, 17 mm. ; hind 
femur, 9 mm. 

MADIIAS: Madura. 

Type in the collection of M. Pantel. 



B1TTOPTERXIS. 139 



Genus DITTOPTERNIS. 

Dittoptemis, Saussure, Mem. Soc. Geneve, xxviii (9), 1884, pp. 52, 
125 ; xxx (1), 1888, pp. 19, 44. 

TYPE, Dittopternis ceylonica, Sauss. 

Ramje. India, Ceylon, Australia, S. Africa. 

Head broad, granulated ; scutellum of the vertex 5-sided, 
longer than broad, truncated in front, and the lateral carinse 
not extending behind the ej*es ; frontal ridge broadly sulcated, 
parallel-sided, continuous ; antennae longer lhan the head and 
pronotum. Pronotum granulose, the median carinse bituber- 
culate in front, and deeply cut by the principal sulcus before 
the middle ; the front border truncated, behind this somewhat 
constricted to the principal sulcus ; hind border rectangular, 
with the tip rounded off ; deflexed lobes nearly square, with 
the borders slightly sinuated. Tegmina long, narrow, densely 
reticulate, and opaque to beyond the middle, then membranous 
and subhyaline, with complete intercalated nervures. Wings 
hyaline, with the base coloured, and a curved black band beyond. 
Hind femora denticulated, hind tibire with nine or ten spines. 

Key to tlie Species. 

1 (2) Head and pronotum slightly granular. . ccylonica, Sauss., p. 139. 

2 (1) Head and pronotum strongly granular. 

3 (4) Lateral lobes of pronotum rectangular 

behind vemista, Walk., p. 140. 

4 (8) Lateral lobes of pronotum oblique and 

rounded behind zebrata, Sauss., p. 140. 



160. Dittopternis ceylonica, Sauss. 

Dittopternis ceylonica, Saussure, Mem. Soc. Geneve, xxviii (9), 
1884, pp. 125, 126 ; xxx (1), 1888, pp. 19, 44. 

Reddish grey, marbled with brown. Head rather smooth, 
vertex between the eyes very slightly carinulated, with a few 
granules on the occiput ; frontal ridge sulcated, much narrowed 
between the antennae, and truncated above. Pronotum with the 
principal sulcus slightly before the middle, somewhat constricted 
before the sulcus, granulated in front, the carina raised, and 
well marked, the hind border forming less than a right angle, 
and rounded at the tip ; deflexed lobes rectangular behind. 
Tegmina long, brown or ferruginous, the basal half with two 
chestnut bands, then narrowly dotted with grey, the hinder 
portion concolorous ; the discoidal area beyond the middle- sub- 
hyaline, with ferruginous nervures. Wings hyaline, base bright 
yellow, followed by a more or less extensive brown band ; 
uervures of the costa brown ; the rest hyaline, more or less 
clouded before the tip. Hind femora yellowish with three brown 



140 



bands, the last just before the tip ; sometimes the inner surface 
is bluish ; hind tibiae blue, with a pale ring at the base. 

Lenytli 17-24 mm.: tegmina, 18-23 mm. ; hind femur, 7- 
13 mm. 

CBTLOX. 

Type in the Geneva Museum. 



161. Dittopternis venusta, Wall. 

(Edipoda venusta, Walker, Cat. Derm. Salt. B.M. iv, 1870, p. 740. 
Dittopternis venusta, Saussuve, Mem. Soc. Geneve, xxx (.1), 1888, 
p. 40. 

Brown, paler beneath. Vertex with four diverging rows of 
pale granules running backwards from between the eyes : those 
in the two middle rows largest; a 
blackish band runs backwards from 
each eye over the occiput and part of 
the pronotum, bordered above and 
below by a slight yellow line ; antennae 
very long, tawny at the base, then 
banded with black and white, with 
a long white space not extending to 
the tip. Pronotum rugose, granulated 
and strongly carinated, cut by the 
principal sulcus before the middle, 
obtusely angulated behind, with the 
tip rounded ; deftexed lobes quadran- 
gular behind. Tegmina long, narrow, 
with the basal half and costa brown, 
with a large yellow blotch at one- 
fourth of the length extending half 
across the tegmina, and smaller 
yellowish spots along the costa and 
middle ; the outer area subhyaline. 
Wings hyaline, yellow at the base, 
Avith a broad suffused blackish band beyond. Abdomen yellow, 
carinated, Avith a black tapering median band above, not ex- 
tending to the tip. Hind femora tawny, with black transverse 
bands ; hind tibiae black at base, followed by a light yellow band, 
then blue ; spines yellow, tipped Avith black'; terminal spines and 
tarsi reddish. 

Length 25 mm. ; expanse of tegmina, 53 mm. 

S. INDIA. 

Type in the British Museum. 

1(52. Dittopternis zebrata, Saws. 

Dittopternis zebrata, Saussure, Mem. Soc. Geneve, xxviii (9), 1884. 
pp. 125,126; xxx (1), 1888, p. 44. 

Fulvous, irrorated with brown, strongly rugose and granulated. 




Fig. 100. 

Dittopternis venusti 



HETEROPTERNIS. 141 

Occiput with two oblique lines of granules. Pronotura with the 
tip not very acute, the margins slightly waved, the hinder angle 
of the hinder lobes rather narrow, extending obliquely backwards 
with the hinder margin slightly concave. Teginina dotted and 
spotted with black, and dotted with grey at the tip. Wings 
hyaline, with longitudinal brown nervures, yellow at the base, 
followed by a suffused brown band, and with the margin brown, 
streaked with hyaline in the male. Hind tibiae blue. 

Length 20-25 mm.; tegmina, 20-26 mm. 

INDIA ; BURMA. 



Genus HETEROPTERNIS. 

Heteropternis, St8l, Recens. Orth. i, 1873, pp. 117, 128; Saussure, 
Mem. Soc. Geneve, xxviii (9), 1884, p. 129; xxx (1), 1888, 
pp. 19, 45. 

TTPE, Aery dium respondens, AValk. 

Range. Oriental Eegion, Africa. 

Body rather slender. Head smooth or slightly granulated ; 
vertex of the scutellum broad behind, narrowed and truncated in 
front, costal ridge sulcated, tempora oblong. Pronotum not 
much longer than broad, slightly compressed in front, and with 
the typical sulcus placed somewhat before the middle ; hind 
border rectangular. Tegmina long, narrow, brown, speckled arid 
blotched with subhyaline; wings hyaline, often more or less 
clouded, but with no dark curved band. Hind tibiae red, claws 
verv unequal, incurved. 

Key to the Species. 

Pronotum unicolorous respondens, Walk. 

Pronotum paler behind partita, Walk. 



163. Heteropternis respondens, Walk. 

Acrydium respondens, Walker, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (3) iv, 

1859, p. 223. 
Heteropternis pyrrhoscelis, Stal, Recens. Orth. i, 1873. p. 128 ; 

Saussure, Mem. Sue. Geneve, xxviii (9), 1884, pp. 129, 130; 

xxx (1), 1888, p. 46. 

Hufo-testaceous, varied with black. Head rather smooth, lateral 
carina? slender, frontal ridge punctured ; antennae brown, paler at 
the base, filiform, longer than the head and pronolum. Pronotum 
velvety, paler or darker above, with a continuous median carina, 
cut by the principal sulcus before the middle ; the front somewhat 
constricted, and the pleura marked with a large square black 
spot, behind which is a round white callous one ; deflexed lobes 
higher than broad, curving backwards and upwards ; hind border of 
pronotum nearly rectangular, rounded at the extremity. Tegmina 



142 




Fig. 101. 

Hcteroptcrnis respondens. 
i. Apex of tibia with spurs. 



longer than the abdomen, with large 
subhyaline spots and blotches along 
the costa, and a longitudinal row of 
subhyaliue spots about the middle. 
Wings hyaline, more or less clouded to- 
wards the tips, and more or less tinged 
with red or yellow at the base. Hind 
femora yellowish, irregularly spotted 
and mottled with black above and 
on the outer side ; red on the inner 
side and beneath ; hind tibiae red, 
with nine or ten small black-tipped 
spines, with the upper spine of the 
inner terminal pair much shorter and 
more slender than the lower ones. 
Under surface and legs with long 
white hairs. 

Length 19-22 mm.; tegmina, 19- 
22 mm. 
; CEYLOX; BUBMA; CHINA; MALACCA; JAVA; STJMATEA. 

1G4. Heteropternis partita, Walk. 

Epacromia partita, Walker, Cat. Derm. Salt. B.M. iv, 1870, p. 780. 

Dark brown, mottled with grey, antennae reddish. Pronotum 
strongly angulated behind, and the hinder third reddish, the dark 
ground-colour cutting into this triangularly in front; median 
carina and hind border of the reddish portion narrowly bordered 
with black. Abdomen reddish brown above, blackish beneath. 
Tegmina brown at the base with a few pale spots ; beyond sub- 
hyaline, reticulated with brown ; wings hyaline, with brown 
nervures, except at the base, where the longitudinal nervures 
are bright yellow. Hind femora brown outside, lined with grey ; 
lower outer space reddish, spotted with black ; under and inner 
surface, and hind tibiae and tarsi red; spines of hind tibiae short, 
black. 

Lewjili 28 mm. ; expanse of tegmina, 55 mm. 

CEYLOX ; Hakgala. 

Type in the British Museum. 



Genus (EDALEUS. 
(Edaleus, Fieber, Lotos, iii, 1853, p. 120. 
TYPE, Acrydium nigrofasciatum, De Geer. 
Range. Old World. 

Head large, frontal scutellum longer than broad, and truncated 
in front, with a slight median farina continued backwards over 
the vertex ; frontal ridge parallel-sided, sulcated ; tempora small, 
trigonal. Pronotum short, green or luteous, with incomplete 



(EDALEUS. 143 

white cruciform marks ; strongly carinated, and entire, the 
median sulcus visible on the sides of the pronotuin before the 
middle ; the hind border rectangular or obtusely angulated. 
Tegmina long, narrow, brown on the basal half, with white 
markings, then subhyaline with brown markings, intercalated areas 
subequal ; wings yellowish at the base, Avith a broad dark central 
band. Hind femora with the upper margin generally entire. 

Key to tJie Species. 

1 (4) Proiiotum more or less pointed behind. [p. 143. 

2 (3) Size moderate ...................... nigrofasciatus, De Geer, 

3 (2) Size small ....................... abruptus, r hmi\).,y. 144. 

4 (1) Pronotum rounded behind ............ seneyalensis, Krauss, 

[p. 143. 

165. (Edaleus nigrofasciatus, Sauss. 

Acrydium iiigrofasciatnm, De Geer, Me"m. Ins. iii, 1773, p. 493, 

pi. xli, fig. 5. 
(Edalens ni(/rofasciatus, Saussure, Mem. Soc. Geneve, xxviii (9), 

1884, pp.'llO, 116 ; xxx (1), 1888, p. 40. 

Gryllus fianttt. pt., Fabricius (nee Linnaeus), Syst. Ent. 1775, 
p. 292. 

Green or testaceous, banded with brown. Pronotuin brown, 
with white markings above, forming an imperfect cross, and 
white markings on the pleura; central 
carina strongly marked, nearly straight, 
not usually cut by the principal sulcus, 
which is placed before the middle ; 
hind border more or less angulated. 
Tegmiua brown at the base, more or 
less varied with pale blotches ; some- 
times green along the inner margin ; 
outer half subhyaline, more or less 
varied with brown blotches ; wings 
greenish subhyaline at the base, with 
a broad black transverse band, curving 
inwards to the ai:al angle ; tip clear 
hyaline, sometimes with a few blackish 
spots at the extremity. Hind femora 
pale, banded with black ; hind tibia) 




Length 18-38 mm.; pronotum, 4-8 mm. ; tegmina, 16-24 mm. 
S. EUROPE ; W. ASIA. ; IXDIA ; CEILOX. 

166. (Edaleus senegalensis, Krauss. 

Pachiftylus senegalensis, Krauss, Sitz. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.- 

nat. Cl. Ixxvi (1), 1877, p. 56, pi. i, tig. 9. 

(Edaleus senegalensis, Saussure, Mem. Soc. Geneve, xxviii (9), 
1884, pp. llO, 117 ; xxx (1), 1888, pp. 40, 42. 

Very similar to the last species, but the pronotum is much 



144 (EDIPODlNyE. 

shorter, the white lines are more slender, the principal sulcus is 
placed at or behind the middle, and the hinder edge of the 
pronotum is rounded. The tegmina are long and narrow, sub- 
hyaline, with the base varied with light brown, two larger 
blotches being more conspicuous than the others. Wings 
greenish hyaline towards the base, with the black transverse 
band rather narrow, not extending to the margin, and slightly 
interrupted towards the costa ; apical area hyaline, the veins 
often broader and browner towards the extreme tip. Hind 
tibiae darker red than in (E. nigrofasciatvs, fading to yellowish. 

Length 26-31 mm. ; tegmina, 20-30 mm. 

Generally distributed in Asia and Africa. 



167. (Edaleus abruptus, Tlmnb. 

Gryllus alrvvtus, Thunberg, Mem. Acad. Petersb. v. 1815, p. 233: 

ix, 1884, pp. 396, 412, pi. xiv, fijr. 5. 

Pactiyh/lus ((Eda/eus) abruptus, Stal, liecens. Orth. i, 1873, p. 127. 
(Edalem abruptus, Saussure, Mem. Soc. Geneve, xxviii (9), 1884, 

pp. 110, 117 ; xxx (1), 1888, p. 40. 

Green or testaceous, with brown and white markings. Scu- 
tellum of the vertex long, narrow, subtriangular, and pointed. 
Pronotum brown with white cross-marks above, and white and 
brown oblique stripes on the sides of the head and pronotum ; 
angulated behind, with the principal sulcus placed much before 
the middle. Tegmina brown, with three pale bands before the 
middle ; beyond the middle subhyaline, sometimes with the 
axillary area green. Wings very pale greenish yellow towards 
the base, with a brownish central fascia, more or less extended: 
outer area hyaline, more or less marked with brown. Tibiae 
reddish, or glaucous, paler towards the base. 

Length 13-20 mm. ; tegmina, 15-19 mm. 

INDIA ; CEYLON ; CHINA. 



Genus GASTRIMARGUS. 

Gastrimargus, Saussure, Mem. Soc. Geneve, xxviii (9), 1884, 
pp. 109, 110 ; xxx (1), 1888, p. 37. 

TYPE, Gryllus virescens, Thunb. 

Range. Old World. 

General characters of (Edaleus, but these are insects of large 
size, with the pronotum long, pointed behind, and longitudinally 
or obliquely striped with green, brown, and whitish. Femora 
generally serrulated above. Tegmina with the costal space above 
the intercalated area narrower than the lower one ; wings gene- 
rally yellow or blue, with a broad central band, and the apical 
area hyaline. 



GASTRIMARGUS. LOCUSTA. 



145 




168. Gastrimargus transversus, Thunb. 

Gryllus transversns, Thunberg, Mem. Acad. Petorsb. v, 181 5 r 

p. 233 ; ix, 1824, pp. 396, 412. 

(Edipoda citrina, Burmeister, Handb. Ent. ii, 1838, p. 645. 
CEdaleus marmoralus. var. minor, Saussure, Mem. Soc. Geneve, 

xxx (1), 1888, p. 39. 

Green, antennae reddish. Behind each eye a pale spot runs to 
the back of the head, bordered above and below with black, 

which is generally continuous 
on the front of the pro- 
notum ; in the most brightly 
coloured specimens there is 
an ill- defined pale band below 
the black, and below this 
again a black patch from 
the back of the head to the 
middle of the pleura, with a 
pale spot in front and behind. 
Pronotum acutely angulaled 
behind, with a strong pale 

f median carina, sometimes 

I bordered with black, or with 

a black spot on each side 
at the extremity. Abdomen 
greenish. Tegmtna long and 
narrow, the inner margin 
green, the rest of the tegmina 
brown to the middle, with 
whitish markings, especially 
a transverse one near the 
base ; the outer half of the 
tegmina hyaline, generally 
more or less blotched with brown. Wings shorter than the 
tegmina, bright sulphur-yellow at the base, with a black centi-al 
band curving round to the anal angle ; beyond this, the wing is 
hyaline, more or less blackish at the tip. Hind femora long 
and slender, greenish or yellowish, spotted and dotted with 
black, and serrulated above ; hind tibiae red, often shading into 
greenish at the base, with the spines tipped with black. 

Length, body, 30-45 mm. ; hind femora, 19-25 mm. ; expanse 
of tegmina, 70-85 mm. 

KASHMIR : Baltistan ; NEPAL ; UNITED PROVINCES : Garhwal ; 
ASSAM : Sylhet ; BENGAL ; MADRAS : Shevaroy Hills ; JAVA ; 
CELEBES. 



Fig. 103. Gastrimargus transversus. 



Genus LOCUSTA. 

Locusta, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. (ed. x.) i, 1758, p. 431 ; Schrank, 

Enum. Ins. Austr. 1781, p. 246, 
Gryllus, Fabricius, Syst, Ent. 1775, p. 287. 



146 CEDIPODIXJE. 

Acrydium, Latreille (nee Geoffroy), Hist. Nat. Crust. Ins. iii, 1802, 

p. 282 ; xii, 1804, p. 149. 
Pachytyhts, Fieber, Kelch, Grundl. Kenntn. Orthopt, 1852, p. 5. 

TYPE, Gryllus Locusta migratoritis, L. 

Range. Old World. 

Size large. Antennae longer than the head and pronotum. 
Fastigium of the vertex broad, not depressed, subcarinated, 
passing over into the frontal ridge, which is broad and hardly 
sulcated. Pronoturn more or less constricted in front, strongly 
ridged ; the carinae hardly intersected by the principal sulcus, 
which is placed about the middle and angulated behind ; deflexed 
lobes with the hinder edge very slightly sloping. Tegrnina very 
long, subhyaline, more or less stippled with brown ; wings hyaline, 
with no dark central band. All the tibiae spinose, hind femora 
hardly serrulated. Pectus broad, pilose, mesosternal lobes with 
the inner margins nearly straight, metasternal lobes widely sepa- 
rated. First segment of the abdomen with the tympanum slightly 
exposed. 

Key to the Species. 

Hind femora very slender migratoroides, R. & F. 

Hind femora rather stout danica, L. 

169. Locusta migratoroides, R. 4" F. 

(Edipoda migratoroides, Reiclie & Fairmaire, Ferret & Galinier, 
Voy. Abyssinie, iii. 1847, p. 430, pi. xxviii, fig-. 12. 

Paclu/tylus migratoroides, Saussure, Mem. Soc. Geneve, xxviii (9), 
1884, pp. 119, 120. 

Greenish brown, or reddish brown ; head generally with a slender 
pale line behind the eyes, bordered with reddish brown, and con- 
tinuous with a broad parallel- sided reddish-brown band on each 
side of the pronotum. Pronotum granulated, constricted from a 
little behind the head to the middle. Tegmina mottled and reticu- 
lated with brown ; wings hyaline. Hind femora rather long, not 
much thickened at the base, and regularly tapering. Hind legs 
brownish yellow, with the lower, and sometimes the upper, part 
of the femora reddish. 

Length 42-46 mm. ; tegmina, 46-60 mm. 

Widely distributed throughout the Old World, except Europe. 

170. Locusta danica, L. 

Gryllus Locusta danicus, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. (ed. xii.) i (2), 1767, 

p. 702. 
Pachytylus danicus, Aurivillius, Ent. Tidskr. xxi, 1900, pp. 246, 

Gryllus cinerascens, Fa'bricius, Spec. Ins. i, 1781, p. 369. 
Green or brown, banded with brown. Behind the eye runs a 
brown stripe, generally intersected by a white line on the head, 



LOCUST A. MECISTOPTERYX. 



147 



across the head and pronotum ; these stripes are narrower than 
in L. migratoroides, slightly converge behind, and do not ex- 
tend to the extremity of 
the pronotum, which is 
smoother and less con- 
stricted than in L. 
migratoroides. Tegmina 
subhyaline, more or less 
extensively blotched and 
reticulated with brown, 
the dark blotches often 
showing a tendency to 
coalesce into transverse 
bands ; wings greenish 
or yellowish hyaline. 
Hind femora green, 
thicker and less tapering 
than in L. migratoroides ; 
black on the inside to 
the middle, and with a 
large black patch be- 
yond ; upper surface ser- 
rulated ; hind tibiae red. 
Male much smaller than 
the female. 

Length 32-60 mm. ; 
Fig. 104. Locusta danica. pronotum, 7'5-14 mm. ; 

tegmina, 35-58 mm. 
Found almost throughout the Old World. 




Genus MECISTOPTERYX. 

Mecistopteryx, Saussure, Me"m. Soc. Geneve, xxx (1), 1888, 
pp. 20, 52. 

TYPE, (Edipoda rotundata, Walk. 

Range. India. 

Size small. Antennae filiform, rather thickened in the middle 
and pointed at the tip. Eyes rounded, large, and prominent ; 
within each a cariua runs from the vertex, nearly straight, but 
rather irregular below, and curving a little outwards to the 
end of the clypeus; on the vertex two other carinae curve 
inwards to form the scutellum of the vertex, and the sulcation of 
'the frontal ridge, which is divided by a transverse carina in its 
narrowest part above the antennae ; occiput rugose. Pronotum 
strongly crested, with the three sulci very strongly marked, the 
first and last intersecting the median carina ; the lateral carinae 
slightly marked ; the hind border obtusely rounded ; deflexed 
lobes nearly square, but the hinder angle rounded off. Tegmiua 
narrow at the base, much widened before the extremity, with the 

L2 



148 (EDIPODIXJE. 

costa arched ; costal area very broad, with several intercalated 
nervures ; wings short and broadly subhyaline, with clouded 
border, widely meshed on the front half, very closely on the 
hinder half. Hind femora moderately stout, somewhat constricted 
before the extremity. 

171. Mecistopteryx rotundata, Wall: 

(Edipoda rotundata, Walker, Cat. Derm. Salt. B.M. iv, 1870,. 

p. 743. 
Mecistopteryx rotundata, Saussure, Me"m. Soc. Geneve, xxx (1),. 

1888, p. 53, pi. ii, fig. 3. 

Head and pronotum brown, antennae reddish, paler towards the- 
base beneath, abdomen blackish. Tegmina light brown for two- 
thirds of their length, with whitish subhyaliue marks ; a streak 
below the median nervure near the base ; a large blotch ex- 
tending neai'ly across the wing from 
the costa, and an irregular band be- 
yond, spreading out half-way to the 
base above the submedian nervure, 
and below it along the inner margin 
nearly to the base ; outer third of 
the tegmina subhyaline, indistinctly 
clouded, and with some darker spots 
along the costa. Wings bluish hya- 
line, with the border clouded, the 
upper half almost as widely meshed 
as in the American Tryxaline genus 
Hyalopleryx, and the hinder half very 
Fig. 105. closely reticulated with pale nervures,. 

Mecistopteryx rotundata. almost as in the Neuropterous genus 
Neurotliemis. Hind femora yellowish, 

inner and lower surface black, with three yellowish bands, the 
first incomplete above, before the extremity ; knees wholly black 
above ; hind tibiae black, with a white streak towards the base, 
and two broad white bands, eight rather irregular black spines- 
on each side, and whitish tarsi. 

Length 15 mm.; hind femur, 9 mm.; expanse of tegmina,. 
32 mm 

NORTH BENGAL. 

Type in the British Museum. 

Genus TEILOPHIDIA. 

Trilophidia, StSl, Recens. Orth. i, 1873, pp. 117, 131 ; Saussure,. 
Me"m. Soc. Geneve, xxviii (9), 1884, pp. 56, 157 - r xxx (1), 1888,, 
pp. 21, 54. 

TYPE, (Edipoda cristella, Stll. 
Range. Oriental Eegion, Africa. 

Bather slender, pubescent. Antennae slightly thickened to- 
wards the tip. Scutellum of the vertex broad, sloping, truncated 




TRILOPHIDIA. 149 

at the extremity, frontal ridge imperfectly sulcated ; lateral cariuae 
starting from near the lower extremity of the eyes, and angulated. 
Pronotum with a nearly straight carina, cut by the principal sulcus 
before the middle, and angulated behind ; deflexed lobes higher 
than broad. Tegmiua long and narrow, brown, the costal area 
almost equally divided by the principal intercalated nervure ; 
wings long, narrow. Hind femora moderately broad. 

Several of the species curiously resemble the Noctuid genus 
Ayrotis. 

Key to the Species. 

1 (4) Crest of the proiiotum deeply cut by 

two sulci. 

2 (3) Wings not yellow at the base annulata, Tlib., p. 149. 

3 (2) Wings yellow at the base turpis, Walk., p. 140. 

4 (1) Crest of the pronotum only slightly 

indented by the sulci cristella, StSl, p. 150. 

172. Trilophidia annulata, Thunb. 

Grylhis muuilatus, Thunberg, Mem. Acad. Petersb. v, 1815, p. 234 ; 

ix, 1824, pp. 395, 409. 
Gryllus bidens, Tlmnbevg, Mem. Acad. Petersb. v, 1815, p. 235 ; ix, 

1824, pp. 398, 422. 
Trilophidia annulata, var. &., StSl, Recens. Orth. i, 1873, p. 132. 

Brown or grey, with black markings, pubescent beneath. 
Antennae slightly thickened, pale at the base. Pronotum 
rugose, with a high median carina, forming two teeth in front, 
and with lateral carinse. Tegmina grey, sometimes with two 
indistinct brown bauds, the extremity brownish hyaline ; wings 
yellow at the base, and brown or black beyond. Femora and 
tibise marked as in T. cristella, but the femora are thicker. 

Length 18-16 mm. ; tegmina, 12-5-16 mm. 

CEYLOX. 

Saussure's description of T. annulata agrees neither with 
Tlmnberg's nor with Walker's T. aspera, but with T. vulnerata, 
De Haan (Orth. pp. 161, 162, pi. xxi, fig. 13). T. annulata is 
either a very variable species or (which is more probable) there are 
a number of closely allied species in different parts of the Oriental 
Kegion. 

173. Trilophidia turpis, Wall: 

Epacromia turpis, Walker, Cat. Derm. Salt. B.M. iv, 1870, 

p. 775. 
Trilophidia annulata, var. ceylonica, Saussuve, Meui. Soc. Geneve, 

xxviii (9), 1884, p. 158. 

Brown, granulated; scutellum of the vertex passing into the 
frontal ridge ; antennae ringed with black and tawny. Pronotum 
rectangular behind ; abdomen blackish in the middle above. Teg- 



150 

mina brown, with two large pale spots on the costa before the 
middle, the outer half dusky subhyaline, with rather indistinct 
alternate brown and subhyaline spots running round the apex ; 
wings iridescent hyaline, clouded towards the apex, and stained 
with yellow at the base and inner margin. Front legs banded 
with black and grey : hind femora yellowish grey externally, with 
blackish spots on the carinse, and black on the inside, with a large 
square white spot before the tip; hind tibiaB black, with two 
white bands and with about eight mostly black-tipped spines, the 
terminal ones rather long. 

Length 14 mm. ; expanse of tegmina, 32 mm. 

INDIA ; CEYLOX. 

Type in the British Museum. 

174. Trilophidia cristella, Stdl. 

(Edipoda cristella, Stal, Eugenie's liesa, Orth. 1860, p. 344. 
Trilophidia cristella, Stal, Kecens. Orth. i, 1873, p. 344 ; Sauesure, 

Mem. Soc. Geneve, xxviii (9), 1884, pp. 157, 158. 
Trilophidia anmtlata, var. a, Stal (nee Thunb.), Ilecens. Orth. i, 

1873, p. 131. 
Epacromia aspera, Walker, Cat. Derm. Salt. IJ.M. iv, 1870, p. 775. 

Testaceous yellow, scarcely granulated, with the carinula3 of the 
cciput only slightly marked. Pronotum with the crest serrated 

rather than dentated, with a 
black median stripe, and black 
marks on the pleura ; lateral 
lobes brown, pale below. 
Pectus brown on the sides, 
with two pale spots. Teg- 
mina brown, not spotted ; 
wings brown, paler at the 
base. Front legs indistinctly 
spotted with brown, hind 
femora pale outside, spotted 
above with brown, inside black, 
with a pale band before the 
Fig. 106. extremity ; hind tibia? brown, 

Trilophidia cristella. w jth a pale band towards the 

base, and with a slight pale 
baud beyond the middle ; spines pale at the base. 

INDIA ; JAVA ; PHILIPPINES, etc. 



Genus BRYODEMA. 
Bryodema, Fieber, Lotos, iii, 1853, p. 129. 
TYPE, (Kdipoda gebleri, Fisch.-Waldh., from Siberia. 
Range. Europe, Asia, south to Hongkong and North India. 
Large, stout, granulated insects. Vertex broad, bordered by 
shallow lateral carina? curving backwards within each eye to the 




BKYODEMA. 



151 



occiput; the space between punctured, hardly depressed, not 
carinated, and passing over into the sulcation between the 
frontal carinae ; the carinae of the vertex pass just within 
the eyes, and are continued as well-marked lateral facial carinae,. 
but do not quite extend to the extremity of the clypeus. 
Antennae short, filiform. Pronotum short, broad, granulated, 
arigulated behind, very slightly raised, with the median carina 
and the sutures slightly marked ; the principal suture placed 
about the middle ; depressed lobes higher than broad, nearly 
rectangular behind. Tegmina long, roundly truncate at the 
extremity, closely reticulated, with the intercalated nervure 
equidistant from the costa and the radial nervure. Wings 
shorter than the tegmina and not much longer than broad, with 
the principal longitudinal nervures thickened, and between them 
branching accessory nervures ; towards the base with numerous 
parallel transverse nervures, and irregularly reticulated towards 
the margins. Tegmina and wings sometimes abbreviated in the 
female. Legs short, hind tibiae with nine or ten spines. 

175. Bryodema inda, Sauss. 

Bryodema inda, Saussure, Mem. Soc. Geneve, xxviii (9), 1884, 
pp. 179, 181. 

Head shading into grey; antennae and legs reddish. Pronotum 
granulated, nearly rectangular behind, with the apex rounded off. 

Abdomen black, shining, 
cerci red. Tegmina brownish 
grey, with reddish nervures ; 
wings black to beyond the 
middle, but lighter in the 
middle of the dark area, 
and subhyaline beyond ; the 
principal longitudinal ner- 
vures in the dark area are 
much thickened, and deep 
black. Front and middle 
tibiae with small spines ; 
hind femora brown outside, 
and black inside and be- 
neath, with a pale band 
before the extremity; hind 
tibiae bright red, with black- 
tipped spines. 

The female is described 
by Saussure as large and 
stout, with tegmina shorter 
Fig. Wt.-Bryodcma inda. than the abdomen, and with 

small wings. 

Length 27-39 mm. ; tegmina, 20-38 mm. ; expanse of tegmina, 
83-87 mm. 




152 (EDIPODINJE. 

INDIA (teste Saussure) ; TIBET : Dakar. 

The Tibetan specimens are not so dark in the wings as 
Saussure's description suggests the Indian specimens to be. 
Bianchi rightly observes that the Indian examples are probably 
Himalavau. 



Genus ACKOTYLUS. 
AcrotyluS) Fieber, Lotos, iii, 1853, p. 125. 
TYPE, Gryllus insiibricus, Scop. 

Range. S. Europe, Africa, Asia, Australia. 

Size rather small. Body pubescent, prouotum stouter than the 
abdomen. Antennae filiform, variable in length. Head short, rather 
large ; eyes rounded, prominent ; costal ridge rather broadly 
sulcated, becoming narrower in front, and frequently acuminated 
or constricted on the vertex ; scutelltim of the vertex triangular, 
concave. Pronotum short, more or less constricted in front, with 
the hind margin rounded or obtusely triangular, distinctly cari- 
nated throughout, with the carina generally intersected by the 
front sulcus, and also by the typical sulcus at or before the 
middle ; deflexed lobes much higher than long, with the hinder 
angle rounded off, not produced, and the hind margin nearly 
straight. Tegmina narrow, with the apical area subhyaline ; the 
costa expanded near the base, and the costal area divided almost 
equally longitudinally by the intercalated nervure ; the outer 
intercalated nervures frequently obsolete ; median nervure absent. 
Wings hyaline, generally red or yellow at the base, with a dark 
curved central band. Hind femora generally yellowish, with 
blackish bands or spots above, and black on the inner side ; hind 
tibiae more or less blue, with the terminal spurs unequal. 

Key to the Species. 

[Wings red at the base inficita, Walk. 

Wings yellow at the base humbertianus, Saus,=.] 



176. Acrotylus inficita, Wall: 

(Edipoda inficita, Walker, Cat. Derm. Salt. B.M. iv, 1870, p. 742. 

[Light brown, testaceous beneath. Head short ; tip of the 
vertex conical, concave, with a carina on each side; the four 
carinae of the front well defined, the lateral ones diverging much 
towards the clypeus ; eyes elliptical ; antennae blackish towards 
the tips. Pronotum short, with a distinct carina ; on each side 
a black subquadrate patch, bordered with testaceous, and in- 
cluding a callus of that colour ; hind border rounded, not 
elongated. Abdomen testaceous, as long as the hind femora. 



ACROTYLUS. SPHINGONOXUS. 153 

Hind femora testaceous on the inner side, where there are two 
black patches ; hind knees black, hind tibia? yellow, much shorter 
than the hind femora, the spines tipped with black. Tegmina 
with the basal half light brown, except a brown costal stripe and 
a middle stripe of darker brown spots and dots ; this stripe extends 
along the apical half, which is hyaline ; there is a triangular 
testaceous spot in the front margin about one-third from the base. 
Hind wings hyaline bright reddish-rose at the base, with a rather 
broad, lunate, brown spot on the disk ; there are a few small 
brown spots along the costal margin and two at the apex. 

Length 23 mm. ; tegmina, 22 mm. 

N. BENGAL : CEYLOX. 

Type in the British Museum.] 

177. Acrotylus humbertianus, Sauss. 

Acroti/lus humbertianus, Saussure, Mem. Soc. Geneve, xxviii (9), 

1884, p. 189. 
(Edipoda injicita, var. P, Walker, Cat. Derm. Salt. B.M. iv, 1870, 

p. 742. 

[Fulvous grey, whitish beneath, pubescent. Body somewhat 
smooth ; vertex a little prominent. Pro- 
notuin finely cai'inate ; prozona with two 
fuscous fasciae, the lateral margin white 
below. Tegmina with two oblique white 
fasciae or spots, the discoidal area hyaline 
beyond the middle in front, the trans- 
verse nervures somewhat tinted with 
fuscous ; no spurious veins ; the areoles 
large ; the posterior intercalate space 
with a line of fuscous spots. Wings 
hyaline, yellow at the base ; the radial 
area with a semiluuar fuscous fascia. The 
posterior femora fasciate. 

Length, $ , 18 mm., tf , 14 mm. ; 
Fig. 108. tegmina, $ , 10 mm., 6" , 16 mm. 

Acrotylus humhertianus. 




Genus SPHINGONOTUS. 

Sphingonotw, Fieber, Kelch, Orthopt. Oberschles., 1852, p. 2. 
Sphingonotus, Fieber, Lotos, iii, 1853, p. 1 24. 
Sphmctonotus, Fischer, Orth. Eur. 1853, pp. 52, 297. 

TYPE, Gryllus Locusta ccerulans, L. 

liange. Cosmopolitan. 

Body slender, punctured ; colour grey, pale beneath. Scutellum 
of the vertex ovate, sloping, concave, subcarinated ; antennse 
longer than the head and pronotum together ; frontal ridge 
frequently sulcated. Pronotum constricted in front, rectangular 



154 

or obtusely angulated behind, the deflexed lobes bigher than 
long, tbe hinder angle obtuse, produced, the median carina only 
slightly indicated, and cut by the principal sulcus much before 
the middle. Tegmina grey, with darker markings, membranous 
almost throughout ; Avings bluish hyaline, or brightly coloured, 
with a curved black band. Hind femora generally black on the 
inner side, hind tibite generally blue. 



Key to the Species. 

[1 (4) Wings with no dark band. 

2 (3) Tegmina brown, distinctly banded ; 

wings tinted with pale blue .... cainilana, L., p. 154. 

3 (2) Tegmiua brownish-testaceous; more 

vaguely banded ; wings with 

very little trace of blue rubescens, Walk., p. loo. 

4 (1) Wings with a curved transverse 

baud. 

5 (6) Wings with baud confined to pos- 

terior half beiiffiilensis, Sauss., p. 156. 

6 (5) Wings with band extending from 

costa to anal angle. 

7 (14) Wings without dark spot at the 

apex. 

8 (11) Wings with narrow light brown 

baud. 

9 (10) Tegmina with intercalate vein 

strong, touching the apex of the 

mediau vein saviynyi, Sauss., p. 155. 

10 (9) Tegmina with intercalate vein not 

touching the apex of the median 

vein , indus, Sauss., p. 156. 

11 (8) Wings with broad dark baud. 

12 (13) Smaller ; base of wings scarcely 

blue batteatus, Serv., p. 157. 

13 (12) Larger; base of wings blue lonyipennis, Sauss., p. 156. 

14 (7) Wings with a broad dark spot at 

apex ffiffas, sp. n., p. 158.] 



178. Sphingonotus caerulans. L. 

Gryllus Locustu c&mlans, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. (ed. xii.) i (2), 1767, 
p. 701. 

Grey or light reddish-brown, the head and sides of pronotum 
often largely white or bluish-white. Antennae ringed with 
reddish-brown and yellowish-white. Pronotum with the median 
carina very slightly marked, hind border rectangular. Tegmina 
light brown on tbe basal third, then subhyaline, with more or less 
numerous light brown spots and irregular transverse bands ; 
wings hyaline, unspotted, generally light blue. Legs brown, 
with pale rings ; hind femora generally black on the inside, with 



SPHIXGOXOTUS. 155 

a yellow band before the tip ; hind tibiae blue, with a yellow band 
towards the base, marked before and behind with black. 

Lenytli 18-27 mm. ; tegmina, 17-30 mm. 

EUROPE ; NORTH AFRICA ; WESTERN & CENTRAL ASIA ; INDIA : 
Himalayas. 

Pound on stony, sunny hill-sides, near rivers and brooks. 



179. Sphingonotus rubescens, Watt: 

(Edipoda rubescens, AValker, Zoologist, (2) v, 1870, p. 2301. 
Sphinyonotus cai-ulans var. ctindidus, Costa, Atti Accad. Nap. (2) 

i (9), 1888, p. 50. 

? Sphingonotus savignyi, Savignv, Descr. de 1'Egvpte, Ins. Orth. pi. vii, 
% 13,1$. 

Yery similar to the last species, but paler, with longer tegmina 
and wings. Wings iridescent hyaline, very slightly, if at all, 
tinged with blue. Hind femora black inside, often with two 
yellow bands ; hind tibi3 blue, black at the base, followed by a 
yellow band. 

Length 22-23 mm. ; expanse of tegmina, 50-65 mm. 

SARDINIA ; GREECE ; MADEIRA ; EGYPT ; ARABIA ; BALU- 
CHISTAX. 



Sphingonotus savignyi, Sauss. 

Sphinqonotus savif/nyi and stirps apicalia, Saussure, Mem. Soc. 
Geneve, xxviii (9), 1884, pp. 198, 208 ; xxx (1), 1888, p. 78 ; 
Savigny, Descr. de 1'Egypte, Ins. Orth. pi. vii, fig. 13, 2 $ . 



Slender ; grey or reddish, head and under surface varied with 
white ; head prominent, vertex convex, finely carinated, antenna? 
ringed with whitish. Pronotum constricted in front, obtusely 
rounded off behind, sometimes with two diverging whitish 
dorsal fascia, and a whitish stripe and spot on the sides ; upper 
surface thickly punctured, median carina slender ; deflexed lobes 
with the lower margin oblique or irregular, distinctly angulated 
behind. Tegmina with the basal third opaque, light reddish 
brown, very thickly reticulated; the rest subhyaline, more widely 
meshed, especially towards the extremity, generally with two 
slightly-indicated transverse light brown bands, and scattered 
brown spots beyond ; intercalated nervure waved, united with 
the median nervure at its extremity, and occupying a space 
resembling the discoidal cell on a butterfly's wing. Wings greenish 
hyaline, with a curved dark brown band, narrow or moderately 
broad, and in the former case sometimes subinterrupted on the 
upper part of the wing-covering from the middle of the costa 
to above the anal angle, but not extending to the hind margin ; 
nervures of the wings colourless, except some of the longitudinal 
nervures, and those on the dark band, which are oftened blackish. 



156 

Hind femora pale, with three blackish bands above, the last 
extending more or less on the sides. 

Length, 20-33 mm. ; expanse of tegmina, 46-73 mm. 

KASHMIR: Ladak ; SIXD : Karachi; CENTRAL & WESTERX 
ASIA ; N. AFRICA. 

181. Sphingonotus indus, Sauss. 

Sphingonotus indus, Saussure, Mem. Soc. Geneve, xxviii (9), 1884, 
p. 204. 

Slender, pale reddish brown or grey, whitish beneath. 
Head punctured, costal ridge parallel-sided. Pronotum thickly 
punctured behind and on the sides, median carina slender, hind 
border rectangular; deflexed lobes rounded behind. Tegmina 
thickly and irregularly reticulated at the base, with pale brown 
bands beyond, and pale blotches towards the apex ; the inter- 
calated nervure not contiguous to the median nervure. Wings 
hyaline, with a rather narrow brown band, arched behind, and 
extending to above the anal angle, but not to the hind margin. 

Length 25-30 mm.; tegmina, 29-37 mm. 

HIMALAYAS. 

Type in Saussure's collection. 

182. Sphingonotus bengalensis, Sauss. 

Sphingonotus benqalensis, Saussure, Mem. Soc. Geneve, xxx (i), 
1888, pp. 77, 80, n. 7. 

Stout, rugose, brown, often mottled and spotted with black. 
Head very broad, blackish above, and varied with bluish grey and 
reddish behind and below the eyes ; antenna? reddish. Pronotum 
very rugose, with no distinct median carina, rectangular or 
acutely angulated behind. Tegmina with the anal third brown, 
densely reticulated, and terminated by a darker transverse band ; 
the rest subhyaline, with two transverse brown bands, and some 
large brown spots on the outer third of the wing, which is clearer 
hyaline than the rest, chiefly in the lower margin. AVings light 
hyaline blue, with an incomplete brown baud on the lower half 
of the wing, not extending nearly to the anal angle, nor the hind 
margin. Hind femora yellow, with a black band on the inner 
side before the tip, and the knees and base of the hind tibia? 
black on the inside ; hind tibiae blue. 

Length, 22 mm. ; expanse of tegmina, 45 mm. 

NORTH BENGAL. 

183. Sphingonotus longipennis, Sauss. 

Sphinyonotus longipennis, Saussure, Mem. Soc. Gene.-e, xxviii (9), 
1884, pp. 197, 203 ; xxx (1), 1888, pp. 78, 85. 

Greyish brown, punctured. Head and sides of pronotum some- 



SPHINGONOTUS. 157 

times whitish ; central ridge parallel-sided, constricted below the 
eyes. Pronotum regularly recurved in front, rectangular behind, 
with no median carina ; deflexed 
lobes oblique beneath. Tegmina 
and wings rather long ; tegmina 
light brown at the base, thickly 
reticulated, followed by a wide 
pale space, and a rather ill-defined 
broad brown transverse band. 
Wings blue to the middle, 
followed by a black baud, varying 
in width, curving from the middle 
of the costa to above the anal 
angle, but not extending to the 
hind margin, which, as well as 
the whole area beyond the band, 
is clear hyaline. Hind femora 
blue, inner surface black with a 
pale band before the tip, and 
with black bands above ; tibia? 




Length 32-35 mm. ; expanse of tegmina, 62-79 mm. 
PUNJAB : Malakand ; ASSAM : Sylhet. 

In the specimen from Malakand, the wings are rather paler 
blue, and the black band is narrower than in those from Sylhet. 



184. Sphingonotus balteatus, Se-rv. 

(Edipoda balteata, Serville, Ins. Orth. 1839, p. 734. 
Sphingonotus balteatus, pt., Saussure, Mem. Soc. Geneve, xxx (i), 
1888, pp. 78, 86. 

Grey, or reddish-grey, thickly punctured. A very slight 
median carina on the vertex and pronotum. Prouotum obtusely 
rounded behind, deflexed lobes with the lower border slightly 
concave, and the angles before and behind well-marked ; abdomen 
mostly blackish above. Tegmina with the basal third opaque, 
greyish brown or reddish, densely reticulated ; beyond this is a 
pale space, followed by a transverse brown band, the rest of the 
wing is subhyaline, with numerous dusky transverse nervures, 
some being clustered together to form a second ill-defined band. 
Wings with the whole centre filled up by a very broad black 
band, the base of the wing being narrowly blue, and a narrow 
blue edging runs from this along the inner and lower part of the 
hind margins till it fades into the apical third of the wing, which 
is clear hyaline ; the upper part of the band is sometimes 
subiuterrupted towards the costa. Hind femora reddish grey, 
the inner side blue-black, with a pale band before the extremity ; 



1 58 (EDIPODIX^E. BATRACOTETRIGIN.E. 

hind tibiae blue, varied with white, the spines tipped with black ; 
hind tarsi whitish. 

Length 34-35 mm. ; expanse of tegmina, 70-S8 mm. 

BOMBAY ; KASHMIR : Baltistan. 

Type in the Paris Museum. 



185. Sphingonotus gigas, sp. nov. 

Buff, with a double row of black spots on the middle segments 
of the abdomen. Pronotum finely rugose, cariuated throughout, 
and with scattered raised nodules. Legs rather short, pubescent, 
with 9 outer and 10 inner rather stout black-tipped spines on 
the hind tibiae. Tegmina very long, and obtusely rounded at the 
extremity, as are also the wings. Wings white (possibly blue or 
red in life), with a broad black rectangular band running from 
the middle of the costa nearly to the inner margin, bub not 
extending either to the inner or hind margin ; apex of wing 
rather broadly black. 

Length 53 mm. ; expanse of tegmina, 115 mm. 

BALUCHISTAN: Quetta. 

Type in the Indian Museum, Calcutta. 



Subfamily V. BATRACOTETRIGIN^. 

Genus EREMOPEZA. 

Eremopeza, Saussure, Mem. Soc. Geneve, xxx (1), 1888, p. IBS. 
Eremoplava, Saussure (nee Stal), M6tu. Soc. Geneve, xxviii (9), 
1884, pp. 62, 232. 

TYPE, Eremobia cinerascens, Stal, from Persia. 

Range. Persia, Baluchistan. 

Very stout and rugose ; front and vertex not areolated ; 
scutellum of the vertex rather flat, slightly oblique, granulated ; 
frontal ridge narrow, very narrowly sulcated. Pronotum slightly 
raised in front, but hardly ridged, very slightly carinated in the 
middle, hind border acutely angulated. Abdomen slightly carinated 
at the base. Tegmina rather short, subparallel-sided with the 
hind margin obliquely rounded ; wings hyaline, with a dusky 
curved band. Hind femora strongly serrated and granulated ; 
hind tibiae short ; arolia very small. 

Key to tlte Species. 

Pronotum studded with raised yellow 

granules grunulosa, Walk. 

Pronotum without raised granules brachycera, sp. n. 



EREMOPEZA. 



159 



186.^Eremopeza granulosa, Walk. 

(Edipoda granulosa, Walker, Cat. Derm. Salt. B.M. v, Suppl., 

1871, p. 76. 
Eremocharis granulosa, Saussure, Mem. Soc. Geneve, xxy (1), 

1888, p. 134. 

Grey or whitish, with darker markings. Strongly granulated 
over the pronotum, and to a less extent on the head, 
especially on the sides, but also on the scutellum of the vertex, 
which slopes down to the frontal ridge, which is formed of 
three approximating parallel carinae to the level of the antenna ; 
back of head cariuated, and bordered on each side by transverse 
striae. The carina is continued over the pronotum, but 
is only slightly raised, and is very finely sulcated through 
most of its length ; the pronotum shows traces in the female 
of numerous black spots and bands on the back and sides ; and 
the hind lobe is probably blackish in life. Abdomen slightly 
carinated at the base, and probably with black transverse bands. 
Tegmina rufo-testaceous, with numerous dark blotches in the 
female. AVings hyaline, more or less yellow towards the base, 
and with an interrupted brown band beyond the middle. Hind 

femora pubescent, white inside 
and grey outside, with a row 
of large black spots in the 
female on at least the lower 
outer area, and probably also 
on the upper ; hind tibiae blue 
in the male, with 8 or 9 whitish 
black-tipped spines. 

Length 38-50 mm. ; tegmina, 
30-35 mm. 

BALUCHISTAN ; BOMBAY. 
The specimens appear to be 
much discoloured by spirit, so 
that the description is only 
provisional. Possibly they are 
not sexes of the same species, 
but distinct. 

Type in the British Museum. 

187. Eremopeza brachycera, 
sp. nov. 

Very similar to the last 
species, but much less rugose. 
Fig. 110. Eremopeza brachycera. Frontal costa not granulated; 
small raised ridges radiating 

round the eyes. Pronotum with the front arched, trilobate, 
the carina continuous, but only slightly prominent, and narrowly 
sulcated throughout. Antennae hardly longer than the head and 




160 PYBGOHORPHIKJE. 

pronotum, the terminal joint twice as long as the preceding joint, 
tapering, but rather obtusely pointed. Pronotum rectangular 
behind, and fringed with hairs. Tegmina rufo -testaceous, hardly 
as long as the abdomen, and rounded at the extremity. Wings 
subhyaline with brown nervures, yellowish towards the base, 
followed by a brown band curving round to above the inner 
margin. Abdomen and legs reddish, clothed with whitish pile; 
hind femora crenate above, and tuberculate on the outer side ; 
hind tibia} with 8 or 9 black-tipped spines. 

Length, 44 mm. ; expanse of tegmina, GG mm. 

BALUCHISTAN : Quetta. 

Type in the British Museum. 



Subfamily VI. PYRGOMORPHIN^E. 

Key to tlie Genera. 

[1 (22) Tegmina of ordinary elon- 
gate form. 

"1 (3) Anterior margin of pro- 
sternum strongly reflexed 
and dilated CHROTOGONUS, Serv., p. 161. 

3 (2) Anterior margin of pro- 

sternum neither reflexed 
nor dilated. 

4 (7) Antennae remote from the 

eyes, placed in front of 
the ocelli. 

5 (6) Tegmina long and narrow, 

body moderately slender. ATRACTOMORPHA, Sauss., p. 180. 

6 (5) Tegmina rather short and 

broader; body very robust TAGASTA, Bol.,* p. 179. 

7 (4) AntennaB near the eyes and 

inserted below the ocelli. 

8 (21) Posterior lobe of pronotum 

level ; abdomen without 
callosities ; the sternal 
lamina margined in front. 

9 (14) Outer apical spine of pos- 

terior tibia3 absent or 
difficult to detect. 

10 (13) Posterior angle of lateral 

lobes rounded or truncate. 

11 (12) Tegmina developed PYRGOMORPHA, Serv., p. 174. 

12 (11) Tegmina absent ANARCHITA, Bol.,* p. 178. 

13 (10) Posterior angle of lateral 

lobes rectangular ; pro- 
notum compressed ; teg- 
mina short, not reaching 
to middle of abdomen . . ZARYTES, Bol.,* p. 177. 



These genera are only known from description. 



CHBOTOGONUS. 



161 



14 (9) 

15 (16) 



17 (18) 

18 (17) 

19 (20) 



20 (19) 

21 (8) 



Outer apical spine of pos- 
terior tibise very distinct. 

Posterior sulcus of pro- 
notum scarcely behind 
the middle ; body robust ; 
tegmiua and wings fully 
developed 

Posterior sulcus of pro- 
notum placed some dis- 
tance behind the middle. 

Tegmina and wings absent. 

Tegmiua abbreviated. 

Tegmina elliptical ovate, 
about the same length as 
the pronotum ; body 
.slender 

Tegrnina very narrow, 
linear, longer than the 
pronotum 

Posterior lobe of pronotum 
convex, raised above the 
level of the anterior lobes, 
with strong rugae ; abdo- 
men with dorsal callosity. 

Tegmina much dilated to- 
wards the apex, obliquely 
truncate, more or less 
leaf-like 



PCECILOCERUS, Serv., p. 



ORTHACRIS, Bol., p. 184. 



CHLORIZEINA, Brunn.,* p. 174. 



COLEMANIA, Bol.,* p. 188. 



AULARCHES, StSl, p. 168. 



TRIGONOPTERYX, Charp., p. 189.] 



Genus CHROTOGONUS. 
Cfirotogonua, Serville, Ins. Orth. 1839, p. 702. 

TYPE, Ommexycha luyubre, Blanch., from Egypt. 

Jtanc/e. Africa, Asia, Australia. 

Size small, body short and stout. Head small, narrowed 
towards the front ; antenna? short, filiform, inserted close together 
between the eyes. Pronotum more or less rugose, much widened 
behind ; hind border obtusely angulated or rounded. Tegrnina 
generally shorter than the abdomen, and nodose ; wings often 
abbreviated. Hind femora moderately stout ; hind tibia? slightly 
thickened towards the extremity, with no terminal spine on the 
upper outer cariua ; the other terminal spines of nearly equal 
length. 

Key to the Species. 



(6) Wings well developed, longer 

or scarcely shorter than the 

tegrnina. 
(3) Tegmina not extending to the 

apex of the hind femora .... 
(2) Tegmina extending to apex of 

hind femora. 
(5) Pronotum with the posterior 

angles projecting, very acute . robertsi, sp. n., p. 164. 



pallidus, Blanch., p. 162, 



162 



PIBGOMOBPHIITS. 



5 (4) Pronotum with the posterior 

angles less projecting, slightly ' 

ODIUS6 . . \ f\ T W i -t ?La 

j ? oreru, Bol., p. 163. 

6 (1) Wings distinctly shorter than 

the tegmina. 

7 (10) Wings extending at least to the 

middle of the hind femora. 

8 (9) Tegmina almost covering the 

abdomen 

9 (8) Tegraina storter than the 

abdomen 

10 (7) Wings very short or wanting. 

11 (12) Tegmina aslong as the abdomen, fiaspis, Blanch., p. 165. 

12 (11) Tegmina scarcely extending 

beyond the middle of the 
abdomen. 

13 (20) Tegmina half as long as the 

abdomen. 

14 (15) Size small 

15 (14) Size larger. 

16 (19) Tegmina gradually and much 

acuminate. 

17 (18) Hind femora with a distinct 

black spot above 

18 (17) Hind femora without dark spot . 

19 (15) Tegmina subparallel-sided in 

the middle, arcuately acumi- 
nate at apex 

20 (13) Tegmina quite rudimentary . . 



incertm, Bol., p. 163. 
trachyptenis, Blanch., p. 165. 



oxypterus, Blanch., p. 166. 



samsurei, Bol., p. 166. 
concams, sp. u., p. 165. 



sordidus, sp. n., p. 167. 
brachyptttrus, Bol., p. 167. 



[The foregoing was left uncompleted. It has been finished from 
Bolivar's Key (Bol. Soc. Espan. iv, 1904, p. 92) and the new species 
added in their places, so far as the scanty materials permit ; but it 
should be borne in mind that the males are generally narrow and have 
longer tegmina than the females, and individuals of the same sex and 
species vary considerably in the length of the tegmina and wings.] 



188. Chrotogonus paliidus, BlancJi. 

Ommexycha pallidum, Blanchard, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, v, 1836, 
p. 623, pi. xxii, tig. 10. 

Dull pale yellow. Head short, with short longitudinal black 
lines behind the eyes. Antennae yellow, tipped with blackish. 
Eyes pale, round, prominent. Pronotum short, broad, ridged 
above, hind border not festooned, the edges rather paler, with a 
brown spot on each side ; two approximating black granules in 
front, and a row of large black tubercles behind. Sternum yellow, 
spotted with black. Tegmina as long as the abdomen in the 
male, shorter in the female; with numerous indistinct small black 
dots, in longitudinal rows, the central row marked with white in 
the male. Wings completely hyaline, and rather longer than the 
tegmina in the male, shorter in the female. Abdomen smooth, 
yellow, spotted with black beneath. Four front legs pale yellow, 



CHUOTOGONUS. 163 

with some darker spots ; hind legs slender ; hind femora with two- 
blackish spots above and rows of small dots beneath ; tibiae slender, 
with short and slender spines. 

Length 13 mm. ; tegrnina, 8 mm. 

BOMBAY. 

Type in the Paris Museum. 

189. Chrotogonus brevis, Bol. 

Chrotogonus brevis, Bolivar, Bol. Soc. EspaS. iv, 1904, pp. 92, 99. 

Pale ochreous, spotted with black beneath. Head granulose 
above, vertex concave between the eyes, slightly produced before 
them, and roundly subangular ; antennas short, brownish at the 
tips ; front (seen from the side) sinuated and granulated. Pro- 
notum scabrous and sparingly granulose, with no lateral carinse, 
the median cariua complete on the metazona, the front margin 
with black granules, the hind border obtuse-angular, almost quadri- 
plicate, lateral lobes rather concave behind the sulcus, and strongly 
granulose, the lower margin slightly sinuated, subreflexed in front, 
and produced chiefly towards the hinder angle, the hind margin 
rounded near the angle. Tegmina longer than the abdomen, the 
ulnar nervure with white raised nodules adjoining small black dots, 
the mediastinal area expanded beyond the base. Wings rather 
shorter than the tegmina, hyaline. Space between the mesosternal 
lobes as long as broad, with the lateral borders obtusely angulated 
before the middle. Femora with grey pubescence, the carina 
marked with black. 

Length 18 mm.; tegmina, 15 mm. 

SIND : Karachi. 

Type in the Paris Museum. 

190. Chrotogonus incertus, Bol. 

Chrotogonus incertus. Bolivar. Ann. Soc. Espaii. xiii, 1884, pp. 38, 
45, 494. 

Reddish brown, pale beneath, spotted with brown. Head 
short, tuberculate in front, vertex concave. Pronotum rugose- 
tuberculate, behind acutely angulate, with the outer margin 
yellow. Tegmina nearly as long as the abdomen, with one row of 
small tubercles, the nervures reddish. "Wings in the female one- 
fifth shorter than the tegmina, slightly brown. Hind femora 
granulate, pubescent, with rather indistinct brown spots. Ab- 
domen brownish on the back. 

Length 20 mm. ; tegmina, 12 mm. 

ASSAM : Sylhet ; CHINA. 

Type in the collection of Brunner von Watteuwyl. 

191. Chrotogonus fuscescens, sp. nov. 

Brown above, pale beneath. Scutellum of the vertex obtusely 
pointed in front ; vertex within the eyes bordered by a row of 

M2 



164 



PYBGOMOBPHIKS. 



granules ; occiput in the male with two black dashes in the middle, 
and one behind each eye ; face below the antennae and eyes pale 
yellowish on the whole front and sides, this colour extending to 
the lower border of the deflexed lobe of thepronotum ; lower part 
of face strongly granulose, especially on the sides. Pronotum 
rufous brown, granulose, with an interrupted and rudimentary 
carina, hardly visible at all in the male ; the area before the 
principal sulcus irregularly trilobate on the margins, the hind 
border rounded with a row of large black-marked tubercles. 
Abdomen greyish brown above, indistinctly varied with black, 
and carinated in the female. Pronotum and abdomen pale 
yellowish beneath, spotted with black, most strongly in the male. 
Tegmina rather narrow and pointed, longer than the abdomen, 
rufous-brown, with a longitudinal row of indistinct white dots 
adjacent to darker ones in the male, these being almost obsolete in 
the female. Wings as long as the tegmina, brown subhyaline. 
Femora yellowish, hind femora banded above with brown and 
dotted with black on the sides ; tibiae and tarsi reddish. 

Length 15-22 mm. ; expanse of tegmina, 29-39 mm. 

BOMBAY : Bandra. 

Types in the British Museum. 

192. Chrotogonus robertsi, sp. nov. 

Uniform brownish grey, strongly tuberculate. Scutellum of 
the vertex slightly pointed in the male, obtusely rounded in the 

female; vertex and pro- 
notum with an indistinct 
median cariua, more visible 
in the male ; sides of pro- 
notum irregularly trilobate 
before the principal sulcus ; 
hind border indistinctly 
trilobate and subrotund, 
lower border of the deflexed 
lobes concave in front, and 
produced and angulated be- 
hind. Abdomen smooth, 
with a double row of brown 
spots above ; pronotum and 
abdomen pale beneath, with 
light brown spots. Tegmina 
grey, with a longitudinal 




Fig. 111. Chrotogonus robertsi. 



row of pale black-marked tubercles, and traces of similar rows on 
the principal longitudinal nervures. Wings distinctly shorter than 
the tegmina, clear hyaline. Legs pale yellowish, terminal spines 
of the hind tarsi tipped with black. 

Length 16-19 mm. ; expanse of tegmina, 27-31 mm. ; of wings, 
26-28 mm. 

BALUCHISTAN : Quetta. 

Types in the British Museum. 



CHROTOGONUS. - - 165 

193. Chrotogonus concavus, sp. nov. 

Uniform reddish grey (sand-colour), hardly paler beneath, 
strongly granulose. Scutellum of the vertex depressed, obtusely 
pointed in front; median carina of head and pronotum nearly 
obsolete ; sides of pronotum strongly tridentate before the 
principal sulcus, hind border obtusely rounded, with black mar- 
ginal tubercles ; deflexed lobes with the lower border yellowish, 
twice concave, and angulated behind. Tegmina about as long as 
the abdomen, tapering, rather pointed, with a median row of small 
pale dark-marked tubercles ; wings two-fifths as long as the teg- 
mina, hyaline. Legs yellowish, hind femora with black dots on 
the outer carinse, terminal spines of the hind tibiae tipped with 
black. Abdomen rather obscurely pointed with brown. 

Length 24 mm. ; expanse of tegmina, 28 mm. 

BALUCHISTAN: Quetta. 

Type in the British Museum. 

194. Chrotogonus trachypterus, Blanch. 

Ommexycha trachypterus, Blanchard, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, v, 
1836, p. 618, pi. xxii, fig. 6. 

Brown, rugose and tuberculate. Head short, broad, rugose ; 
antennae fulvous, ringed with black; eyes very prominent, brown, 
shining, occupying three-quarters the length of the head. Pro- 
notum short, broad, with a great number of small crowded 
tubercles ; seven lobes on the hind border ; front and lateral 
borders not indented. Sternum yellowish, spotted with blackish. 
Tegmina rather shorter than the abdomen, brown, considerably 
humped, nervures and numerous tubercles very prominent ; wing.s 
hyaline, nearly as long as the tegmina. Abdomen brown above, 
paler beneath, with brown spots. Pour front legs short, sleuder, 
rugose, yellow, with bro\^n spots. Hind legs short, femora as 
long as the abdomen, outer surface very rugose, with two black 
spots, one at the base and the other at the extremity ; tibiae, with 
short pale spines. 

Length 17-19 mm.; tegmina, 12 mm.; wings, 9 mm.; hind 
femur, 8*5 mm. 

BOMBAY. 

Type in the Paris Museum. 

[Mr. Kirby suggests in a memorandum that this may be the 
female of C. pallidus.~\ 



195. Chrotogonus liaspis, Blanch. 

Ommexycha liaspis, Blanchard, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, v, 1836, 
p. 620, pi. xxii, fig. 8. 

Brownish yellow, smooth. Head rather broad at the base, and 
pointed at the extremity ; antennae brownish, shading into black 



166 PTRGOMOBPHIKjE. 

towards the tip; eyes ovoid, dark brown. Pronotum greyish, 
smooth, slightly ridged in front, with three black tubercles on the 
hinder edge and some smaller ones beyond them ; three small 
tubercles, and a black spot on the sides, and a yellowish-white 
marginal line from the front to the hind border. Sternum pale 
yellow, smooth, with ten black spots. Tegmina rather shorter 
than the abdomen, nervures scarcely visible, and only a single 
row of inconspicuous tubercles. Wings hyaline, half as long as 
the tegmina. Abdomen smooth, brown above, and yellow spotted 
with black beneath. Legs rather short, yellowish, with darker 
spots, and finely striated ; hind femora broad and flattened, with 
some brownish spots on the outer surface ; tibiae smooth, with 
pointed spines. 

Length 20-21 mm. ; tegmina, 11-5 mm. ; hind femur, 10 mm. 

BOMBAY. 

Type in the Paris Museum. 

196. Chrotogonus oxypterus, Blanch. 

Omtnexycha o.vi/ptencm, Blanchard, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, v, 1836, 
p. 622, pi. xxii, fig. 9. 

Yellowish brown, short, rugose, subapterous. Head reddish ; 
antennae yellow, with small black transverse streaks ; eyes very 
large and prominent, covering the sides of the head. Pronotum 
short and broad, humped, with some small black dots in front ; 
hind border hardly festooned, sides brown, with a black spot, and 
bordered by a white line extending to the lateral border of the 
head. Sternum spotted with black ; tegmina only half as long as 
the abdomen ; brownish yellow, with darker spots ; wings obsolete. 
Abdomen yellow above, with small and rather indistinct transverse 
black lines ; under surface spotted with black. Legs rather 
short and slender, yellow, with darker spots ; hind femora with 
two brown spots ; spines of hind tibiae small. 

Lenyth 13-19 mm. 

MADKAS : Malabar. 

Types in the Paris Museum. 

J97. Chrotogonus saussurei, Bol. 

Chrotoyonus sausmrei, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Espafi. xiii, 1884, pp. 39, 
47, 494 ; id., Bol. Soc. Espan. iv, 1904. pp. 93, 104. 

Chrotof/ontts oxypterus, Bolivar (nee Blanch.), Ann. Soc. Ent. 
France, Ixv, 1902, p. 605. 

Ferruginous brown, spotted with red ; wings rudimentary. 
Head pointed, tuberculate, generally orange, with a pale oblique 
fascia on the front, and with four black spots behind, the outer- 
most behind the eyes ; fastigium subacute, concave ; antennae 
blackish towards the tips. Pronotum rugose, hind lobe with a 
few granules, and a short carinula on each side: hind border 
obtusely angulated, with pliciform tubercles ; lateral lobes with 



CHEOTOGONUS. 167 

black granules, the outer margin pale, the hinder angle acute. 
Tegmiua lanceolate, variable, but in the type extending to the 
middle of the hind femora, with brown or reddish spots adjoining 
the numerous small white tubercles on the principal nervures ; 
wings rudimentary, brown. Legs varied with brown, and with 
grey pubescence ; hind femora sparingly granulated, upper carina 
compressed ; three black spots above, the middle one obliquely 
extended ; lower carinae spotted with black. 

Length 14-22 mm. ; tegmina, 5-8-8 mm. ; hind femur, 7-5- 
10 mm. 

MA DBAS : Trichinopoly, Bellary. 

Types in the collections of Brunner von Wattenwyl and Bolivar. 

198. Chrotogonus brachypterns, Bol. 

Chrotogonus brachyptems, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, Ixx, 
190:?, p. 605 ; id., Bol. Soc. Espaii. iv, 1904, pp. 95, 109. 

Brown, pale below, spotted with black, wings rudimentary. 
Vertex about as long as broad, slightly produced before the eyes, 
and carinated between them ; lower part of face with cruciform 
granulae. Tegmina very short, the nervures only slightly curved, 
and the tip truncated. 

fyngtJi 15-23 mm. ; tegmina, 2-5 mm. ; hind femur, 8 mm. 

MADE AS : Madura. 

Types in the collections of Pantel and Bolivar. 

199. Chrotogonus sordidus, sp. n. 

Brown, only slightly paler beneath, which renders the black 
spots inconspicuous. Scutellum of the vertex angulated in front, 
frontal ridge narrow between the antennae, the median carinae 
slightly diverging on the lower part of the face, and the lateral 
carinse well marked; head finely granulose. Front of pronotum 
transversely ridged, otherwise with large longitudinal and trans- 
verse mostly oblong wrinkles, the hind border slightly rounded, the 
deflexed lobes almost rectangular behind. Tegmina lighter brown 
than the body, nearly as long as the hind femora, but much 
shorter than the abdomen, narrow, linear, with a central row 
of large black tubercles marked with white dots within, and 
numerous smaller black dots and specks on the longitudinal 
nervures. Wings black, narrow, less than half as long as the 
tegmina. Legs rather short, four front femora rather stout, 
hind femora but slightly thickened. 

Length 22 mm. ; tegmiua, 13 mm. 

BOMBAY. 

The specimen is probably discoloured ; and but for the com- 
paratively stout legs, I should have referred it, with doubt, to 
C. oxypteniSj Blanch. 

Type in the British Museum. 



168 PYRGOMORPHIX.E. 

Genus AULARCHES. 
Aularchea, StSl, (Efv. Vet.-Akad. Fork, xxx (4), 1873, p. 51. 

TYPE, Gryllus (Locusta) miliaris, L. 

Range. Indian Region. 

Size large, body stout, pronotum tuberculate, wings large, 
coloured. Head large, smooth ; scutellum of the vertex very 
short, triangular, contracting uninterruptedly into a narrow 
sulcated frontal ridge ceasing below the antennae ; lateral cariuae 
very distinct, running within the eyes, and slightly divergent to 
the extremity of the clypeus, which is broad and truncated. 
Antennae rather long, placed between the eyes, and composed 
of a number of long joints. Pronotum strongly tuberculate 
above, with two large contiguous humps in front, cut by the 
three sulci, the last sulcus placed about the middle, the hinder 
area rugose and deeply pitted at the sides ; cleflexed lobes 
rounded behind. Tegmiua long, moderately broad, subparallel- 
sided, obtusely rounded behind, with callous spots ; wings 
membranous, opaque, as long as the tegrnimi, and moderately 
broad. Abdomen slightly compressed, legs long and slender. 
Hind femora unarmed, and only slightly thickened. 

The forms below are regarded by some authors as varieties of 
one species. 

Key to the Species. 

1 (2) Head pale ........................ miliaris, L., p. 168. 

2 (1) Head black. 



3 (4) Front humps of pronotum black .... ptmc^aflM, Drury, p. 169. 

4 (3) Front humps of pronotum yellow .... scabiosfc, F., p. 170. 

200. Aularches miliaris, L. 

Gryllus (Locusta) miliaris, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. (ed. x.) i, 1758, 

p. 432 ; Linnaeus, Mus. Lud. Ulric. 1764, p. 142. 
Acrydiwn verrucosum, DeGeer, Meui. Ins. iii, 1773, p. 486, pi. xl, 

tig. 6. 
Gryllus (Locusta} scabiosus, Stoll (nee Fabr.), Spectres, Saut. 1813, 

p. 18, pi. 76, tig. 24. 
Gryllus (Locttsta) conspercus, Stoll, op. cit. 1813, p. 40, pi. 220, 

tig, 85. 
Aularches miliaris, StSl, llecens. Orth. i, 1873, p. 18. 

Head yellowish, or more or less mottled with brown above ; 
pronotum yellow on the sides, generally with at least the spines 
and hinder area black. Frontal lobe with two large rounded 
contiguous elevations in front, black, or rarely pale ; the space 
between the sulci with several strong pointed conical tubercles on 
each side ; the hinder lobe very rugose, deeply pitted, and rounded 
behind, with a row of short spines on the margin, not close 
together. Tegmina light brown, very thickly reticulated with 
yellow nervures, and with a variable number of large and small 



Al'LARCHJiS. 169 

callous yellow spots ; wings purplish brown, darkest towards the 
base. Legs yellowish, slightly mottled with darker or veined 
with black ; hind knees marked with black on the sides. Abdomen 
black, with narrow yellow incisions, and a row of yellow spots on 
the back before the incisions, and the apex yellow ; on the under 
surface the transverse bands are small, but there are no yellow 
spots in addition. 

Length 35-52 mm. ; expanse of tegmina, 68-100 mm. 

NEPAL; SIKKIJI ; MADRAS: Coonoor; CEYLON; JATA. 

201. Aularches punctatus, Drury. 

Gryllus (Locusta) punctatus, Drury, 111. Exot. Ent. ii, 1773, pi. xli, 
fig. 4. 

Body almost entirely shining black above ; a broad yellow band 
running across the face below the antennae and across the sides of 




Fig. 112. Aularcltcs puiictalus. 

the pronotum ; abdomen more or less banded with yellow or 
reddish, at least towards the extremity and on the sides, and the 
sternum and abdomen beneath mostly red ; abdomen and legs 



170 PYBGOMOBPHIN*:. 

black, hind femora sometimes yellowish ; tegmina light brown 
or olive-brown, thickly reticulated with yellow, with numerous 
yellow callous spots ; wings purplish brown, subhyaline, darkest 
towards the base. Tubercles of pronotum less prominent than in 
A. miliaris. 

Lenqih 42-60 mm. ; expanse of tegmina, 64-110 mm. 

TIBET; KASHMIR; NEPAL; UNITED PROVINCES: Garhwal; 
MALAY STATES ; JAVA. 

The immature insect has short yellow wings. 



202. Aularches scabiosa, F. 

Gryllus scabiosce, Fabricius, Ent. Syst. ii, 1793, p. 51. 

Shining black, with a broad yellow band across the head and 
sides of the pronotum, as in the last species. Pronotum with the 
front, including the large rounded tubercles, yellow, and the hind 
border, which is not very strongly dentated, also yellow. Abdomen 
broadly banded with red both above and below, except some- 
times on the basal half above. Tegmina brown or greenish, with 
numerous yellow callous spots. Wings purplish brown, sub- 
hyaline towards the extremity ; sometimes with a few indistinct 
yellow spots. 

Lenytli 44-60 mm. ; expanse of tegmina, 80-100 mm. 

BENGAL : Orissa ; BOMBAY ; CEYLON ; CAMBODIA. 



Genus PffiCILOCERUS. 

Pcekilocerus, Serville, Ann. Sci. Nat. xxii, 1831, p. L>75 ; id., Ins. 

Orth. 1839, p. 595. 
Pfvcilocerus, St&l, CEfv. Vet.-Akad. Forh. xxx (4), 1873, p. 51. 

TYPE, Gryllus pictus, F. 

Range. Indian Eegion, Western Asia, North and East Africa. 

Size large ; body stout, subtusiform ; wings opaque, coloured. 
Head and pronotum very slightly carinated, fustigium of the 
vertex convex, obtusely rounded in front, and distinctly sulcated, 
passing into the frontal ridge, which is sulcated throughout ; 
lateral carina? only slightly divergent ; antenna short and thick, 
with long joints. Pronotum gradually widened behind, the sulci 
well marked, the hind sulcus placed about the middle, the hinder 
lobe raised, and rounded behind ; deflexed lobes narrowed below. 
Abdomen slightly carinated above. Tegmina and wings coloured, 
about as long as the abdomen. Legs rather stout, the four front 
tibia? spined beneath at the extremity ; hind femora slender, 
nearly as long as the abdomen, unarmed ; hind tibiae spined 
above, with nearly equal terminal spines above and below. 



PCECILOCEEUS. 171 



Key to the Species. 

1 (2) Abdomen with red spots tessellatus, Bol., p. 171. 

2 (1) Abdomen with no red spots. 

3 (6) Antennae not red at the base. 

4 (5) Antennae ringed with black and yellow, pictus, F., p. 172. 

5 (4) Antennae green puncth'entris,SeTV.,y.l73. 

6 (3) Antennae red at base ornatus, Burm., p. 173. 



203. Pcecilocerus tessellatus, Bol. 

Pcecilocerus tessellatus, Bolivar, Bol. Soc. Espau. Hist. Nat. iv, 
1904, pp. 432, 433. 

Violet-brown, thickly tessellated with yellow ; antennae yellow, 
ringed with blue-black ; head, pronotum, and abdomen regularly 
tessellated with small yellow callosities. Head above with an 
oblique yellow band on each side, and below the eyes a yellow- 
baud running through the lower border or the pronotum ; 
fastigium transverse. Pronotum not constricted, subcylindrical, 
expanded behind, the sulci not strongly marked, and the hinder 
sulcus placed scarcely behind the middle ; the metazona slightly 
carinated in the middle, and very narrowly bordered with yellow 
behind. Legs striped with blue-black. 

Length ( nymph), 44mm. ; pronotum, 21'5 mm. ; hind femur, 
20 mm. 

MADRAS: Bellary. 

Type in the Paris Museum. 

[The immature specimen upon which the following description 
is based, was treated by the author as a new species, but as it is 
probable that the insect is only the nymph of P. pictus, it seems 
undesirable to propose a new name for it.] 

204. Pcecilocerus sp. 

Blue-black, thickly tessellated with yellow, and spotted with 
red ; aiitennae ringed with black and yellow, narrowly towards 
the base, and broadly beyond ; head, pronotum, and abdomen 
regularly tessellated with small yellow callosities. Head and 
pronotum with a very tine median carina ; head with a diverging 
yellow band within each eye, extending to the front of the 
pronotum, and another below 7 the eye extending over the lower 
border of the pronotum to the middle COXOB ; fastigium broader 
than long. Pronotum gradually widened but not raised behind, 
with the sulci only slightly marked, with three red spots on each 
side arranged in a triangle, one between the two hinder sulci, 
and two on the hinder lobe ; there is also a trace of another on 
each side behind the upper yellow band of the head. Abdomen 



172 PYKGOMOEPHlXjE. 

slightly carinated, with three rows of red spots, one on the 
earina, and the others lateral. Legs yellow, tessellated above 
and on the sides with blackish, hind femora also with black 
spots on the inside ; hind tibiae yellow, with black spines placed 
on black spots. 

Length (nymph), 38 mm. 
INDIA. 



205. Pcecilocerus pictus, F. 

Gryllus pictus, Fabricius, Syst. Ent. 1775, p. 289. 

Poakilocerus sonneratii, Serville, Ann. Sci. Nat. xxxii, 1831, p. 276. 

Blue-black or greenish, with yellow markings and red wings. 
Antennas blue-black, ringed with yellow beyond the basal third of 




Fig. 113. Pcedlcctmt pictus. 

their length. Head and pronotum with a slight median earina ; 
head with a broad yellow band within each eye, running back on 
the pronotum to the middle sulcus, behind which are two broad 



P<ECILOCEBUS. 173 

subinterrupted transverse yellow bands ; the upper part of the 
frontal ridge is also yellow, and there are broad yellow diverging 
bands on each side of it ; also a broad yellow band below each eye, 
extending over the lower part of the deflexed lobes of the pro- 
notum. Pronotuin impress-punctate, rounded behind, the hind 
sulcus placed just behind the middle. Tegmina green or olive, 
with the longitudinal and transverse nervures yellow, and the 
apex often reddish ; wings brick-red, with red nervures, more or 
less subhyaline towards the tip. Abdomen yellow, with trans- 
verse 'blue-black bands. Legs yellow, the femora longitudinally 
striped with blue-black, and blue-black on the inner side nearly to 
the extremity ; the four front tibiae blotched with blue-black. 

Length 43-61 mm. ; expanse of tegmiua, 68-100 mm. 

BALUCHISTAK : Quetta ; SIKD : Karachi ; MADEAS, etc. 

The specimen from Madras is very large and dark-coloured, but 
I cannot find any satisfactory character to separate it as a distinct 
species. 

206. Pcecilocems punctiventris, Serv. 

Pcekilocerus punctiventris, Serville, Ins. Orth. 1839, p. 601. 

Green, rather shining. Head smooth, with a yellow band 
beneath each eye, extending over the lower border of the deflexed 
lobes of the pronotuui ; scutellum of the vertex short, depressed, 
bordered with a yellow line extending obliquely backwards on the 
vertex ; face with three yellow spots on each side, the faint 
carinse slightly marked ; scape of antennas with a yellow spot 
beneath. Pronotuui strongly granulated, with four spots placed 
in a square in front, and six others, of which the middle ones 
are the smallest, curving round the hind border. Pectus with 
four irregular spots in the middle, and three more on each side. 
Tegmina rather longer than the abdomen, opaque, green, thickly 
mottled with yellow ; not distinctly expanded on the costa. 
Wings nearly as long as the tegmiua, hyaline, stained with 
vermilion to beyond the middle, the apex clear, with brown 
nervures. Abdomen spotted with yellow on the carina above, 
and on the median line below, as well as on the sides. Legs green, 
front femora with two yellow spots, four front tibise spiny below 
towards the tips, and with three yellow spots above ; hind 
femora with a row of yellow spots on the outer margin above 
and below ; middle coxae spotted with yellow. 

Length 38-40 mm. 

BOMBAY; EGYPT. 

Type in the Paris Museum. 

207. Pcecilocerus (?) ornatus, Burm. 

Pcccilocera ornata, Burmeister, Ilandb. Ent. ii, 1838, p. 624. 

Front of the head raised and pointed ; eyes very prominent ; 
antennae ringed with black and yellow, with the base red ; body 



174 

black, spotted with yellow ; pronotum saddle-shaped, with the 
hind margin humped ; black, spotted with yellow, as also the 
abdomen, and everywhere coarsely punctured and granulated; 
tegmina green ; legs red, femora yellowish above. 

Length 20 mm. 

INDIA (?). 

Genus CHLORIZEINA. 

Chlorizeina, Brunner, Ann. Mus. Geneva, xxxiii, 1893, p. 130. 
TYPE, Chlorizeina unicolor, Brunu. 

Range. Burma. 

Smooth, slender, subapterous. Tastigium of the vertex rather 
longer than the eye, sulcated ; front very oblique, not sinuated. 
Antennae filiform, half as long again as the head and pronotum 
together. Pronotum cylindrical, rounded behind, finely punc- 
tured, the sulci slightly marked, the hind sulcus placed beyond 
the middle. Tegmina and wings rudimentary. Metasternal 
lobes contiguous in the male, and slightly separated in the 
female. Hind femora slender, the genicular lobes slightly 
pointed ; hind tibiae hairy, with six or seven spines on the 
outer carina, besides the apical one. Anal segment of the male 
triangularly emarginate; supra-anal lamina pointed; tarsi in 
the male very slender, compressed, curved, and obtuse at the 
extremity ; subgenital lamina of the male slightly compressed 
and hooked. 

203. Chlorizeina unicolor, Bnmn. 

Chlorizeina unicolor, Brunner, Ann. Mus. Geneva, xxxiii, 1893 
p. 131, pi. v, fig. 51. 

Uniform pale green. Tegmina in the male sometimes pointed, 
hardly extending beyond the third segment of the abdomen, and 
sometimes obtuse, extending to the eighth segment : in the 
female shorter than the third segment. Wings very short, 
hyaline. Hind femora beneath suffused with red, the genicular 
lobes partly black ; hind tibiae dull blue, tipped with black. 

Length 27-32 mm. ; pronotum, 6-2-6-8 mm. ; tegmina, 7'5- 
11-5 mm.; hind femur, 15-15-5 mm. 

BURMA : Palon, Bhamo. 

Types in the Genoa Museum. 

Genus PYRGOMORPHA. 
Pyrgomorpha, Serville, Ins. Orth. 1839, p. 583. 
TIPE, Acridium conicum, Oliv. 
Range. Cosmopolitan. 

Size small, body slender, more or less granulated. Head conical, 
fastigium of the vertex projecting considerably before the eyes ; 



PYBGOMORPHA. 175 

antennae inserted between and close to the eves, short, narrowly 
ensiform. Pronotum rounded behind, carinated more or less con- 
tinuously. Tegmina long and narrow, or abbreviated, more or 
less pointed at the extremity ; wings hyaline, or red at the base. 
Metasternal foveolae separated by a transverse space; abdomen 
compressed, generally with transverse dark band. Legs long and 
slender. 



Key to the Species. 

1 (2) Lateral carinae of pronotum obsolete . brachyeera, sp. n., p. 175. 

2 (1) Lateral carinae of pronotum well- 

marked. 

3 (4) Tegmina not reaching apex of abdo- 

men in $ bispinosa, Walk., p. 176. 

4 (3) Tegmina extending beyond apex of 

abdomen in conica, Oliv., p. 175. 



209. Pyrgomorpha conica, Oliv. 

Acrydium conicum, Olivier, Encycl. Meth., Tns. vi, 1791, p. 230. 
Truxalis gryiloides, Latreille. Hist. Xat. Crust. Ins. xii, 1804. 

p. 148. 
Truxalis rosea, Charpentier, Hor. Soc. Ent. Ross. 1825, p. 128, 

pi. iii, fig. 8. 

Truxalis linearis, Charpentier, op. cit. 1825, p. 129, pi. iii, fig. 2. 
Truxalis rhodoptila, Herrick-Schaffer, Panzer, Faun. Ins. Germ. 

clvii, 1838, pi. 16. 
Opomala cinqulata, Walker, Cat. Derm. Salt. B.M. iii, 1870, 

p. 517. 

Grey or green, sometimes with a whitish line running below 
the eyes, and bordering the deflexed lobes beneath. Pastigium 
of the vertex longer than broad ; antennae stout, blackish, not 
longer than the head and pronotum together ; median carina 
distinct from the fastigium over the head and pronotum ; lateral 
carinae generally incomplete. Surface of pronotum finely granu- 
lose, hind border rounded, hind sulcus placed much behind the 
middle. Tegmina green or grey ; wings hyaline, generally pink 
towards the base and along the nervures. Hind tibiae above with 
no outer apical spine. Metasternal lobes distant in the female ; 
in the male produced behind the foveolae, and contiguous ; 
abdomen spotted with black above. 

Length 15-24 mm. ; pronotum, 3-5 mm. ; tegmina, 13- 
22 mm. 

S. EUROPE ; N. & W. AFRICA ; W. ASIA. 

210. Pyrgomorpha brachycera, sp. nov 

Testaceous, evidently green during life. Pastigium of the 
vertex as long as the eye, equally broad nearly to the extremity, 



176 



PIBGOMOBPHIN^. 



where it is very obtusely rounded ; front long, hardly sinuated, 
vertex and pronotuin with a well-marked median carina, the 
lateral carinae obsolete ; antennae shorter than the head and pro- 
notum together, stout, pointed at the tip, 
and much broadened and flattened at the 
base above ; a row of large granules runs 
bebind each eye to the back of the head, 
above which (but not contiguous) is a trace 
of a pale line, and the deflexed lobes are 
very narrowly edged with pale below. Teg- 
mina testaceous (green in life ?), rather 
long, narrow, and pointed ; wings shorter 
than the tegmina, red, with the costa and 
hind margin hyaline. Abdomen with black 
spots above towards the base. Legs long 
and slender. 

Length 21 mm. ; expanse of tegmina, 
38 mm. 
BENGAL. 
Type in the British Museum. 




Fig. 114,Pyrffo- 
morpha brachycera. 



211. Pyrgomorpha bispinosa, Wall-.. 

Pyrgomorpha bispinosa, Walker, Cat. Derm. Salt. B.M. iii, 1870, 

p. 499. 
Pyryomorpha indica, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, Ixx, 1902, 

p. 66. 

Green, or grey, often varied with brown. Front siuuated, very 
oblique ; head finely granulose, with a pale oblique line behind 
the eyes ; vertex narrow, oblong, obtusely rounded in front. 
Pronotum sparingly granulose ; carina? before the middle distinct, 
inflexed, replaced behind by rows of granules, median carina con- 
tinuous ; deflexed lobes with the lower margin bisinuate, with a 
broad pale border, granulose, with the hinder angle obliquely 
truncated, and near it a spine. Tegmina extending to the tip of 
the hind femora, obtuse at the extremity ; wings rather shorter, 
with the inner part of the disk rosy. Legs varied with brown, 
hind femora usually with two obsolete brown bands, and the inner 
surface more or less brown ; hind tibiae grey or green. Abdomen 
brown on the back. 

Length 15-21 mm.; tegmina, 11-15 mm. 

MADRAS: Madura, Kodaikanal. 

Type of bispinosa in the British Museum ; type of indica in 
the collections of Pantel and Bolivar. 



Genus ZARYTES. 

Zan/tes, Bolivar, Bol. Soc. Espan. Hist. Nat. iv, 1904, p. 456 ; id.. 
Gen. Ins., Orth. Acrid. Pyrg. 1909, pp. 27, 32. 

TYPE, Pyrgomorpha squalina, Bol. 

Range. India. 

Long and slender, wings rudimentary. Head conical ; fastigium 
of the vertex slightly contracted, rounded in front, not longer 
than the eye, and carinated above ; front very oblique, frontal 
ridge compressed between the antennae, and sulcated; sides of 
face with an oblique row of granules. Antennae rather long and 
thick, triquetral at the base, brown, inserted between the eyes, 
which are oblong. Pronotum somewhat compressed, slightly 
einarginate dorsal ly in front, rounded behind ; tricarinate, with 
the lateral en rinse distinctly arched before the middle, the typical 
sulcus placed behind the middle ; deflexed lobes scarcely higher 
behind, traversed within by an oblique branch from the carinae 
of the metaxona ; the lower margin straight, entire, rectangular 
behind, the hind border somewhat excised. Tegmiua lanceolate, 
only slightly longer than the intermediate femora, overlapping 
on the inner edge ; wings very short. Prosternum slightly 
tumid in front ; metasternum with a trapezoidal space between 
ihe lobes, not twice as broad as the lobes. Legs compressed, 
front femora of male slightly thickened, hind tibiae with no outer 
terminal spine. Abdomen compressed, obtusely carinated above 
valves of the ovipositor sinuated. 

212. Zarytes squalina, Bol. 

Pyrqomorplia squalina, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Espan. xiii, 1884, pp. 422, 
423, 495 ; id., Ann. Soc. Ent. France, Ixx, 1902, p. 606. 

Eeddisb, green, or light brown, with rudimentary wings. Front 
oblique, bisiuuate ; fastigium prominent, with the median carina 
continuous ; antennae ensiform or triquetral at the base, cylindrical 
beyond, inserted scarcely before the eyes, and black or reddish ; 
head with one row of tubercles behind each eye. Proiiotuin sub- 
cylindrical, with the lateral carinae almost parallel : the lateral 
lobes rugose, hardly sinuated, but rectangular behind, the lower 
margin narrowly sinuated ; yellow, or with a black (or in the green 
specimens, reddish) lateral band on the sides of the pronotum, 
passing over the coxae and the lower half of the hind femora ; the 
outer or lower half of the lateral lobes, as well as the meso- and 
meta-thoracic pleurae are pale. Tegmina narrow, lanceolate, hardly 
extending to the middle of the abdomen. Prosternum angulated 
in the middle. Hind femora slender; hind tibiae with no outer 
terminal spine. 

Length 18-30 mm.; tegmina, 4'5-7'5 mm.; hind femur. 8*5- 
11 mm. 

MADRAS : Madura. 



178 PYBGOMOBPHIN.E. 



Genus ANARCHITA. 

Anarchita, Bolivar, Bol. Soc. Espafi. Hist. Nat. iv, 1904, p. 459 ; 
id., Gen. Ins., Orth. Acrid. Pyrg. 1909, pp. 27, 33. 

TYPE, Pyrgomorpha aptera, Bol. 

Range. S. India. 

Slender, subfusiform, apterous. Head conical, longer than the 
|H-onotum, horizontally produced ; fastigium horizontal, as long as 
the eye, terapora separated in front only by a short suture ; front 
very oblique, bisinuate, costal ridge finely sulcated, but much 
compressed and entire between the antennae. Antennae short, 
filiform, triquetral, but not dilated at the base, and inserted 
between the eyes ; basal joints 3-6 subquadrate and subdilated 
in the male, in the female subtransverse and slightly expanded. 
Eyes oblong ; cheeks with one oblique row of granules. Pro- 
notum short, sinuated before and behind, the median carina 
slightly indicated, and interrupted by the principal sulcus much 
beyond the middle, the intermediate sulcus interrupted and 
curved forwards ; the lateral carinae of the prozona parallel, 
and slightly curved inwards, those of the metazona diverging in 
front, and obliquely traversing the lateral lobes ; deflexed lobes 
slightly expanded behind, the lower margin bisinuate, the hinder 
angle obtuse. Legs very short ; four front femora ridged, the 
intermediate ones scarcely extending to the base of the hind 
femora ; the hind femora shorter than the abdomen, with the 
externo-median area ridged, and the lower outer area slightly 
expanded ; hind tibiae with rounded spines, and no outer terminal 
spine ; tarsi very short. Prosternum tumid in front ; mesosternal 
lobes separated by a curved trapezoidal space, broader behind ; 
inetasternal foveolae separated by a transverse space. Abdomen 
longitudinally striated ; valves of the ovipositor sinuated. 



213. Anarchita aptera, Bol. 

Pyrgomorpha aptera, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, Ixx, 1902, 
p. 607. 

Green or grey, granulate-punctate. Front oblique, head 
pointed, with an oblique line of pale granules behind each eye ; 
fastigium carinulatod above, roundly truncate in front. Antennae 
reddish, brown towards the tip. Pronotum slightly granulose 
above, sinuated in the middle behind, with the hinder lobe very 
short, the lateral carinae of the prozona rather indistinct, inflexed 
in the middle, those of the metazona very oblique, often red ; the 
deflexed lobes granulated, pale externally, sinuated, the hinder 
angle obtuse, excavated. Tegmina and wings absent. Prosternum 
with the front margin very slightly reflexed, and indistinctly 
angulated in the middle. Legs concolorotis. Abdomen multi- 



AJTABCHITA. TAGASTA. 179 

carinate longitudinally above in the female, with the hind borders 
of the segments smooth. 

Length 16-23 mm. ; hind femur, G-5-8'5 mm. 

MADEAS: Madura. 

Types in the collections of Pantel and Bolivar, 



Genus TAGASTA. 

Tayasta, Bolivar, Bol. Soc. Espan. Hist. Nat. v, 1905, p. 112. 
Mestra, StSl (nee Hiibner), <EtV. Vet.-Akad. Forh. xxxiv (10), 
1877, p. 52. 

TYPE, Mestra hoplosterna, Stal. 

Ranc/e. Oriental Eegion. 

Body subfusiform, slightly compressed, pubescent above. Head 
-conical, shorter than the pronotum, or of equal length ; tempora 
widened in front, only separated by a short suture ; front very 
oblique, frontal ridge much flattened, hardly sulcated, shortly com- 
pressed between the antennae ; the latter concolorous, filiform, and 
inserted between the eyes, with joints about three times as long 
as broad, the basal joints slightly flattened, and the tip extending 
to the hind border of the pronotum ; eyes rounded ; ocelli distinct, 
cheeks granulated. Pronotum pubescent, roundly truncate in 
front, obtusely angulated or rounded behind, with the median 
carina very slightly indicated, or obsolete, and the lateral carinae 
obsolete ; the sulci slightly marked, and the hind sulcus placed 
behind the middle ; the prozona considerably longer than the 
metazona ; the deflexed lobes distinctly higher behind, the lower 
margin oblique, subsinuate, bordered with whitish, the anal angle 
obtuse, nearly rectangular. Tegrnina not or scarcely longer than 
the hind femora, with the costal area considerably expanded near 
the base. Wings distinctly shorter than the teginina, red or 
hyaline. Legs long and slender ; front femora distinctly thickened 
in the male, hind femora compressed, the outer area with radiating 
ridges ; hind tibiae with rounded spines, and with an outer apical 
spine above. Prosternum strumose, or armed with a short tooth ; 
mesosternal lobes separated by a longer or shorter space ; meta- 
sternal foveolae separated by a transverse space. Valves of the 
ovipositor sinuated. 

Key to the Species. 

Tegmina with a black spot at the base, containing an 

orange one notata, Brunn. 

Tegmina unspotted at the base indica, Bol. 

;214. Tagasta notata, Brunn. 

Mestra notata, Brunner, Ann. Mus. Genova, xxxiii, 1893, p. 130, 
pi. v, fig. 50. 

Fastigium of the vertex rather pointed. Pronotum uniformly 



180 PYRGOMORPHIN^E. 

impress -punctate. Tegmina in both sexes longer than the 
abdomen, obtusely rounded at the tip, [green?] with a black 
spot marked with an orange one near the base. Wings narrow, 
hyaline, suffused with rosy violet at the base. Hind femora with 
the upper and lower outer areas equally broad ; hind tibiae red. 
Cerci of the male long, slender, curved, and obtuse at the ends. 

Length 31-42 mm.; tegmina, 20'5-30 mm. 

BURMA : Karen Hills. 

Types in the Genoa Museum. 



215. Tagasta indica, Sol. 

Tagasta indica, Bolivar, Bol. Soc. Espan. Hist. Xat. v, 1905, 
pp. 112, 113. 

Olivaceous, very finely rugose-punctate. Fastigiutn of the 
vertex equiiaterally triangular, the sides slightly waved before 
the tip, and not longer than the eye; antennae inserted near the 
eye, joints long, closely punctured ; cheeks with a row of large 
yellow granules behind each eye. Pronotum rounded in front, 
and obtusely angulated behind, median cavina almost, and lateral 
carinae wholly obsolete ; deflexed lobes with the lower margin 
very narrowly bordered with yellow, and slightly produced above 
the coxae. Tegmina nearly as long as the hind femora, distinctly 
narrowed towards the extremity, with the tip narrowly obtuse ; 
olive, with a brown spot at the base. Wings one-fifth shorter 
than the tegmina, deep rose-colour, with the costal area sub- 
hyaline. Prosterrmm strumous, obtusely angulated, and very 
shortly produced. Hind tibiae dull greenish. 

Length 23-27 mm. ; tegmina, 15-19 mm. 

BHUTAN; Maria Basti. 

Type in the collection of I. Bolivar. 



Genus ATRACTOMORPHA. 

Atractomorpha, Saussure, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, (4) i, 1861, 
p. 474. 

' TYPE, Truxalis crenulutus, F. 

Range, Ethiopian, Oriental, and Australian Regions. 

Body long and slender, compressed. Head conical, rarely 
longer than the pronotuin ; fastigium about as long as the eye ; 
front very oblique, frontal ridge compressed between the antennae, 
and usually sulcated to the extremity. Antennae short, triquetml, 
subfiliform, very slightly depressed and widened at the base in the 
female, and inserted at the tip of the fastigium; eyes oblong; 
cheeks with a row of granules extending to the middle coxae. 
Pronotum subemarginate in front, and obtusely angulated behind, 



ATKACTOMORPHA. 181 

very slightly tricarinate, the hind sulcus placed behind the middle; 
the deflexed lobes almost perpendicular, broader behind, with the 
hind margin arcuately incised, and the hinder angle more or less 
produced behind. Tegmina rather pointed, with the costal area 
slightly expanded towards the base. Wings nearly as long as the 
tegmina, pointed at the tip, hyaline, often red at the base. Legs 
slender, hind femora with the externo-median area somewhat 
oblique and distinctly broader than the lower area ; knees shortly 
bilobate ; hind tibiae smooth, with pointed spines, and an outer 
terminal spine. Prosternum with an obliquely truncated tubercle 
in the middle, or submarginate, and concave in front ; metasternal 
lobes behind the foveola? separated by a transverse space. Abdo- 
men slightly compressed, with the last dorsal segment angularly 
excised ; supra-anal lamina trigonate, cerci short, conical ; valves 
of the ovipositor sinuated, and slightly crenulated. 



Key to the Species. 

1 (10) Teg-mina pointed, but not much 

longer than the wings. 

2 (9) Hind margin of the lateral lobes 

of the pronotum deeply concave. 

3 (8) Tegmina extending for one-fourth 

of their length beyond the hind 
femora. 

4 (7) Frontal ridge sulcated, or shortly 

compressed and arched between 
the antennae. 

5 (6) Tegmina green ; wings red at base crenulata, F., p. 181. 

6 (5) Tegmiua brown, mottled with 

blackish ; wings hyaline scabra, Thb., p. 182. 

7 (4) Frontal ridge between the antennae 

not sulcated ; very shortly at 

tip of fastigium burri, Bol., p. 183. 

8 (3) Tegmina extending for one-third 

of their length beyond the hind 

femora ...'.. psittacina, de Haan, p. 182. 

9 (2) Hind margin of lateral lobes ob- 

tusely angulated himalayica, Bol., p. 183. 

10 (1) Tegmina very long and pointed . . blanchardi, sp. n., p. 184. 



216. Atractomorpha crenulata, F. 

Truxalis crenulatus, Fabricius, Ent. Syst. ii, 1793, p. 28. 
Atractomorpha crenulata, Saussure, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, (4) i, 

1861, p. 475. 
Atractomorpha crenulata, var. prasina, Bolivar, Bol. Soc. Espan. 

Hist. Nat. v, 1905, pp. 197, 201. 
Acridium psittacium, Be Haan, pt., Temminck, Verhandel., Orth. 

1842, p. 149, pi. xxiii, fig. 1 (nee p. 146). 

Green, pubescent. Antennae rather short and stout, separated 



182 

from the ocelli by a space much narrower than the width of the- 
antennae ; front granulose ; fastigium of the vertex about as long 
as the oval eyes, obtusely pointed, and narrowly carinated in 
front. Pronotum punctured and sparingly granulated, sub- 
truncated in front, and obtusely angulated behind ; the deflexed 
lobes broader behind, and concave on the hind border, the lower 
hinder angle rather produced ; head and pronotum with the sides- 
slightly sloping, crenulated behind the eyes, the crenulation often 
pale or pink ; prosternum with an obtusely rounded tubercle^ 
Tegmina pointed, extending for one-fourth of their length beyond 
the hind femora ; wings pointed, rather shorter than the teginina,. 
about twice as long as broad, hyaline, with the base and nervures 
rosy. Abdomen smooth, rosy. Legs long and slender. 

Length 16-26 mm. ; tegmina, 15-20 mm. 

BENGAL; MADBAS : Trichinopoli. 



217. Atractomorpha scabra, Thunb. 

Truxalis scaber, Thunberg, Mem. Acad. PStersb. v, 1815, p. 266. 
Tntxalis porrecta, Walker, Ann. Ma?. Nat. Hist. (3) iv, 1859 r 

p. 222. 
Atractomorpha consobrina, Saussure, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, (4) i r 

1861, p. 475. 

Rather smaller and more slender than the last species, with the 
prosternal tubercle broader and more or less bifid or bideutate ; 
the colour is generally brown, tinged with rosy, rarely greenish, 
often mottled with blackish ; the tegmina extend for about one- 
fourth their length beyond the hind femora, and the wings are- 
iridescent, hyaline, rarely tinged with rosy. 

Length 14-24 mm. ; expanse of tegmina, 40-43 mm. 

CEYLON. 



218. Atractomorpha psittacina, de Haan. 

Acridium (Truxalis) psittacinum, De Haan, Teuiminck, Verhandel.,. 

Orth. 1842, p. 146. 
Acridium crenulatum, De Haan (nee Fabr.), op. cit. 1842, pi. xxiii,. 

fig. 2. 

Green or reddish ; antenna? placed much before the eyes ; 
fastigium of the vertex twice as long as broad, subparalled-sided, 
obtusely rounded in front ; pronotum rather shorter than the 
head, nearly smooth, very obtusely angulated behind, the carinae 
distinct, lateral lobes with a reddish crenulated line, the hinder 
angle acute ; prosternal tubercle conical, truncated at the tip ; 
mesosternal lobes approximating behind ; tegmina very long and 
pointed ; wings hyaline, rosy towards the base. 

Length 24-36 mm. ; pronotum, 4*5-7'5 mm. ; antenna?, 7'5 mm. 
tegmina, 21-31 mm. ; hind femur, 13-14 ram. 

ASSAM : Mangaldai ; CHINA ; JAVA. 



ATRACTOMORPHA. 183 

219. Atractomorpha burri, Bol. 

Atracfomorpha burri, Bolivar, Bol. Soc. Espafi. Hist. Nat. v, 1905, 
pp. 197, 203. 

Rather stout, subferruginous. Fastigium almost triangular, 
about as long as the eye, roundly angulate in front, the margins 
erenulated in the female. Antennae separated from the ocelli by 
a rather narrower space than the width of the scape, short, 
slightly depressed at the base, with the third joint not longer than 
the first. Front very sloping, the carina distinctly granulated, 
and with four whitish tubercles towards the tip between the 
carinse ; the costal ridge smooth, slightly raised, rather compressed 
between the ocelli and the end of the fastigium, the margins 
approximate, and only very shortly sulcated at the tip. Pro- 
notum rather smooth above, slightly sinuated in front and 
obtusely angulated behind, the lateral carina? arched in front and 
marked with granules ; the deflexed lobes with scattered whitish 
granules, the lower margin coarsely granulated, but not sinuated, 
the hind margin strongly sinuated, with the hinder angle acute, 
but blunt at the tip. Pronotum with a transverse tridentate 
tubercle in the female ; mesosternal space transverse, distinctly 
expanded in front. Tegmiua extending for one-fourth of their 
length beyond the femora, pointed at the tip, and narrowly 
bordered with red ; wings rather shorter than the tegraina, 
hyaline, with the disk rosy. Hind femora with the inner border 
obtusely creuulated. 

Lenyili 17-25 mm.; tegmina, 15-25 mm. 

ASSAM : Cherrapunji, Khasi Hills. 

Types in the Oxford Museum. 



220. Atractomorpha Mmalayica, Bol. 

Atractomorpha himalayica, Bolivar, Bol. Soc. Espafi. Hist. Nat. v, 
1905, pp. 198, 204. 

Green or olive, rather stout. Fastigium rather broad, distinctly 
narrowed in front, where it is obtusely angulated, and rather 
longer than the eye ; head with a lateral row of red granules. 
Antennae concolorous, rather short, not extending to the tip of 
ihe labrum in the female, separated from the ocelli by less than 
the width of the scape. Prouotum slightly sinuated in front, and 
obtusely angulated behind, the lateral cariuse arched in the middle 
before the hinder sulcus, the disk very slightly tectiform ; the 
deflexed lobes distinctly higher behind, with the lower margin 
slightly arched, reddish white, incrassated and granulated, the 
hinder margin sinuated, obtusely angulated, the lower part 
vertical, the hinder angle acute, but not produced backwards. 
Tegmina green, rather broad, pointed at the tips, extending for 
one-fourth of their length beyond the hind femora. Wings 
hyaline, stained with rosy at the base and along the nervures. 



184 Pl'RGOMORPHIX.B. 

Prosternum with the tubercle broad, transversely truncated at the 
extremity, slightly arched; the mesosternal space transverse, 
half as broad again as long, and distinctly expanded in front. 
Abdomen dark red above. Legs long, slender, green. 

Length 34 mm. ; tegmina, 28-30 inm. 

SIKKIM : Kurseong; TIBET. 

Type in the collection of I. Bolivar. 

21. Atractomorpha blanchardi, sp. uov. 

Bather long, olive-coloured. Fastigium triangular, narrowly 
rounded in front, very slightly sulcated, not more than half as 
long again as broad and about as long as the eye. Antennae 
rather long, with long joints, the basal joints pale, the inner side 
blue, and the outer side red. Eyes less than twice as long as 
broad, the borders curved, and truncated behind. Frontal ridge 
slightly sinuated, regularly granulated, and sulcated throughout ; 
cheeks with small irregular pale granules on a yellow line. Pro- 
notum pale above, granulated, impress-punctate on the hinder 
area, slightly sinuated in front and obtusely angulated and slightly 
excavated behind ; the carinae indicated by grannies, and the sulci 
distinct ; the deflexed lobes somewhat expanded behind, the lower 
margin slightly sinuated "and finely granulated, the hind border 
broadly concave, but the hinder angle not produced backwards : a 
well-marked smooth space behind the hinder sulcus. Tegmina 
very long and pointed, passing the hind femora by one-third of 
their length ; wings rather shorter than the tegmina, hyaline, with 
the disk rosy. Legs slender, hind femora with the lower outer 
area pale. Prosternum with a slightly transverse tubercle, 
emarginate at the tip ; mesosternal lobes separated by a transverse 
rectangular space. 

Length 34 mm. : tegmina, 29 mm. 

SIND: Karachi. 

Type in the Paris Museum. 

Genus ORTHACRIS. 
Orthacris, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Espan. xiii, 1884, pp. 24, 439, 496. 

TYPE, Orthacris JUiformit, Bol. 

Range. India, Ceylon. 

Body slender, apterous. Head conical, fastigium horizontally 
produced before the eyes, vertex carinate, tempora very short, with 
a short suture in front : front very oblique, not sinuated, costal 
ridge compressed between the antennae, and sulcated throughout, 
lateral carinae distinct, but interrupted ; antenna} filiform , 
inserted between the eyes, joints 3 and 4 triquetral ; eyes 
short, oblong, with a row of granules behind. Pronotum 
pubescent, not carinated, hardly expanded behind, the hinder 
sulcus placed at one-fourth of its length, the metazona very short ; 



ORTHACKIS. 185 

the cleflexed lobes rounded, equally high before and behind and 
the lower margin more or less thickened. Legs short; four front 
femora slender, rather compressed, the middle ones extending to 
the extremity of the hind coxae ; hind tibiae pubescent at the base, 
with rather pointed spines towards the tip ; outer terminal spine 
present or absent. Prosternum with a short pointed tubercle ; 
sternal lamina long ; mesostemal lobes rounded within, sub- 
contiguous, or separated by a very narrow space. Supra-anal 
lamina lanceolate ; cerci curved at the tip in the male, straight 
and very short in the female ; infra-genital lamina in the male 
hooked and slightly produced at the tip. Valves of the ovipositor 
sinuated. 

Key to the Species. 

1 (8) Hind tibia} with a short outer terminal 

spine ; vertex rather broad. 

2 (7) Abdominal tympanum present. 

3 (4) Body with red markings mficornis, Bol., p. 186. 

4 (3) Body with yellow markings. 

5 (6) Deflexed lobes of pronotum with 

small scattered yellow tubercles . . filiformia, Bol., p. 185. 

6 (5) Deflexed lobes of pronotum with 

numerous large yellow tubercles . , 

7 (2) Abdominal tympanum absent eleyans, Bol. 

8 (1) Hind tibia? with no outer apical spine. 

9 (10) Abdominal tympanum distinct .... simulans, Bol., p. 188. 
10 (9) Abdourimil tympanum indistinct .... acuticeps, Bol., p. 187. 



222. Orthacris filiformis, Bol. 

Orthacris filiformis, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Espan. xiii, 1884, pp. 439, 
496, pi. 'ii, fig. 11. 

Green, punctured, with a yellow band, bordered above with 
black, running from the eyes across the lower margins of the 
pronotum. Prouotum slightly emarginate behind, the deflexed 
lobes with small scattered yellow tubercles. Legs with greyish 
hairs ; hind femora in the male nearly as long as the abdomen ; 
much shorter in the female. Supra-anal lamina of the male com- 
pressed behind ; apical half of the cerci filiform, and curved 
inwards. 

Length 18-24 mm. 

CEYLON. 

Type in the collection of Brunner von Wattenwyl. 

223. Orthacris maindroni. Bol. 

Orthacris maindroni, Bolivar, Bol. Soc. Espan. Hist. Nat. v, 1905, 
p. 278. 

Straw-coloured, probably greenish in life. Body above coarsely 
punctured, with a broad yellow band set with yellow granules 



186 PYRGOMORPHIXyli. 

running behind the eyes, as far as the middle COXSD ; fastigium 
rather broad, moderately prominent before the eyes, obtusely 
carinated in the middle and obtuse at the tip ; eyes marked with 
curved black parallel lines. Pronotum slightly sinuated befoi'e 
and behind ; the deflexed lobes with numerous large yellow ir- 
regular granules, the lower margin as well as the front and hind 
angles yellow. An abdominal tympanum present ; prosternal 
tubercle short and conical ; mesosternal space X-shaped, very 
narrow. Hind tibiae with a brown spot at the tip on the inside, 
and a very short terminal spine on the outer margin. Abdomen 
with a narrow lateral chestnut line granulated with whitish. 

Length 27 mm. 

MADRAS : Coroniandel Coast. 

Type in the collection of M. Maindron. 



224. Orthacris ruficornis, JBol. 

Orthacris ruficornis, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, Ixx, 1902 7 
p. 608. 

Long, finely punctured, olivaceous green, or red above, with 
greyish hair beneath. Fastigium rather broad, subtransverse in 
the female, obtusely carinated above, and rounded in front ; 
antennas red, subtriquetral at the base. Pronotum subcylinclrical, 
expanded behind in the female, truncated in the middle or slightly 
sinuated on the hind margin ; a pale olive band (sometimes 
obsolete) running behind the eyes as far as the hind coxa3, bordered 
within by a granulose red band, the outer margin sinuated. 
Pectus rather long, separated by a distinctly narrower space from 
the mesosternal lobe in both sexes. Front femora thickened in 
the male ; hind tibiaa with an outer apical spine. Abdomen 
furnished with a large tympanum ; the last dorsal segment 
slightly emarginate in the middle, with the lobes produced ; 
supra-anal lamina lanceolate, sulcated at the tip ; cerci very short, 
triangular, not incurved at the tip, much shorter than the supra- 
anal lamina; subgenital lamina compressed. 

Lenfjtli 17-24 mm. 

MADRAS: Kodaikanal. 

Types in the collections of Pantel and Bolivar. 



225. Orthacris elegans, Bol. 

Orthacris cleyans. Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Eut. France, Ixx. 1902. 
pp. 608, 609. 

Bather narrow, coarsely punctured, dead-leaf colour. Front 
oblique, slightly sinuated, eyes prominent; vertex slightly carinated 
in the middle ; fastigium triangular before the eyes, equal-sided, 
roundly truncate in front; antenna ringed with ' green and red. 
Pronotum cylindrical, rounded in front, hind margin truncated and 



ORTHACBIS. 187 

very slightly excised in the middle ; the hind lobe very short, the 
deflexed lobes crossed by a pale stripe running from behind the 
eye to the hind coxae, broken into three spots on the pleura and 
bordered on the inner side by a green stripe enclosing yellow 
tubercles, the outer margin sinuated before the middle, and behind 
the middle coalescing with the hind margin. Legs green, femora 
more or less bordered with red, the hind knees black on the in- 
side and marked outside with red and black ; hind tibiae tipped 
with black beneath and with a small outer apical spine. Pectus 
narrow, mesosternal lobes separated by a rather narrower space. 
Tympanum absent ; supra-anal lamina equilaterally triangular in 
the female. 

Length 23 mm. 

MADRAS : Madura. 



226. Orthacris acuticeps, Bol. 

Orthacns acuticeps, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, Ixx, 1902,. 
pp. 608, 610. 

Very long and narrow, finely rugose, and closely punctured ; 
olive-green, with a yellow stripe running from the base of the 
antennae below the eyes and along the lower borders of the pro- 
notum to the hind coxa? ; in this are a few red tubercles, and 
above it, on the pronotum, is a broad green stripe with scattered 
white tubercles, followed by a white line occupying the place of 
the obsolete lateral cariuse; legs and under surface with grey 
hairs. Head pointed in front, vertex obtusely carinated, pointed 
in the male and rounded in the female ; antennae subtriquetral at 
the base, the joints pale at the tips. Pronotum subcylindrical, 
truncate behind, the lateral margins broadly spotted with red and 
yellow and with a few yellow tubercles. Meso- and meta-notum 
with yellow lateral bands ; prosternum with a small conical tooth ; 
pectus narrow, expanded behind ; mesosternal lobes almost con- 
tiguous in the male and separated by a very narrow space in the 
female. Yront femora distinctly thickened, hind femora below 
spotted with brown, with the lower outer carina yellow ; hind 
tibise with the outer apical spine obsolete. Abdomen reddish, 
with black and white lateral lines ; abdominal tympanum very 
small ; the last dorsal segment in the male roundly emarginate in 
the middle, forming triangular lobes ; supra-anal lamina lanceolate, 
obtusely carinated, not longer than the cerci ; the latter com- 
pressed, pointed and incurved at the tips; subgeuital lamina large, 
somewhat compressed, carinated behind. 

Length 18-24 mm. 

MADHAS : Koclaikanal, Madura. 

Types in the collections of Pautel and Bolivar. 



188 PYRGOMOBPHINJE. 

227. Orthacris simulans, Bol. 

OrtJiacris simulans, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, Ixx, 1902, 
pp. 608, 611. 

Closely allied to the last species, but with a large abdominal 
tympanum. The male has the side of the bead and thorax and 
the lateral lobes of the pronotum dull reddish, and there are a 
few white tubercles on the head. The last segment of the abdo- 
men in the male is deeply sinuated, with the two lobes turning 
outwards, the supra-anal lamina carinated in the middle, and the 
cerci incurved at the tip. 

Length 19-26 mm. 

MADRAS : Madura. 

Types in the collections of Pautel and Bolivar. 

Genus COLEMANIA. 
Colemania, Bolivar, Bol. Soc. Espan. Hist. Nat. x, 1910, p. 319. 

TifPE, Colemania splienarioides, Bol. 

Ranye. India. 

Body long, subcylindrical, fusiform in the male, and inflated in 
the middle. Fastigium of the vertex produced beyond the frontal 
ridge, longer than the eye, front sloping, slightly sinuated ; an- 
tennae 19-jointed, tapering from the third joint to the tip ; frontal 
ridge sulcated, compressed at the base, obsolete before the mouth, 
lateral carinae slightly diverging, genre with a slightly marked row 
of granules ; eyes small, longer than broad, truncated behind ; 
ocelli visible, the middle one between the eyes, and the lateral 
ocelli placed before the eyes. Pronotum conical in the male, 
cylindrical in the female, the two anterior sulci obliterated, the 
last continuous and placed much beyond the middle ; the lateral 
lobes long, with the mat-gins entire, the front margin oblique, the 
lower one straight, indistinctly sinuated behind. Tegmina very 
narrow, longer than the pronotum ; wings obsolete. Prosternum 
acutely spined ; mesosternal lobes long, in the male truncated and 
contiguous behind, in the female expanded in front and rounded 
behind ; metasternal foveolae nearer together in the male than in 
the female. Legs short, front femora thickened in the male; 
hind femora slender, with the outer area narrow, with rather in- 
distinct pinnate rugae, the genicular lobes angulately produced ; 
hind tibiae slender, the apical third expanded, and smooth above, 
with nine outer and eleven inner spines, and apical spines on both 
sides ; hind tarsi slender, the first joint twice as long as the second. 
Abdomen cylindrical, sub-clavate at the tip ; last dorsal segment 
of the male transverse, trisinuated behind, supra-anal lamina 
forming a long triangle, longer than the cerci, sulcated and 
pointed ; in the female nearly equilateral ; cerci short, curved, 
subulate at the tips in the male, short and straight in the female ; 
subgenital lamina compressed, subcarinate behind ; valves of the 
ovipositor short, sinuate. 



COLEMANIA. TKIGONOPTERYX. 189 

228. Colemania sphenarioides. 

Colemania sphenarioides, Bolivar, Bol. Soc. Espan. Hist. Nat. x, 
1910, p. 320; Coleman, J. Bombay Soc. xx, 1911, p. 879; 
H. Maxwell Lefroy, J. Bombay Soc. xix, 1910, p. 1007. 

Straw-coloured or luteous. Head with a broad red and blue 
band running behind the eyes to the front of the pronotum, front 
red and blue, vertex with three blue lines, one median, the others 
lateral ; antennae blue-black, with a pale streak below and the 
basal segments pale. Pronotum reddish in the middle above, 
bordered by yellow bands edged within with black lines ; the 
deflexed lobes banded with black, red and yellow ; the meso- 
and meta-notnm much smaller in the male. Tegmina extending 
to the end of the first segments of the abdomen, reddish, with 
pale nervures. Legs pale, hind femora arid cerci striped with 
yellow ; hind tibiae reddish, often pale at the base, spines tipped 
with black. Abdomen pale above, the sides banded with brown 
and grey, the first segment furnished with a tympanum. 

Length 31-40 mm. 

MADRAS : Mysore, Madras, Bellary. 

This species has recently been recorded as very destructive to 
cholam (Andropogon sorghum) in various parts of India. 

Genus TRIGONOPTERYX. 

Trigonopteryx, Charpentier, Orthopt. 1841, pi. v. 
TYPE, Trigonopteryx punctata, Charp. 

Range. Oriental Region. 

Body long, much compressed. Head conical, compressed in 
front, vertex ascending, fastigium sinuated on the sides, and 
angulated in front, tempora narrow, separated by a very narrow 
suture ; front oblique, sinuated, the frontal ridge between the 
antennae and the tip of the antennae raised, the margins separated, 
forming a pyriform foveola, obsolete before the ocelli ; antennae 
rather long, triquetral, ensiform, externally dentated, inserted 
near the eyes, the apical joint pubescent ; eyes oblong, slightlv 
sinuated, no lateral facial carinse. Prouotuin compressed, back 
narrow, parallel-sided, rounded and slightly sinuated in front, 
behind obtusely augulated, but not produced ; the typical sulcus 
indistinct, placed rather beyond the middle ; the deflexed lobes 
perpendicular, but with obtuse carinae, trapezoidal, considerably 
raised behind, with the inner margin straight, the hinder margin 
somewhat sinuated, and the hinder angle acute. Tegmina long, 
extending much beyond the hind femora, the anal area narrow, 
the front area sinuated before the extremity, the anal nervure 
straight. Legs compressed; front femora short, the intermediate 
femora passing the extremity of the coxae, the hind femora com- 
pressed, w ith the externo-median area well developed ; hind tibi3 
slender, with an outer apical spine ; tarsi very short. Prosternum 



190 PAMPUAG1XJE. 

with a short rounded tooth in the middle, sternal lamina very 
long, in front obtusely angulated ; the mesosternal lobes broadly 
rounded on the inner side, with the intervening space much 
narrower. Supra-anal lamina in the female long, triangular, 
sulcated ; cerci conical, very short ; valves of the ovipositor 
compressed, sinuated. 

229. Trigonopteryx punctata, Charp. 

Trigonoptenjx punctata, Charpentier, Orthopt. 1841, pi. v. 

Grey, rugose. Head produced, obtuse at the tip ; antennae 
short, ensiform ; labrum with a large brown spot in the fore 
Tjorder. Tegmina greyish brown, varied with darker blotches and 
spots, nearly triangular, with the tip pointed, and the hind 
margin curving beneath, but not greatly. Abdomen and legs pale 
vellow, the latter with black dots. 

Length 30 mm. ; expanse of tegmina, 50 mm. 

CEYLON ; JAVA. 



Subfamily VII. PAMPHAGIN^l. 

Genus ASPIDOPHYMA. 

Aspidophyma, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Espaii. xiii, 1884, pp. 26, 491. 
TYPE, Aspidopliyma americana, Bol. 

Range. Ceylon, Ecuador. 

Head above nearly triangular ; fastigium depressed, horizontal, 
rather longer than broad ; front very slightly sinuated, with the 
frontal ridge sulcated ; antennae filiform or subensiform, inserted 
between the eyes. Pronotum truncated in front, truncated or 
broadly situated behind, tricarinated above, with the lateral carinae 
diverging behind, the hinder sulcus placed beyond the middle. 
Prosternum with a slender conical tubercle, sternal lamina mar- 
gined in front. Tegmina very short or wanting. Hind femora 
broad at the base, with rather irregular coarse pinniform strise ; 
tibiae cylindrical, with strong conical spines. Upper valves 
sinuated, with dentated margins, and the lower ones sinuated 
before the tips. 

230. Aspidophyma indica, Bol. 

Aspidophyma indica, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Espan. xiii, 1884, pp. 491, 
49o. 

Ochreous-brovvn, rugose-punctate, with grey hair beneath and 
on the legs. Antennae shorter than the head, subensiform, 
depressed. Pronotum subtruncated behind, with the transverse 
sulci slightly marked. Tegmina lobiform, lateral, rounded, 
impress-punctate, extending to the hind border of the first abdo- 
minal segment. Legs with scattered black spots, hind femora with 



CATAXTOPI3T.I. 191 

granulated carinae, the spines with dark reddish tips. The valves 
of the ovipositor very short. 

Length 17 mm. ; antennae, 4 mm. ; tegmina, 2 mm. 

CEYLON. 

Type in the collection of Brunner von Wattenwyl. 



Subfamily VIII. CATANTOPIN^l. 

Key to the Genera. 

[1 (26) Posterior tibia? with an ex- 
t ernal apical spine. 

2 (2o) Tegmina present. 

3 (24) Tegmina and wings fully de- 

veloped. 

4 (5) Head short and very broad, the 

face broader than long .... EUTHYMIA, Stal, p. 196. 

5 (4) Head not remarkably broad. 

6 (15) Mesosternal lobes meeting in a 

straight line. 

7 (12) Antennae between the eyes or 

scarcely in front of them. 

8 (11) Antennae filiform. 

9 (10) Posterior femora reaching apex 

of abdomen ; posterior tibia? 
with about 15 moderately 
strong spines on outer edge . OXYRRHEPES, Stal, p. 209. 

10 (9) Posterior femora much shorter 

than abdomen ; posterior 
tibiae with about 20 small 
spines on outer edge ; thorax 
with white lateral stripe . . LEPTACRIS, "Walk., p. 210. 

11 (8) Antennae ensiform ISCHXACRIUA, Stal,* p. 212. 

12 (7) Antennae remote from the eyes. 

13 (14) Fastigium with a distinct carina XENIPPA, StSl, p. 215. 

14 (13) Fastigium without carina .... PSEUDOCARSULA, Brunn., 

16 (6) Mesosternal lobes more or less [p. 214 

separated. 

16 (17) Tegmina with a patch of densely 

placed transverse nervures at 
the parting of the radial 
veins SPATHOSTERXUM, Karsch, 

17 (16) Tegmina without a patch of [p. 207. 

nervures. 

18 (23) Prosternal tubercle cylindrical, 

somewhat acuminate at apex ; 
external apical spine of pos- 
terior tibiae quite distinct. 



* Ischnacrida tarnalis, Walker, lias the mesosternal lobes contiguous in the 
middle only, slightly diverging posteriorly; the prosternal tubercle is enlarged 
at the apex and slightly concave. 



192 



CATANTOPIN^. 



19 (22) Lateral carina of head slightly 

sinuous or nearly straight 
from the base of mandibles 
to ocelli. 

20 (21) Posterior tibiae with the outer 

ridge that bears the spines 
somewhat flattened and ex- 
panded towards the apex ; 
with seven spines besides the 
apical one ; frontal carina 
narrowed at vertex 

21 (20) Posterior tibiae with outer ridge 

not expanded ; with eight 
spines besides the apical one. 

22 (19) Lateral carinae of head suddenly 

bent at an angle at the base 
of the antennas; frontal carina 
parallel-sided 

23 (18) Prosternal tubercle truncate at 

apex ; external apical spine 
of posterior tibiae very small 
and difficult to detect 

24 (3) Tegmina imperfectly developed, 

elongate ovate, punctured ; 
without wings ; antennae 
rather short, with transverse 
joints 

25 (2) Tegmina and wings absent ; in- 

sect elongate, subcylindrical ; 
head short and wide 

26 (1) Posterior tibiae without external 

spine at the apex. 

27 (34) Fastigium separated by a dis- 

tinct angle or ridge from the 
frontal carina. 

28 (31) Wings fully developed. 

29 (30) Fastigium a little longer than 

broad ; antennae narrowly 
ensitbrm ; tegmina somewhat 
acute at apex ; posterior 
femora reaching apex of 
abdomen 

30 (29) " Eostrum in front of the eyes 

longer than the pronotum ; 
antennae broadly ensiform 
towards the base, tapering 
whip-like towards the tips" 
(Kirby) 

31 (28) Wings absent. 



OXYA, Serv., p. 198. 
CARYANDA, Stfil, p. 201. 



HlEROGLYPHUS, Kl'ailSS,* 

[p. 201. 
RACILIA, StSl, p. 205. 



CERCINA, Stll,f p. 206. 
TARBALEUS, Brunn., p. 200. 



GELASTORRHINUS, Brunu. 

[p. 216. 



LEFROYIA, gen. n., p. 219. 



* H. bettoni and H. bilineatus sometimes have the tegmina and wings more 
or less short. 

t The genus Castetria appears from description to differ from Cercina in 
having the hind margin of the pronotum angular, and the radial vein of the 
tegmina costifbrm. 



CATAXTOPUT.E. 



193 



32 (33) Tegmina reduced to a short 

narrow strip 

33 (32) Teginina absent ; antennal joints 

elongate 

34 (27) Fastigium deflexed or hori- 

zontal, gradually blending 
with the frontal carina. 

35 (70) Pronotum with no lateral 

carinre. 

36 (41) Mesosternal lobes slightly con- 

verging posteriorly with the 
inner angle acute. (Large 
species.) 

37 (40) Prothorax gradually narrowed 

anteriorly. 

38 (39) Wings generally with dark 

spots at apex 

39 (38) Wings without dark spots 

40 (;37) Prothorax rather short and 

strongly constricted in the 
middle 

41 (36) Mesosternal lobes not con- 

verging, angles rounded. 

42 (67) Prosternal tubercle acuminate. 

43 (48) Thorax with a crest. 

44 (47) Crest simple. 

45 (46) Crest very high and com- 

pressed ; tegmina extending 
slightly beyond apex of ab- 
domen ; hind femora with 
the carinse serrate 

46 (45) Crest less high ; tegmina short, 

ovate ; wings rudimentary. . 

47 (44) Crest viewed sideways divided 

into four unequal lobes ; 
apterous, rugose 

48 (43) Thorax without crest. 

49 (52) Upper part of frontal costa 

arched forwards and pro- 
jecting over the lower part 
of the face. 

-50 (51) Thorax subparallel-sided, flat- 
tened dorsally, with median 
carina scarcely visible except 
at base ; base with small ob- 
tuse lobe in the middle ; teg- 
mina scarcely reaching apex 
of abdomen 

51 (50) Thorax scarcely narrowed in 

front, flattened dorsally, the 
median carina visible for 
whole length ; base angular ; 
tegmina extending slightly 
beyond abdomen ; eyes 
prominent 

52 (49) Upper part of frontal carina not 

projecting ; face vertical. 



MESAMBRIA, Stfll, p. 220. 
WACATA, gen. n., p. 219. 



[p. 224. 

ORTHACANTHACRIS, Karsch, 
CYRTACANTHACRIS, AValk., 

[p. 230. 

SCHISTOCECRA, Stal, p. 232 . 



TERATODES, Brulle, p. 234. 
PELECINOTUS, Bol., p. 233. 

[p. 236. 
ALECTOROLOPHUS, Brunn., 



BIBRACTE, StSl, p. 235. 



TRAULIA, StSl, p. 244. 



194 CATANTOPINJE. 

63 (56) Vertex between the eyes wider 
than the frontal costa. 

54 (55) Thorax slightly tectiform, as- 

perate ; frontal costa scarcely 
reaching the clypeus ; teg- 
mina generally with a black 
spot GERENIA, Stal, p. 243. 

55 (54) Thorax flattened dorsally, 

giving the appearance of 
lateral cariuee ; eyes promi- 
nent ; base of thorax scarcely 
angular, with a small central 
notch NAVASIA, gen. n., p. 255. 

56 (53 J Vertex not wider than frontal 

costa. 

57 (66) Dorsal carina of pronotum cut 

by three grooves. 

58 (59) Antennae nearly three times as 

loug as the head and thorax 
together ; eyes rather promi- 
nent ; thorax narrow, sub- 
parallel-sided, the base 
acutely angular APALACRIS, Walk., p. 237. 

59 (58) Antennae less than twice the 

length of the head and 
thorax together. 

60 (61) Base of pronotum biangulate, 

having an angular emargin- 

ation in the middle BIBKACTOIDKS, gen. n., p. 236. 

61 (60) Base of pronotum angularly 

produced. 

62 (65) Frontal costa parallel-sided, not 

or scarcely wider between 
antennae, its margins gene- 
rally obtuse and smooth. 

63 (64) Tegmina fully developed, ob- 

liquely truncate at apex COPTACRA, Stal, p. 238. 

64 (63) Tegmina short, scarcely longer 

than pronotum, narrowed 

towards apex COPTACRELLA, Bol., p. 239. 

65 (62) Frontal costa distinctly widened 

between antennas and wider 
than the vertex between the 
eyes ; tegmina obliquely 
truncate at apex EUCOPTACRA, Bol., p. 240. 

66 (57) Dorsal rarina of pronotum cut 

by the third groove only; 
tegmina fully developed, 
obliquely truncate at apex . . EPISTAUUUS, Bol., p. 242. 

67 (42) Prosternal* tubercle cylindrical, 

obtuse at apex. 

68 (69) Metasternal lobes in both sexes 

contiguous, rarely slightly 
separated in female ; pos- 
terior tibia3 with at least 
nine spines on the outside . . CATANTOI-S, Schaum, p. 246. 



CATANTOPINjE. 



195 



69 (68) Metasternal lobes widely sepa- 

rated in female ; posterior 
tibiae with eight spines on 
outside 

70 (35) Pronotum with lateral carinae, 

sometimes somewhat broken 
up posteriorly by punctu- 
ation. 

71 (78) Hind femora short and very 

thick, their upper edge 
toothed. 

72 (73) Body depressed ; pronotum 

very flat and broad, pro- 
duced angularly at the base, 
the produced part equal in 
length to the anterior por- 
tion ; lateral carinae very 
obscure ; tegmina and wings 
short 

73 (72) Body of normal form. 

74 (77) Tegmiua and wings fully de- 

veloped. 

75 (76) Lateral carinae of pronotum 

nearly rectilinear, complete . 

76 (75) Lateral carinse of pronotum 

slightly flexuous, almost ob- 
literated posteriorly by coarse 
punctuation " 

77 (74) Tegmina short, ovate 

78 (71) Hind femora comparatively 

slender, much narrowed 
towards knees, extending 
beyond apex of abdomen, 
not or scarcely denticulate. 

79 (80) Prosternal lobe bilobed at apex ; 

posterior tibiae with 13-15 
spines on outer edge 

80 (79) Prosternal lobe simple. 

81 (82) Prosternal lobe acuminate, bent 

backwards at an angle about 
the middle ; posterior tibise 
with about 12 spines on 
outer edge 

82 (81) Prosternal lobe straight, obtuse 

at apex ; posterior tibite 
with 8-10 spines on outer 
edge. 

83 (84) Tegmina and wings fully 

developed 

84 (83) Tegmina and wings short 



[p. 254. 
STENOCROBYLUS, Gerst., 



BRACHYXENIA, gen. n., p. 256. 



CALOPTENOPSIS, Bol., p. 258. 



KRIPA, gen. n., p. 257. 
PEKIPOLUS, Mart., p. 261. 



TYLOTHOPIDIUS, StSl, p. 265. 



HETEBACRIS, Walk., p. 262. 



[p. 207. 
EUPREPOCNEMIS, Fieb., 

PARAEUPREPOCNEMIS,Briinn., 

[p. 2.60. 



o2 



106 CATASTOPIN-E. 

Genus EUTHYMIA. 
Enthymia, Stal, Bih. Svensk. Akad. Handl. iii (14), 1875, p. 29. 

TYPE, Eulliymia melanocerca, Stal. 

Range. India, Ceylon, Borneo, Madagascar. 

Body rather short and stout, everywhere closely punctured ; 
head obtuse, vertex and fastigium sloping into the front, which is 
very broad, with the cai'inse converging below ; the lateral carinae 
nearly straight ; eyes large and prominent ; antennae slender, long 
or short. Pronoturn pubescent, not cariuated, obtusely rounded 
behind, the transverse sulci well-marked, continuous, the hind 
sulcus placed beyond the middle. Tegmina and wings well 
developed, not longer than the abdomen, and usually shorter ; 
tegmina narrow, rounded at the tips, uniformly coriaceous ; wings 
more or less coloured or infuscated. Legs rather stout, as long 
as the abdomen in the male and shorter in the female ; hind 
tibiae with from 7-15 spines, of equal length on both cariuae, 
and with terminal apical spines above on both sides ; hind tarsi 
long, with the second joint half the length of the first. Pro- 
sternal tubercle obtuse ; metasternal lobes contiguous in both 
sexes. Supra-anal lamina of the male triangular, with the sides 
entire ; male cerci acute. 



Key to the Species. 

AVings red kirbyi, Finot. 

finoti, sp. n. 

yreeni, sp. n. 



Wings hyaline-yellow finoti, sp. n. 

Wings blue-grey, infuscate at apex 



231. Euthymia kirbyi, Fin. 

Eutliymia kirbi/i, Finot, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, Ixxi, 1903, pp. 622, 
629, 630, figs. 6, 7. 

Body very stout, light brown, with green spots and blotches. 
Head reddish brown, with green markings above, finely punctured; 
antennae slender, 23-jointed, shorter than the head and pronotum 
together, rusty brown, darkest in the middle. Pronotum short, 
constricted in the middle, brown, with the deflexed lobes more 
yellowish, impress-punctate, rugose behind and with a very slight 
median carina, hind border obtusely rounded ; deflexed lobes with 
the lower margin nearly straight, and strongly rounded at the 
hinder angle; the transverse sulci dark, well-marked, the hind 
sulcus placed beyond the middle. Tegmina nearly as long as the 
abdomen, greyish brown, with dense brown reticulation and sub- 
hyaline areolae ; wings shorter than the tegmina, pale red at the 
base, with the tip and hind margin slightly clouded. Legs rather 
short ; hind femora externally testaceous brown with greenish 



El'TIIYMTA. 



107 



black spots; internally with a long black green-spotted space 
towards the base, and a greenish black spot on the apical third ; 
the lower sulcus blue-black ; hind tibia3 pubescent, yellowish 
brown, with the apical halt' reddish below, and ten black spines 
on each side, the inner row reddish at the base ; hind tarsi 
testaceous brown, the first two joints reddish on the inner side, 
the second joint only half as long as the first. Prosternal 
tubercle broad, truncated. Abdomen brown above, paler below ; 
supra-anal lamina of the female triangular, longitudinally sulcated 
in the middle ; cerci of the female narrowly conical ; valves of the 
ovipositor short, with the tip and borders of the upper valves 
blackish above. 

Length '34 mm. ; tegmina, 23 mm. 

MADRAS : Kodaikaual. 



232. Euthymia finoti, sp. n. 

Light ferruginous brown, the head clothed with greyish pubescence. 
Antenna) slender, red, at least as long as the head and pronotum 
together. Pronotum and abdomen ferruginous brown above, the 
sides and under surface more or less 
whitish ; the pronotum thickly and 
rather finely impress-punctate, the 
abdomen smooth ; transverse sulci 
slightly marked, the hinder one 
placed about the middle of the pro- 
notum ; pronotum with a slight 
carina on the rnetazona, and the 
hind border obtusely rounded ; de- 
flexed lobes sinuated and upcurved 
on the lower margin, with the 
hinder angle rounded. Tegmina as 
long as the abdomen without the 
appendages, lighter than the pro- 
notum, and varied with pale spaces, 
especially towards the costa ; wings 
clear hyaline yellow, almost to the 
margins. Four front legs reddish 
brown, with thick grey pile ; hind 
femora shorter than the abdomen, 
the outer surface pinkish white, 
with rows of more or less regular 
moderate-sized black spots ; inner 

surface blue-black, with two white bands, one beyond the 
middle, and the other before the knees ; hind tibia? reddish, 
thickly pilose, with 10 or 11 black-tipped spines on each side, 
darker on the inner surface, where there is a white band near 
the base : hind tarsi red, the second joint above only one-third 




Fig . \\d.Eutltymia finoti. 



198 CATANTOPINJE. 

as long as the others. Valves of ovipositor bifid at the tips, with 
upturned points. 

Length 36 mm. ; tegmina, 33 mm. 

CEYLON : Trincomali. 

Type in the British Museum. 



233. Euthymia greeni, sp. n. 

Dull yellowish brown, obscurely mottled with blackish. Head 
and pronotum rather thickly punctured. Tegmina subhyaline 
with reddish brown nervures ; wings greenish subhyaline, with 
brown nervures, and the hind margin rather narrowly bordered 
with brown. Legs with grey hairs, front and middle femora 
black, tibiae and tarsi testaceous, varied with black ; hind 
femora black, slightly varied with testaceous towards the tip; 
hind tibiae and tarsi testaceous on the outer side ; tibiae black on 
the inner side, with a yellow band towards the base, and a broad 
red space beyond the middle ; hind tarsi red on the inner side ; 
hind tibiae with 9 or 10 black spines. 

Length 43 mm. ; tegmina, 30 mm. 

CEYLON : G-algedara. 



Genus OXYA. 

Oxya, Serville, Ann. Sci. Nat. xxii, 1831, pp. 264, 286; id., Ins. 
Orth. 1839, p. 675. 

TIPE, Oxya Jiyla, Serv., from Africa. 

Range. Africa, Asia, Australia. 

Head large, as broad as or broader than the pronotum ; fastigium 
obtuse, transverse, not contracted before the eyes, which are large 
and oblique, face very slightly oblique, almost vertical; antennae 
filiform. Pronotum smooth, flattened, with the median carina 
slightly marked or wanting, metasternal lobes contiguous in both 
sexes. Tegmina narrow, obtusely rounded at the extremity, ex- 
panded towards the base on the costa, as long as the abdomen, 
subhyaline, irregularly reticulated, with large cells ; wings broad, 
rounded at the tips, and nearly as long as the tegmina. Legs 
long and slender, hind tibiae expanded at the tips, and with about 
ten spines on each carina, including an outer apical spine. 



Key to the Species. 

1 (2) Hind femora with the upper carina projecting 

into a small tooth velo.r, F. 

2 (1) Hind femora unarmed. 

3 (4) Last ventral segment bidenticulate behind .... vicina, Brunu. 

4 (3) Last ventral segment entire intricata, Still. 



OXYA. 



234. Oxya velox, F. 

Gryllus velox, Fabricius, Mant. Ins. ii, 1787, p. 239. 

Gryllus chinensis, Thunberg, Mem. Acad. Pe"tersb. v, 1815, p. 253 ; 

ix, 1824, pp. 398, 419. 
Heteraciis apta, Walker, Cat. Derm. Salt. B.M. iv, 1870, p. 666. 

Green, with a broad black band extending from the upper half 
of the eye to the base of the teg- 
mina ; vertex often with two diverging 
brown lines, and sometimes the middle 
of the vertex and pronotum filled up 
with a brown band. Tegmina longer 
than the hind femora, subhyaline, with 
rufous nervures ; the costa, which is 
rather suddenly expanded near the 
base, sometimes clouded, and the inner 
margin green. Legs green, hind 
femora with the middle carina ter- 
minating in a small tooth ; knees 
marked with blackish and reddish ; 
hind tibiae, beyond the middle, and 
first joint of tarsi considerably ex- 
panded ; hind tibiae blue with about 
10 white black-tipped spines. Last 
ventral segment in female longitudi- 
nally bicarinate. 

Length 16-32 mm. ; expanse of 
wings, 33-60 mm. 
Baltistan ; ASSAM : Sylhet ; BOMBAY : Kanara ; 




Fig. 116. Oxya velox. 



KASHMIR : 

CEYLON ; CHINA ; MALAY STATES : Singapore ; JAVA, &c. 
The figure is taken from Walker's type of 0. apta. 



235. Oxya vicina, Brunn. 

Oxya vicina, Brunner, Ann. Mus. Geneva, xxxiii, 1893, p. 152. 

Very similar to 0. velox, but the pronotum uniform wood-brown 
above. Antennae longer than the head and pronotum together, 
Tegmina shorter than the hind femora, with the mediastiual area 
in both sexes gently rounded, and the border pale, not crenulated. 
Hind femora entire at the tip, the knees very slightly infuscated. 
Abdomen with the last ventral segment smooth, and the hind 
margin bidenticulate ; cerci not bidenticulate, obliquely truncated 
in the male. 

Length 27-38 mm.; tegmina, 18'5-34 mm. 

HIMALAYAS ; CHINA ; JAPAN. 



200 



CATA>"TOPINA\ 



236. Oxya intricata, Still. 

Acridium (Oxya)intricahim, Stai, Eugenie's liesa,0rth. 1860,p.33o. 

Olive-green or yellowish, slightly pubescent, shining. .Fas- 
tigium of the vertex obtuse ; vertex smooth, sometimes excavated 
in. front of the eyes, shorter than broad ; a dark brown or brownish 
testaceous stripe behind the eyes, extending over the pronotum 
and pectus ; antennae filiform, one-fourth longer than the head 
and pronotum together. Pronotum thickly punctured, truncated 
in front and obtusely and roundly angulate behind, with a slight 
median carina, which is obsolete in front ; two of the transverse 
sulci well marked. Tegmina rather longer than the hind femora r 
slightly narrowed towards the tips, the costa expanded towards 
the base ; subhyaline, with brownish nervures, the inner margin 
sometimes green ; wings brownish hyaline, with brown nervures. 
Prosternal tubercle conical, pointed. Hind femora rather longer 
than the abdomen, moderately thickened, testaceous, at least at 
the tip, with the upper carina entire; spines of the hind tibia> 
tipped with black. Male with the infra-anal segment triangular, 
obtuse ; female with the last ventral segment smooth, with the 
hind margin entire. 

Length 18-35 mm. ; expanse of tegmina, 31-64 mm. 

CEYLON; CHINA; MALACCA; JAVA, &<.-. 

Genus TARBALEUS. 

Tarbafeu*, Brumier, Abh. Senckenb. 
Ges. xxiv, 1898, p. 234. 

TYPE, Tarbaleits pilosus, Bruun., from 
Gilolo. 

fianr/e. Ceylon, Moluccas. 

Head short, broad, rugose in front ; 
eyes oblique, oval, closely approximating ; 
vertex passing into the front, frontal 
ridge shallowly silicate, bronder above 
than below ; antennae filiform, longer 
than the head and pronotum. Pronotum 
short, transverse, with four transverse sul- 
cations, truncated before and behind ; 
pronotum and abdomen finely punc- 
tured. Tegmina and wings absent. 
Front and middle legs rather short, 
hind legs long, pilose ; hind tibia? with 
a variable number of short spines, and 
with an outer terminal spine. Pro- 
sternal tubercle short, broad, obtuse, and 
indented; supra-anal lamina of female 
large, produced beyond the short 
ovipositor. 




Fig. 117. Tarbaleus 



TABBALEUS. HIEKOGLYPHUS. 201 



237. Tarbaleus cingalensis, sp. nov. 

Apterous, uniform olive-green or rusty brown ; legs pilose, 
hind tibiae with 7 small black-tipped spines on each side, and 
with an outer apical spine. 

Length 28-45 mm. 

CEYLOX. 

Type in the British Museum. 



Genus CARYANDA. 
Caryanda, Stal, Bill. Svensk. Akad. Hand), v (4), 1878, p. 47. 

TYPE, Acridmm (Occtja) spurium, Stal. 

fianrje. Ceylon, Burma, Java, China, West Africa. 

Head and eyes large, prominent ; antenna as long as head and 
pronotuin together ; teginina lobiform ; hind femora with the 
upper carina denticulate, hind tibiae not expanded, with 8 spines 
on the inner carina besides the apical one, at regular distances ; 
cerci of the male pointed; last ventral segment of female smooth, 
not denticulated. 

238. Caryanda sanguineo-annulata, Bnmn. 

Cftrt/anda smu/uineo-annulata, Brunner, Ann. Mas. Geneva, xxiii, 
1893, p. 154, pi. v, fig. 52. 

Olivaceous, with a black stripe running on each side from the 
eyes to the extremity of the abdomen. Front somewhat sloping, 
coarsely punctured. Pronofcum cylindrical, with the hind margin 
truncated. Tegmina lobiform, lateral, half black and half olive. 
Hind femora olivaceous, ringed with red before the knees, which 
are black, the upper carina with a projecting tooth ; hind tibia? and 
tarsi dull bluish, with a white ring at the base ; spines of the 
tibiae white, tipped with black. 

Length 20-25 mm.; tegmina, 3'5-4 mm. 

BUKMA : Pegu. 

Type in the Genoa Museum. 



Genus HIEROGLYPH US. 

Hieroyluphus, Krauss, Sitz. Akad. Wiss. "\Vien, Math.-nat. Cl. 
Ixxvi'(l), 1877, p. 41. 

TYPE, Hieroylyplius daganensis, Krauss. 

Range. China, India, Burma, Senegal. 

Size large, head very large, eyes wide apart ; fastigium of the 
vertex short, convex, rounded in front ; costal ridge broad, entire, 
slightly sloping ; antenna? slender, filiform, much longer than the 



202 CATAKTOPIXJE. 

liead and pronotuin together in the male, and as long or longer in 
the female. Pronotum as broad as the head, with the sulei very 
strongly marked, usually with black lines. Prosteriial tubercle 
acute ; meso- and meta-sternal lobes more or less widely separated, 
or contiguous in the male. Geuicular lobes of hind femora pointed, 
or rounded ; hind tibiae with 8 or 10 spines on the outer carina, 
and 10 on the inner. Tegmina subhyaline, very thickly reticu- 
lated towards the base, and with the costa only slightly expanded ; 
wings hyaline, rather long, narrow and pointed. Male with the 
cerci long, pointed or obtuse, with a tooth on the inner side ; sub- 
genital lamina long, conical, pointed; female with the genital 
valves short, thick, curved, the upper ones very broad, with the 
outer margin crenulated, the lower pointed, and armed with a 
tooth beyond the middle. 

Key to tlie Species. 

1 (6) Pronotuin unicolorous. 
'2 (5) Pronotum with a longitudinal 
dorsal black line on each side. 

3 (4) Black line straight, narrow ; epi- 

sterna with a small black line, bilineatus, sp. n., p. 202. 

4 (3) Black line broad, emitting broad 

lines down the sides ; episterna 

broadly bordered with black. . bettoni, sp. n., p. 203. 

5 (2) Pronotum with narrow black 

lines in the transverse grooves banian, F., p. 204, concolor, 

Q (1) Pronotum yellowish green, with [Walk., p. 204. 
the front and hind margins 

yellow citrinolimbatus, Brunn., p. 205. 



239. Hieroglyphus bilineatus, sp. nov. 
Hierogtyphus bilineatus, Saussure MS. 

Yellowish brown (probably green in life). Scutellum of the 
vertex short, transverse, obtusely rounded and almost ridged in 
front ; costal ridge sulcated throughout, incurved below the 
ocellus, lateral carime incurved below the antennae, and then 
divergent. Pronotum closely punctured, with four sulci, the front 
one lateral, and from its upper extremity runs a black line back- 
wards to two-thirds of the length of the tegmina ; there is also a 
black rectangle on the lower part of the second suture, with a 
branch projecting forwai'd, and an oblique black line above the 
middle pair of legs. Tegmina about one-third of the length of 
the abdomen in the female, and about half as long in the male. 
Hind femora with a black spot on each side above before the 
extremity ; hind tibiae black at the base, at least on the sides, and 
with 9 or 10 black spines on each carina. Male with the cerci 
obtuse ; female with the appendages bordered and tipped with 



HIEROGLYPHUS. 



203 



black, the lower ones pointed, and armed with a tooth below 
before the extremity. 

Length 22-36 mm. ; tegmina, 9-11 mm. 

BENGAL. 

Types in the British Museum. 

Mr. H. Maxwell Lefroy suggests that this is a micropterous 
form of H. banian. 

240. Hieroglyphus bettoni, sp. nov. 

Green or testaceous. Fastigium of the vertex short, trans- 
verse, slightly convex and rounded in front, costal ridge sulcated 
throughout, the lateral carinae only slightly divergent below. 
Pronotum finely punctured, with four sutures, the first lateral, the 





Fig. 118. 
Hieroglyphus bettoni, 



Fig. 119. 

Hieroglyphus bettoni 
(brachypterous c). 



second only dorsal, and the third and fourth continuous ; median 
carina slightly marked, most distinct on the hinder lobe ; the 
lateral sutures heavily marked with black, and connected above 
by a black line running from the upper end of the first to the 
tegmina, and below by a black line connecting the first and third 
sutures ; the space enclosed is often white or yellow ; the spaces 



204 CATANTOPItfjE. 

above the middle and hind legs are also streaked with black, and 
there is a double row of black spots on the abdomen above. 
Femora black at the tips ; hind tibiae blue, black at the base, and 
with 9 or 10 white black-tipped spines. Tegmina subhyaline, 
greenish at the base, longer than the abdotnen, or abbreviated, 
with the principal nervures black ; wings hyaline, with brown or 
black nervures. 

Length 38-44 mm. ; wings, 18-40 mm. 

ASSAM : Cachar ; BOMBAY : Moghal Sarai. 

Types in the British Museum. 



241. Hieroglyphus banian, F. 

Gryllus banian, Fabricius, Ent. Syst., Suppl. 1798, p. 194. 
Acridium furcifer, Serville, Ins. Orth. 18S9, p. 677, pi. xiv, fig. 12. 

Green, including the antennae. Pronotum smooth, with four 
sulci, narrowly lined with black, the first obsolete above, the second 
on the sides, and the last two continuous. Tegmina subhyaline, 
densely reticulated and greenish at the base, with green nervures ; 
wings as long as the tegmina, greenish hyaline. The three sub- 
terminal ventral segments with silky tufts of hair on the middle- 
Hind tibiae blue, with black-tipped spines. Antennae with the 
basal joint yellowish green, the rest dark green, tipped with 
yellow. Subgenital lamina of male moderately long. 

Length 43 mm. 

BOMBAY : Kaphot ; CENTRAL PROVINCES : Bilaspur ; BURMA : 
Bhamo. 

Type in the Paris Museum. 

Said to be destructive to rice in the Central Provinces, and to 
crops in general in Guzerat and Kattiawar. 



242. Hieroglyphus concolor. Walk. 

Oxya concolor, Walker, Cat. Derm. Salt. B.M. iv, 1870, p. 646. 
Hieroglyphus tarsalis, Stal, Bill. Svensk. Akad. Handl. v (4), 1878, 
p. 94. 

Very similar to the last species. Antennae black, pale at the 
base, and at the ends of the joints. Pronotum finely punctured, 
the sulci narrowly lined with black. Hind femora with a black 
spot on each side at the base of the knees, or with a black crescent 
on each side of the knees ; hind tibiae blue, with the base black, or 
narrowly ringed with black, and the tip, as well as the base of the 
first joint of the tarsi, black. Abdomen beneath pubescent in 
the middle, at least in the male ; subgenital lamina of male rather 
short. 

Length 41-02 mm. ; expanse of tegmina, 48-75 mm. 

BOMBAY : Kanara ; ASSAM : Sylhet ; CHINA. 



HIEROGLYPHIC. EACILIA. 205 

Type ill the British Museum. 

Appears to be commoner than the last species, with which it is 
probably often confounded. 

243. Hieroglyphus citrinolimbatus, Brunn. 

Hiero</lyphu$ citrinolimbatus, Brunner, Ann. Mus. Geneva, xxxiii, 
1893, p. 154. 

Yellowish green, antennae black, with the extremities of the 
joints yellow. Pronotum bordered with yellow before and behind. 
Hind femora marked with black before the knees on the inside, 
and in the male, also on the outside. Male with the supra-anal 
lamina long, pointed, sulcated in the middle ; male cerci hairy, 
rather straight and pointed. 

Length 42-62 mm. ; tegmina, 30-37 mm. 

HIMALAYAS ; BUBMA : Bhamo. 

Type in the Genoa Museum. 

Genus RACILIA. 
Rucilia, Stal, Eih. Svensk. Akad. Ilandl. v (4), 1878, pp. 48, 94. 

TYPE, RaciUa femoralis, Stal. 

Range. Philippines, Burma. 

Head prominent; fastigium of the vertex triangular, rounded at 
the extremity, not transverse, front very oblique ; lateral carinae 
strongly divergent ; prosterual tubercle truncated but not indented 
at the tip ; genital valves of female unarmed ; hind femora witli 
the genicular lobes pointed, hind tibia? not expanded, with 7 
or 8 spines on the outer margin, the terminal spine nearly 
obsolete : tegmina and wings well developed. 

244. Racilia aurora, Brunn. 

RaciUa aurora, Brunner, Ann. Mus. Geneva, xxxiii, 1893, p. 155, 
pi. v, fig. 53. 

Olive-brown, with a narrow lateral whitish stripe above, running 
from the vertex to the end of the tegtnina, and another broader 
one running from the cheeks as far as the hind coxae. Fastigium 
of the vertex obtusely triangular ; front olive-brown, thickly 
punctured ; cheeks white, with a vertical black band within the 
eyes. Pronotum thickly punctured, with the hind margin 
obtusely triangular. Tegmina narrow, obtusely pointed, longer 
than the wings, which are smoky subhyaline. Legs dull green, 
hind femora reddish towards the "tips, knees black ; tibiae and 
tarsi blue, with black spines. Male with the subgenital lamina 
elongate-triangular, siilcated at the base ; cerci straight, hairy, 
bidentate at the tips. 

Length 22 mm. ; tegmina, 16 mm. 

BURMA : Teinzo. 

Type in the Genoa Museum. 



2UD CATANTOPIN^. 

Genus CERCINA. 
Cercina, Stgl, Bih. Svensk. Akad. Handl. v (4), 1878, pp. 49, 97. 

Cheeks aud front sparingly punctured ; pronotum more thickly, 
especially above. Antennae short and thick, rather shorter than 
the pronotum, with short joints; costal ridge slightly sulcated, 
with parallel sides, and narrowed towards the base ; fastigium 
transverse, obtuse, nearly horizontal ; space between the eyes 
twice as broad as the frontal ridge ; eyes slightly convex. Pro- 
notum pubescent on the back, truncated before and behind, with 
the median carina represented by a small line. Tegmina rudi- 
mentary, narrow, lateral, extending rather beyond the median 
segment, about twice as long as broad, and more rounded on the 
outer than on the inner border. Hind femora about as long as 
the abdomen, the dorsal carina terminating in a very small obtuse 
tooth, genicular lobes pointed, triangular ; hind tibiae with seven 
spines on the outer margin besides the obsolete apical spine. 
Prosternal tubercle rather prominent ; 
. , metasternal lobes very slightly sepa- 

k- \ / rated ; genital valves with the edges 

denticulated. 

245. Cercina obtusa, StdJ. 

Cercina obtusa, Stal, Bill. Svensk. 
Akad. Handl. v (4), 1878, pp. 49, 

Olivaceous, shining, slightly pilose, 
with a darker band extending behind 
the eyes across the lateral lobes of 
the pronotum ; hind tibia testaceous, 
with black-tipped spines. 

Length 20 mm. 

CEYLON. 

Type in the collection of Brunner 
Fig. 120. Cercina obtusa. von Wattemvyl. 



Genus CASTETRIA. 

Castetria, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, Ixx, 1902, p. 614. 
TYPE, Castetria dispar, Bol. 

Hanye. S. India. 

Fastigium of the vertex obtuse, obtusely and roundly angulate 
in front, carinated above in the middle, the margins slightly 
compressed, but rounded and punctured ; front oblique, the 
frontal ridge smooth or slightly sulcated, continuous to the 
extremity of the clypeus ; antenna; short. Pronotum angulated 




CASTETRIA. SPATHOSTEENUM. 207 

behind, the back cylindrical, punctured, with the median carinae 
more or less prominent, the margins smooth and shining; the 
deflexed lobes narrowed towards the extremity, with the outer 
border angulated iu the middle. Tegmina lanceolate, not longer 
than the pronotum, with the radial nervure forming a continuous 
raised carina. Prosternal tubercle transverse, compressed, sub- 
foliaceous, obtusely angulated at the tip ; space between the 
mesosternal lobes equally long and broad, with the margins 
slightly divergent behind ; the metasternal lobes not contiguous, 
but slightly separated behind the foveolae. Hind femora about as 
long as the abdomen, the tip not produced above the carina3 ; 
hind tibia? with 8 spines on the outer carina, besides the 
apical one. Genital valves of the female with the borders 
denticulated. 

246. Castetria dispar, BoL 

Castetria dispar, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, Ixx, 1902, 
p. 614. 

Ochraceous brown, or partly green. A shining brown stripe 
behind the eyes, with a pale border above and below, extending 
to the hind border of the lobes of the pronotum ; on the head is 
a second band lower down ; costal ridge smooth, sometimes 
slightly indented near the ocellus ; fastigium of the vertex 
obtuse, more transverse in the female than in the male. Pro- 
notum with the back smooth, impress-punctate, obtusely angulated 
behind, with the hind sulcus placed more distinctly behind the 
middle in the female than in the male ; the median carina mode- 
rately prominent in the male, and slightly so in the female. 
Tegmina lanceolate, with the radial nervure raised, the tip 
slightly compressed in the male, and concave on the inner side 
towards the tip in the female. Legs olive, hind femora darker 
above. Abdomen varied with brown on the sides. 

Length 12-16 mm. ; tegmina, 2-3-5 mm. 

MADRAS : Madura. 



Genus SPATHOSTEKNUM. 

Spathostermim, Karsch, Sitz. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-nat. Cl. 
Ixxvi (1), 1877, p. 44. 

TYPE, Tristria nigrotceniata, Stal. 

Range. India, ISiam, AVest Africa. 

Size rather small. Head and pronotum convex and level, with 
parallel sides ; eyes very large, broader ; front very sloping, 
frontal ridge sulcated throughout; antenna? very short, often 
hardly longer than the pronotum, thick, filiform. Pronotum 
tricarinated, longer than the head, rounded or smooth, obtusely 
angulated behind. Prosternal process sti-aight, transverse, slightly 
curved backwards, longitudinally impressed, base narrow, apex 



208 



CATANTOriX/r. 



broad, euiarginate, bilobate; mesosternal lobes distant; meta- 
sternal lobes contiguous. Tegmina narrow, rounded at the 
extremity, with close transverse nervules between the two 
radial nervures. Hind tibiae long and slender, hardly dilated, 
with or 10 spines, besides the apical one. Female with the 
valves rather short, the upper borders crenulated or smooth, the 
lower ones armed with a small tooth behind the middle. 



Key to tlie Species. 

Postocular band well marked prasiniferinn, Walk. 

Postocular band obsolete, or suffused green. . . . wniilosinn, Stal. 

247. Spatho sternum prasiniferum, Walk. 

Heteracris (?) prasinifera, Walker, Cat. Derm. Salt. 1OI. v, 

Suppl. 1871, p. 65. 

? Caloptenus caliginosits, Walker, op. cit. 1871, p. G9. 
Stenobothrus str'igulatus, Walker, op. cit. 1871, p. S2. 

Kufo-testaceous or green, with a broad blackish or dark green 
stripe running behind the lower part of the eyes and below the 

lateral cariua? of the pronotum. 
It is banded above by a narrow 
pale yellow line, and below by a 
broader one, below which again 
is another dusky band, bordered 
below with yellow. Tegmina 
light brown towards the base, 
and subbyaline beyond ; central 
area with a longitudinal black 
streak, generally almost obsolete 
in the male, and well marked in 
the female, but very variable, 
sometimes being entire, but 
more frequently with white 
transverse markings, sometimes 
numerous enough to break it 
into spots ; inner margin ob- 




Fig. 121. 

Spathosternum prasinifainn. 



scure or reddish in the male, 
and generally green in the female; wings hyaline, often 
clouded towards the tip. -Legs rufo-testaceousf hind femora 
often more or less green, especially in the female, and frequently 
with a dark longitudinal band on the outer area; hind tibia) 
with 10 or 11 spines, and sometimes green. 

Length 13-20 mm. ; expanse of tegmina, 25-30 mm. 

BOMBAY ; BENGAL : Pusa. 

Type in the British Museum. 

A very abundant and variable species. I am not quite certain 
whether caliginosus of Walker, from an unknown locality, should 
be included here; it is unusually green, and the abdominal 
appendages of the female are unusually short. 



SPATHOSTERXUM. OX rilllHEPES. 209 

248. Spathosternum venulosum, Stdl. 

SpatJiusternum venulosum, Stal, Bill. Svenslc. Akad. Haudl. v (4^ 
1878, p. 97. 

Allied to the African S. nigroteeniatum , Stal, but smaller, and 
with the front less oblique. The lateral margins of the upper 
side of the pronotum narrowly smooth, the rugae fine and slightlv 
raised. Tegmina with a short brown stripe on the disk, marked 
with whitish veins before and behind ; beyond the middle rather 
thickly reticulated, with very numerous transverse nervules 
between the inner radial nervures on the disk ; postocular band 
on the head and pronotum obsolete or greenish. Mesosternal 
lobes strongly diverging beyond the middle. Hind tibiae with 
about 10 spines in addition to the terminal one. 

Lenytli 20 mm. 

INJHA (?). 

Type in the Stockholm Museum. 

Genus OXYRRHEPES. 
Oxijrrhepes, St81, (Efv. Vet.-A.kad. Ftirh. xxx (4), 1873, pp. 40, 53. 

TYPE, Op&omala lineatitarsis, Stal (extensa, "Walk.). 

Range. Oriental Region, Africa. 

Body moderately stout. Fastigium of the head rather shorr, 
sloping, rectangular or obtuse at the tip, front moderately oblique ; 
frontal ridge sulcated, narrower above than below, but not com- 
pressed ; antennae simple. Pronotum depressed above between 
the carinae, and punctured ; obtusely angulated behind. Pro- 
sternal tubercle conical or compressed. Hind femora about as 
long as the abdomen, the genicular lobes triangular, not longer 
than the tips of the femora ; front legs moderately long, middle 
femora extending to the base of the hind femora ; hind tibiic 
with about 12 spines on the outer carina?, besides the terminal 
one. Tegmina and wings long, the former hyaline, opaque and 
densely reticulated towards the base, hardly expanded on the 
costa : wings hyaline, pointed, twice as long as broad. Male 
with t he subgenital plate not compressed. 

249. Oxyrrhepes extensa, Walk. 

Acridhnn extensum, Walker, Ann. Nat. Hist. (3) iv, 1859, p. 222. 
? Opsomala lineatitarsis^ Stal, Eugenie's Resa, Orth. 1860, p. 324. 
Jlcteracris strangulafa, Walker, Cat. Derm. Salt. B.M. iv, 1870, 

p. 665. 
Heteracris antica, Walker, op. cit. 1870, p. 668. 

Olive-brown, pubescent beneath. Head as broad as the pro- 
notum. Pronotum rugose-punctate, nearly twice as long as the 
head, with three slender sulci, the last placed rather behind the 

p 



210 CATAXTOITNM:. 

middle ; the median carinse raised, hardly intersected by the 
sulci, the lateral carinse less strongly marked, the hind border 
rounded. Tegmina subhyaline, with rufous nervures, and some- 
times a longitudinal row of brownish spots between the radial 
nervures ; wings hyaline, slightly clouded towards the borders. 
Prosternal tubercle prominent, compressed, convex in front. 
Subgenital lamina of the male long and pointed ; valves of the 
female with the tips curving upwards and downwards, and with a 
strong tooth at the base of the lower ones. Hind tibiae with 
13 or 14 strong black-tipped spines besides the apical one ; first 
joint of hind tarsi long, grooved above. 

Length 40-60 mm. ; expanse of tegmina, 57-106 mm. 

BUBMA : Kachin Hills ; CEYLON ; CHIXA. 

Type in the British Museum. 

.None of the specimens before me show the black line on the 
tarsi described by StSl in his 0. lineatitarsis from Hong Kong. 



Genus LEPTACRIS. 

Leptacris, Walker, Cat. Derm. Salt. B.M. iv, 1870, p. 67G. 
Capellea, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, l.\x, 1902, p. 616. 

TYPE, Leptacris filiformis, Walk. 

Range. India, Ceylon. 

Size large ; body very long and slender, nearly cylindrical. 
Fastigium of the vertex rather short and broad, nearly horizontal 
in the male, in the female sloping to tlie apex, which is obtusely 
rounded in front and tricarinated from the eyes, behind which the 
lateral carinse are obsolete, but the median one, though not con- 
spicuous, is continued over the pronotum ; head nearly as long as 
the pronotum, frontal ridge oblique, sulcated, the bounding carina? 
diverging downwards, and hardly reaching the extremity of the 
clypeus, the space between coarsely punctured, the lateral carinse 
running from the base of the antenna? obliquely backwards ; 
antenna? inserted near the eyes, which are large, oval, brown, and 
striated with black. Pronotum thickly punctured, slightly rounded 
in front and behind, the hind sulcus placed beyond the middle ; 
the lower border of the deflexed lobes nearly straight, bordered 
with a silvery white band running from the antennae, the hind 
border slightly sloping. Front and middle legs very short, front 
femora thickened and punctured, hind legs long and slender, 
though the abdomen extends to three-fourths of the length of the 
hind tibia?, which are armed with 20 or 21 spines, and have an 
outer apical spine. Tegmina and wings well developed, but 
shorter than the abdomen. Prosternal spine small, slender, com- 
pressed, obtuse but not expanded at the tip ; mesosternal and 
metasternal sutures straight in both sexes. Male with the sub- 
genital lamina long, strongly compressed ; female with the upper 



LEPTACKIS. 21 1 

appendages pubescent, crenulated above, and the lower ones with 
<i strong tooth below at the base. 

The described species are too little known for me to venture to 
tabulate them at present. 

250. Leptacris filiformis, Walk. 

Leptacris filiformis, Walker, Cat. Derm. Salt. B.M. iv, 1870, 

p. 670. 
Capellea arr/enteovittata, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Eut. France, Ixx, 

1902, p. 016, pi. ix, tig. 33. 

Pale olivaceous red, with a silvery band on each side, and with 
greyish pubescence below ; head and pronotum often banded with 
brown above. Pace coarsely impress-punctate ; fastigium and 
vertex depressed between the eyes. Tegmina hyaline, strongly 
veined, with pale nervures. Hind knees marked with brown on 
the inner side. Supra-anal lamina of the male lanceolate, 
channelled in. the middle, and sinuated on each side near the 
tip, which is very pointed ; female with the upper appendages 
compressed, and narrowly sulcated above. 

Length 40-80 mm. ; tegmina, 37-50 mm. 

MADBAS : Madura. 

Walker's type is unfortunately missing ; but I have little doubt 
of the identity of his species with that described and figured by 
Bolivar. 



251. Leptacris maxima, Kami/. 

Ischnacrida maxima, Karny, Sitz. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-nat. 
Cl. cxvi (1), 1907, p. 298. 

Antennae filiform ; fastigium triangular ; a. silvery band running 
for half the length of the femora ; hind femora beneath con- 
colorous in the male, or with the lower carinae black in the 
female. 

Length 62-82 mm. 

HIMALAYAS. 

Type in the collection of Brmmer von Wattenwyl. 

252. Leptacris greeni, sp. iiov. 

Reddish testaceous, the head and pronotum indistinctly mottled 
with grey; a white line runs below the lateral carinae of the 
head, continued as a broad silvery line on the lower border of 
the deflexed lobes of the pronotum to the extremity ; then 
continued in yellow to the base of the middle legs, and more 
indistinctly to the base of the hind legs ; head smooth above, 
face very coarsely punctured, pronotum more finely ; hind 
femora with the outer area longitudinally white between the 



212 CATANTOPIXjE. 

cannae ; tegmina subhyaline, with reddish nervures ; wings 
hyaline. 

Length 70 inm. 

CEYLON. 

Type in the British Museum. 



Genus ISCHNACRIDA. 
luchnacrida, StSl, Recens. Orth. i, 1873, pp. 44, 87. 

Size rather large ; body long, cylindrical, with parallel sides, 
abdomen usually extending beyond the wings. JTastigium of 
the vertex usually not carinated, triangular, produced in front 
of a strongly-marked transverse suture just before the eyes, 
which are large, oval, and prominent ; face very oblique, frontal 
ridge narrow, the bounding carinse hardly diverging, the lateral 
carina? nearly straight : antennas distinctly ensiform. Pronotum 
rounded behind, the sulci only slightly indicated, the hind sulcus 
placed behind the middle, the lower border of the deflexed lobes- 
nearly straight, the hind border slightly oblique. The prosternal 
tubercle small, conical, compressed behind. Tegmina long and 
narrow ; wings rather shorter and somewhat narrow. Front and 
middle legs short, hind wings rather slender. Male with the 
subgenital lamina long and pointed ; female with the appendages 
compressed. 

Keif to tlis Species. 

1 (4) Wings unspotted. 

"2 (3) Wing-s stained with pink towards the base, converffens, Walk. 

3 (2) Wings not stnined with pink towards the 

base tarsalix, Walk. 

4 (1) Wings spotted with brown fusca, Karny. 

253. Ischnacrida fusca. 

Ischnacridn fusca, Karny, Sitz. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-nat. Cl. 
cxvi (1), 1907, p. 301. 

Brown ; antennae broadly ensiform ; fastigium of the vertex 
hardly longer than broad ; a lateral silvery band ; tegmina with 
fine scattered brown dots ; hind femora concolorous on the inner 
side; subgenital lamina of the male hardly longer than the 
pronotum, not sulcated. 

Length, body (without appendages), 44 inm. 

CEYLON. 

254. Ischnacrida convergens, Wall: 

Opomnla converffens, Walker, Cat. Derm. Salt. B.M. iii, 1870, 
p. 511. 



ISCHNACRIDA. 



213 



Itchinacnda tceniata, Stal, OEfv. Vet.-Akad. Forh. xxx (4), 1873, 

p. 53. 
Ischnacnda taniata, Stal, Ilecens. Orth. i, 1873, p. 87. 

Body rather slender. Antennae ensiform, depressed, consider- 
ably broader in the female than 
in the male ; eyes round, pro- 
minent, yellowish brown, or 
olive-greenish ; pronotum above 
with indistinct whitish longi- 
tudinal lines, and beneath with 
a silvery white stripe running 
from behind the antennae below 
the eyes along the lo\ver border 
of the deflexed lobes of the pro- 
notum, and behind to the hind 
coxae ; hind femora with a con- 
tinuous silvery longitudinal 
stripe on the median outer area, 
on the inner side is a short 
black longitudinal line at the 
base, and the lower carina in- 
clines to pink ; there is also a 
black mark on the inner side at 
the base of the knees, and 
another on the inner side at the 
end of the hind tibiae, which are 
armed with 19 or 20 very fine 
black spines, including the terminal one. Tegmina and wings 
subhyaline, the latter rosy towards the base. Subgenital lamina 
very long, slender and pointed, at least as long as the head and 
pronotum together. 

In the female specimen before me, the silvery band on the 
outer side of the femora is obsolete before the extremity on both 
sides, and also towards the base on the left leg ; and on the inner 
side of the femora is a blackish longitudinal band, bearing white 
spots ; and there is a longitudinal row of black dots (double 
towards the extremity) on the middle of the tegmina ; appendages 
strongly hooked at the tips. 

Length 55-60 mm. ; expanse of tegmina, 57-87 mm. 
SIND : Karachi ; NORTH BENGAL (type ). 
Type in the British Museum. 




Fig. 122. 

Ischnacrida convergens. 



255. Ischnacrida tarsalis, Walk. 

Opomala tarsalis, Walker, Cat. Derin. Salt. B.M. iii, 1870, p. 512, 
n. 27. 

Body stout, green, shining; a white stripe bordered above and 
partly below with brown runs from the back of the eye to the 
extremity of the pronotum, but does not reach the lower border 



214 CATAXTOPIN.E. 

of the deflexed lobes. Eyes prominent, oval, about twice as long as 
broad. Tegmina greenish hyaline ; wings smoky hyaline. Hind 
femora yellowish green, genicular lobes marked with black within 
and below; hind tibias bluish green, with 12 or 13 black-tipped 
spines; tarsi red. Prosternal tubercle expanded, bifid, pointed 
behind ; abdominal appendages very hairy, surmounted by two 
long compressed pointed cerci, the upper appendages converging 
inwards at the point, and creuulated above, and the lower 
appendages oblique at the extremity. 

Length 52-60 mm. ; expanse of tegmina, 05-71 mm. 

ASSAM: Sylhet. 

Type in the British Museum. 



Genus PSEUDOCARSULA, nov. 

Carsula (?), Brunner (nee Stal), Ann. Mus. Genova, xxxiii, 1893 r 
pp. 137, 156. 

TYPE, Carsula tenera, Brunn. 

Ranye. Burma. 

Vertex above smooth, with a transverse sulcus between the- 
eyes; the fastigium obtuse, very pointed at the sides, without 
foveolse; antennae inserted rather before the tip of the vertex T 
smooth in the male, in the female tectiform above and serrated ; 
frontal ridge compressed, pointed at the tip, with the carinte dis- 
tinctly diverging ; latei-al carinoo well marked, not diverging ; 
eyes not prominent. Pronotum cylindrical, punctured, with 
indistinct sulci, smooth in the male ; with a median carina 
in the female. Tegmina not extending beyond the fifth 
segment of the abdomen. Front and middle femora short, 
the latter only slightly passing the hind coxae. Hind femora 
compressed, pilose, the genicular lobes pointed, but not passing 
the knees ; hind tibia3 smooth, with about 14 spines, and a 
terminal one. Abdomen cylindrical, slightly carinated above ; 
male with the supra-anal lamina sulcated at the base, and very 
acute at the tip; cerci laminated in both sexes, pointed in the- 
male, and obtuse in the female. 



256. Psendocarsula tenera, Brunn. 

Carsula tenera. Brunner, Ann. Mus. Genova, xxxiii, 1893, p. 157,. 
pi. v, fig. 53. 

Body pale fulvous above, the sides and the legs pale green ; 
hind femora pale blue. 

Length 42-52 mm. ; tegmina, 16-17'5 mm. 
BURMA : Karen Hills. 
Type in the Genoa Museum. 



215 



Genus XENIPPA. 



Xenippa, Stai, Bihansr, Svensk. Akad. Ilandl. v (4), 1878, 
pp. 52, 98. 

TYPE, Xenippa viridula, Stal, from Khartoum. 

Hanye. S. India, Sudan. 

Antennae distant from the eyes, ensif orm ; fastigium of the 
vertex very long and slender, smooth, carinated, a transverse 
sulcus between the eyes, frontal ridge not sulcated. Pronotum 
shorter than the head, the front margin sinuated, the lateral lobes 
straight. Prosternal tubercle expanded at the tip, compressed 
and produced behind ; mesosternal lobes contiguous. Front and 
intermediate legs rather short, hind femora much shorter than 
the abdomen, the genicular lobes narrow, triangular, and slightly 
produced ; hind tibise with about 12 spines. 

257. Xenippa prasina, BoJ. 

Xenippa prasina, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, Ixx, 1902, 
p. 617. 

Green, with grey pilosity beneath. Head half as long again as 
the pronotum, cylindrical behind the eyes ; fastigium of the vertex 
half as long as the head, distinctly narrowed, tectiform, distinctly 
carinated toward the tip ; vertex with a very slight carina, the 
longitudinal spaces on each side punctured, transverse sulcus 
between the eyes slight or obsolete ; the front distinctly narrowed 
throughout all its length, the frontal ridge not sulcated, and its 
basal third compressed, expanded towards the tip, and distinctly 
margined on the sides, the lateral carinae well marked and con- 
tinuous. Antenna? ensiform, long, rather narrow. Pronotum 
smooth, coarsely punctured in front, and more finely behind, with 
the metazona very slightly carinated, produced and obtusely 
rounded at the base ; the deflexed lobes longer than high, the 
lower border nearly straight, with a narrow callous yellow margin ; 
meso- and meta-notum punctured on the sides ; a yellow carina 
extending from the hinder angle of the prouotum to the inter- 
mediate coxae. Tegmina narrow, hyaline, with green nervures, 
the tips obtusely rounded, and extending beyond the hind femora; 
wings red, well developed. Legs short, front tibine as short as the 
front tarsi, hind femora narrow, hind tibiae with black-tipped 
spines. 

Lenf/th 35 mm. ; tegmina, 21 mm. 

MADRAS : Madura. 

lype in the collection of M. Pantel. 



216 



Genus GELASTORRHINUS. 

Gelastorrhinu*, Brunner, Ann. Mus. Geneva, xxxiii, 1903, 
pp. 137, 157. 

TYPE, Gelastorrliinus albolineatus, Bruun. 

Range, Indian Region, Africa, Madagascar. 

Body long, moderately slender, vertex short; antennae long, 
ensiforin, slightly remote from the eye ; front very oblique, 
frontal ridge sulcated, with the middle carinse slightly diverging, 
:md the lateral carinae straight. Teginina and wings long, narrow, 
and pointed. Prouotum smooth, tricarinated; prosternum with a 
very small tooth. Front and middle legs short, hind legs long and 
slender; hind femora carinated above, terminating in two pointed 
lobes; hind tibiae with 13-20 spines on each carina, but no outir 
terminal spine. Abdomen compressed ; supra-anal lamina of 
male pointed, sulcated ; cerci in both sexes depressed, pointed or 
rounded ; upper abdominal appendages unarmed in the male, the 
lower ones slightly denticulated in both sexes. 

Key to the Species. 

1 (2) Antennae very long, only slightly 

thickened at base flatus, Walk., p. 216. 

2 (1) Antennae shorter, much thickened 

and flattened at base. 

3 (4) Tegmina uniform yellowish t>reen . laticornis, Serv., p. 217. 

4 (3) Tegmina not uniform yellowish 

green. 

5 (6) Rostrum separated from vertex by 

a triangular sulcus ; antennae as 
long as head and pronotum 
together senripictus, Walk., p. 217. 

6 (5) Rostrum separated from vertex by 

an arched sulcus ; antennae longer 
than head and pronotum to- 
gether. 

7 (8) Tegmina lined with white ulbolineattts, Brunn., p. 218. 

8 (7) Tegmina not lined with white selache, Burr, p. 218. 

258. Gelastorrhinus (?) filatus, Walk. 

Mesopsjilatus, Walker, Cat. Derm. Salt. B.M. iii, 1870, p. 502. 

Rufo-testaceous above, and the sides probably yellowish green. 
Eastigiuin of the vertex rather long, obtusely angulated at the 
extremity, separated from the vertex by a curved sulcus ; antennae 
more than half the length of the body, long and slender, narrowly 
ensiform towards the base; head about as long as the pronotum, 
frontal ridge sulcated, the carinae diverging towards the extremity. 
Pronotum with two distinct carinae, the first about the middle, the 
second at three-fourths of its length ; hind border obtusely rounded, 



GELASTORRHINUS. 217 

hind lobe finely granulated; lateral cariuae parallel, with a straight 
dark line running backwards from the eye bordering the lateral 
carinae on the outer side. Tegmina long and very acute, hvaline, 
with rufous nervures, costa probably greenish, hind border 
(perhaps) whitish; wings hyaline, considerably shorter than the 
tegmina. Legs apparently green, varied with reddish, hind tibiae 
with about 15 small black-tipped spines. 

Length 25-20 mm. ; expanse of tegmina, 51-53 mm. 

NORTH INDIA. 

Type in the British Museum. 

Described from two poor male specimens, bleached by spirits. 

259. Gelastorrhinus (?) laticornis, Serv. 

Opomala laticornis, Serville, Ins. Orth. 1839, p. 390. 

Body, head, and legs delicate green. Head large, conical, the 
four frontal carinae prominent ; frontal ridge broad, carinated 
laterally and in front, the front obtusely rounded. Pronotum 
tricarinate ; a dark lateral stripe runs behind each antenna, 
interrupted by the eye, but beyond to the pronotum, and below the 
lateral carinae. Tegmina longer than the abdomen, narrow, linear, 
subhyaline, and obtusely pointed at the tips, uniform yellowish 
green ; wings hyaline, as long as the tegmina. Antennae ensiform, 
long and flattened from the 4th joint to the 12th, beyond that 
rapidly attenuated, reddish, with the two basal joints and the 
front of joints tf-12 green. 

Length 20-22 mm. 

BOMBAY. 

Type in the Paris Museum. 

260. Gelastorrhinus semipictus, Walk. 

Opomala femipicta, Walker, Cat. Derm. Salt. B.M. iii, 1870, 

p. 512. 
Gelastorhinus tryxaloides, Bolivar, Ami. Soc. Ent. France, Ixx, 

1902. p. 617, pi. ix, fig. 34. 
? Gelastorrhinus eda.v, pt., Burr, Traus. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1902, 

p. 181. 

Antennae, head, and pronotum rufous brown above, this colour 
extending in a band behind the eyes, and below the lateral carinae ; 
the face and the sides of the body yellowish green. Head smooth, 
rather shorter than the pronotum ; antennae about 17-jointed, 
half as long as the body in the male, rather longer than the head 
and pronotum in the female, ensiform ; frontal ridge sulcated, 
diverging below ; vertex and rostrum separated by a depression 
roundly subangulate in front. Pronotum tricarinate, the lateral 
carinae slightly divergent behind, cut by two distinct sulci, the first 
about the middle, the second at about two-thirds of its length ; hind 
border obtusely rounded, space behind the last sulcus rather finely 
punctured. Tegmina long, pointed, hyaline, the nervures rufous, 



218 CATANTOPIN-E. 

the costal area yellowish green; Mings hyaline, with browi> 
nervures, the nervures ia the costal area rufous ; wings pointed, 
rather shorter than the tegmina. Abdomen blackish brown, or 
towards the extremity reddish brown ; sides and under surface 
yellowish green, with three dark transverse bands near the base 
before the incisions. Front legs brown, hind legs mostly green ; 
hind tibia) green or red, with 17-20 spines. Male with the 
supra-anal lamina oblong lanceolate, and the cerci compressed ; 
the subgenital lamina small, obtusely pointed. 

Length 20-46 mm. ; tegmina, 20-3'J mm. 

MADRAS : Madura, Kodaikanal ; CEYLON. 

Type in the British Museum. 

261. Gelastorrhinus alboliueatus, Brunn. 

Gelastorrhinus albolineaius, Brunuer, Ann. Mus. Geneva, xxxiii, 
1898, p. 158, pi. v, fig. 54. 

Pale fulvo-testaceous. Fastigium of the vertex shorter than 
the eye, separated from the vertex by an arched sulcus ; antenna* 
inserted somewhat above the eyes, ensiform, as long as the head 
and pronotum together ; front (viewed laterally) slightly sinnated. 
Pronotum above smooth, tricarinated, fulvo-testaceous, marked 
with a browner longitudinal band on each side, the deflexed lobes 
pale green. Tegmina longer than the abdomen, fulvo-testaceous, 
distinctly browner towards the radial nervure, which is black at 
the base, and contiguous to an ivory-white longitudinal stripe. 
Hind femora above acutely carinated, terminating in two rather 
long lobes; hind tibiae with from 15 to 20 spines in the outer carina. 

Length 54 mm. ; tegmiua, 41 mm. 

BURMA : Bhamo. 

Tt/pe in the Genoa Museum. 

262. Gelastorrhinus selache, Burr. 

Gelastorrhinus selache, Burr, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 190:2, pp. 181, 
182. 

Green, varied with red. Eostrum separated from the vertex by 
a curved sulcus, eyes red, a red stripe running from the eyes 
across the cheeks and along the lateral carinae of the pronotum 
and the radial area of the tegmina ; antenna) long, much longer 
than the head and pronotum together. Pronotum smooth, lateral 
lobes with the front and hind margins oblique and sinuated, the 
lower border nearly straight. Tegmina long, comparatively broad, 
hyaline, with the radial nervure reddish towards the base ; wings 
shorter than the tegmina, hyaline, slightly suffused with fulvous 
at the base. 

Length 47-60 mm. ; tegmina, 34-54 mm. 

SlKKTM. 

Type in the collection of Brunner von Wattenwyl. 



LEFBOYA. WACATA. 219 

Genus LEFROYA, nov. 

TYPE, Lefi'oya etcutipennis, sp. nov. 

Range. Bengal . 

Head very long, the rostrum in front of the eyes longer than 
the pronotum ; the hinder part of the head from the front level 
of the eyes rather shorter than the pronotum ; head and pronotum 
finely cat-mated throughout, the carina on the head slightly tecti- 
form ; face very long, frontal ridge narrow, shallowiy sulcated 
throughout, and slightly expanding towards the extremity, the 
median ocellus on a level with the front of the eyes, which are 
large and oval ; antennae with the scape large and rounded, the 
second joint small and annular, the rest broadly ensiform and 
flattened towards the base, tapering whip-like towards the tip, 
and longer than the head and pronotum together ; behind the 
antennae run straight lateral carinae. below the eyes. Sternal 
tubercle small, inclining slightly backwards. Tegmina and wings 
hyaline, long, narrow and pointed ; tegmina longer than the wings, 
which are as long as or longer than the abdomen. Front and 
middle legs very short, hind legs slender, hind femora not much 
thickened at the base; hind tibiae very slender, with about 10 small 
spines on the outer and 16 on the inner carina ; no terminal spine 
on the upper outer carina. 

263. Lefroya acutipennis, sp. nov. 

Brown or reddish brown, abdomen and legs reddish ; a yellowish 
stripe more or less visible from behind each antenna running 
below the eyes and along the lower lateral borders of the head 
and pronotum. Hind tibiae and tarsi red; tegmina very long, 
narrow, and pointed, hyaline with rufous nervures ; wings narrow, 
pointed, shorter than the tegmina, hyaline, with fuscous nervures, 
except along the costa, where the nervures are rufous. 

Length 32-oo mm. ; tegmina, 27-43 mm. ; wings, 23-33 mm. 

BENGAL: Pusa. 

Type in the Agricultural Research Institute, Pusa. 

Genus WACATA, nov. 

TYPE, Wacata ceylonica, sp. nov. 

Range. Ceylon. 

Vertex horizontally produced before the eyes, as long as the 
eyes, rather longer than broad, subcarinate above, and obtusely 
rounded at the extremity; face very long and sloping, median 
carina sulcated throughout, slightly expanding below ; antenna? 
rather thick, very slightly tapering, longer than the head and pro- 
notum, and obtuse at the extremity. Body long, slightly com- 
pressed, apterous ; abdomen slightly carinated above in the female ; 
prosternal tubercle small. Front and middle legs very short, 
hind legs long, hind tibiae with no outer terminal spine. 



220 



CATANTOPIX-E. 




264. Wacata ceylonica, sp. nov. 

Olive - brown, antenna? greenish or 
yellowish, transversely banded with brown 
in the female; body long, finely granu- 
lated ; behind the eye runs a black band 
clotted with white, nearly to the ex- 
tremity of the abdomen ; legs green. 

CEYLOX: Maha Illupulana, 31.viii.1910, 
Trincoinali, ix. 1911. 

Tf/pe in the British Museum. 



Fig. 123. 

Wacata ceylonica. 



Genus MESAMBKIA. 

Mesambria, Stffl, Bih. Svensk. Akad. Handl. v (4), 1878, pp. 28, 72. 
TYPE, Mesambria yenictdata, St8.1. 

Range. India, Ceylon, Celebes, Madagascar. 

Head as broad as the pronotum ; eyes very large and promi- 
nent, frequently projecting beyond the level of the pronotuin ; 
fastigium smooth, scarcely closed at the extremity, and very 
slightly carinated; antennae filiform, sometimes slightly thickened 
beyond the middle, rather longer than the head and pronotum ; 
frontal ridge sulcated, slightly projecting between the antennae. 
Pronotum rather longer than the head, generally more or less 
rugose, the hinder sulcus placed much behind the middle, the 
hind border truncated ; the middle carina extending over the 
pronotum and abdomen, and sometimes over the head, lateral 
carinae obsolete. Tegmina rudimentary, lateral, as long as the first 
segment of the abdomen. Hind femora thickened, about as long 
as the abdomen, hind tibiae with 6 to 8 strong spines. 

Key to the Species. 

1 (4) Colour testaceous. 

2 (3) Abdomen with a continuous dark 

unspotted lateral band nepahnsis, Walk., p. 224. 

3 '(2) Abdomen with a dark lateral band 

bearing pale spots above yeniculata, StSl, p. 223. 

4 (1) Colour dark brown. 

5 (6) Eyes pale yellow behind tartalis, Walk., p. 222. 

(5 (8) Eyes of nearly uniform colour. 

7 (10) A slender yellow line above the 

eye. 

8 (9) A distinct yellow band below the 

eyes, face above and below 

blackish dubia, Walk., p. 221. 



MESAMBKIA. 221 

9 (8) Face yellow, mottled with black, dnctifemur, Walk., p. 222. 
10 (7) Xo yellow line bordering the 

eyes scabra, Walk., p. 221. 



265. Mesambria scabra, Watt: 

Caloptenus sealer, Walker, Cat. Derm. Salt. B.M. iv, 1870, 
p. 707. 

Dark brown, with blackish markings. Head with the carinae 
between the eyes above parallel, not expanded but truncated at 
the end of the i'astigium ; frontal ridge sulcated, slightly punctured 
above, the cariuae and also the lateral carinae nearly straight ; a 
broad and irregular, but rather indistinct and ill-defined, black 
stripe running behind the eyes over the sides of the pronotuin 
and abdomen, and on this, on the middle lobe of the pronotuin, 
stands a very large round depression. Pronotuin and abdomen 
with a strongly marked median carina, and with very large and 
crowded depressed punctures, becoming smaller posteriorly ; sides 
and under surface of pronotum and abdomen paler than above. 
Tegmina narrow, parallel-sided, roundly truncate at the extremity, 
blackish on the costal half, and testaceous behind, extending to 
the end of the first segment of the abdomen. Hind femora 
thick, as long as the abdomen, with two indistinct brown trans- 
verse bands above, and black mottling on the lateral areas ; knees 
blackish on the sides ; tibia? testaceous, with 7 black spines on the 
outer and 8 on the inner carina ; prosternal spine short, thick, 
pyramidal. 

Length '2\j mm.; tegmina, 4 mm. 

BENGAL : Bardwan. 

Type in the British Museum. 



2G6. Mesambria dubia, Watt: 

Acridium diibium, Walker, Cat. Derm. Salt. B.M. iv, 1870, 
p. 63i>. 

Dark brown, mottled with blackish ; head, pronotuin, and 
abdomen above with large rugose anastomosing punctures. Fas- 
tigium of vertex triangularly expanded before the eyes, frontal 
ridge sulcate, the carinaB approximating above and slightly 
divergent below, the suture punctured, lateral carinae nearly 
straight, not prominent ; head blackish above and below, a 
narrow pale line running from the back of the head round the 
upper part of each eye to the base of the antennae, a wide 
testaceous band running below each eye across the front and 
sides of the head, and the palpi also pale; antennae tawny to the 
middle, with long blackish spots, and blackish beyond the middle. 
Prosternal tubercle short, conical. Tegmina blackish, very short 



222 



CATAXTOPIXJE. 



and narrow, hardly extending beyond the middle of the first seg- 
ment of the abdomen. Legs testaceous; hind femora moderately 
thickened, longer than the abdomen ; hind tibiae curved, pale 
green, brown at base and tip, with 6 or 7 brown-tipped spines. 

Length 18 mm.; tegmina, 2 mm. 

CEYLON. 

Type in the British Museum. 

267. Mesambria tarsalis, Wall.: 

Acridium tarsale, Walker, Cat. Derm. Salt. B.M. iv, 1870, p. 632. 

Dark brown, thickly punctured over the whole of the upper 
surface ; median cariua slight on the head, well marked on the 
pronotum and abdomen. Fastigium of the vertex triangularly 
expanded in front of the head, frontal 
ridge sulcated, rather more broadly 
below than above, lateral carinse nearly 
straight ; eyes with a yellow crescent- 
mark behind, and behind this a broad 
black band hardly extending to the 
back of the head ; antennae black, with 
long yellow spines to the middle. Pro- 
notum with the hinder lobe testaceous. 
Legs dull green; hind femora moderately 
thickened, as long as the abdomen, knees 
blackish ; hind tibia; brighter green, 
except at the base, which is blackish, 
with an ivory-white spot above, and 
with 7 black-tipped spines on the inner 
and 6 on the outer carina ; hind tarsi 
blackish, first joint testaceous. Abdo- 
men blackish, sides with testaceous 
bands on the incisions ; anal appendages 
of female very large, hooked upwards 
and downwards at the tips, aud dentated 
on both sides within. Tegmina very 
narrow, linear, extending nearly to the extremity of the first 
segment of the abdomen. 

Length 28 mm.; tegmina, 5 mm. 

CEYLON. 

Type in the British Museum. 

This species is not improbably the female of M. dubia. 




Fig. 124. 

Mesambria tarsalix. 



26S. Mesambria cinctifemur, Walk. 

Acrydium cinctifemur, Walker. A 
p. 223. 

Walker's description reads, " Fawn-colour, varied with black, 



Acrydium cinctifemur. Walker. Ann. Nat. Hist. (3) iv, 1859, 
p. L>1>3. 



MESAMBRIA. 223 

tuberculate, testaceous beneath. Head and antennae mostly black. 
Legs with black bands. Hind femora of the usual structure ; 
hind tibiae glaucous, black and testaceous towards the base. Fore 
wings black, varied with testaceous. Hind wings grey. Length 
of the body 10 lines." 

The specimen bearing the name, and the ostensible type, is a 
female, without antennas and with only one perfect middle leg. 
It is blackish above, with large depressed punctures ; the 
fastigium triangularly expanded before the eye, and a median 
carina traversing the head, pronotum, and abdomen. The head 
below the eyes, a line behind them, and the greater part of the 
face are testaceous, the latter blackish at the sides above and 
below, and the spaces between the fore carinae shallow, and much 
pitted ; palpi yellow. The under surface of the body and middle 
legs are testaceous ; the back and sides of the abdomen are black, 
but 3 or 4 of the sutures are yellowish, Avith irregular yellowish 
markings on the sides between them ; the abdominal appendages 
of the female are slightly hooked at the tips, but not dentated. 
The tegmina are brownish hyaline, somewhat expanded towards 
the extremity, and extend nearly to the end of the first segment 
of the abdomen. 

Length 26 mm. ; tegmina, 4 mm. 

Type (?) in the British Museum. 

It is very doubtful whether this is the insect described by 
AValker, but it appears to be distinct from others on our list. 



:269. Mesambria geniculata, Stdl 

Mesambria geniculata, Stal, Bill. Sveusk. Akad. Handl. v (4) 
1878, p. 73. 

Lighter or darker olive-brown. Antennae long, more or less 
black towards the extremity ; fastigium of vertex short, tri- 
angular, frontal ridge narrow, the suture contracting below the 
eye, and slightly widening again, the lateral carina3 indistinct; 
face and sides of head below the eyes yellowish, mouth-parts 
varied with black, palpi white. Upper surface of body granulose, 
with a continuous median carina ; abdomen with a more or less 
distinct black band on each side, sometimes spotted with yellow 
above. Legs testaceous or reddish, the knees, base, and tips of 
tibiae blackish ; hind femora in the female blackish on the outer 
and inner areas ; hind tibiae with 6 or 7 large black-tipped spines. 
Tegmina brown, linear, extending to the extremity of the first 
segment of the abdomen. 

Length 18-29 mm. ; tegmina, 4-5 mm. 

CEYLON. 

Type in the Stockholm Museum. 



224 CATANTOPINJE. 



270. Mesambria nepalensis, Walk. 

Caloptenus nepalensis, Walker, Cat. Derm. Salt. B.M. iv, 1870, 
p. 707. 

Testaceous, stout. Fastigium of vertex short, triangular, 
frontal ridge rather broad, hardly sulcated and slightly punctured, 
vertex very slightly carinated, pronotum and abdomen more dis- 
tinctly ; behind each eye is a black line extending to the front of 
the pronotum. On a level with the lower |.art of the eye is an 
oblique black stripe on the sides of the pronotum, hardly indicated 
on the hinder lobe, but continued on the pleura below the 
tegmina : and beyond the first segment of the abdomen is a 
continuous black lateral stripe. Tegmina hyaline, moderately 
broad, extending to the end of the first segment of the abdomen. 
Hind knees marked with black on the sides, hind tibiae with 8 or 
9 black-tipped spines. 

Lenqili 20 mm. ; tegmina, 3| mm. 

NEPAL. 

Type in the British Museum. 



Genus ORTHACANTHACRIS. 

OrtJiacant/iacris, Karsch, Stettin. Ent. Zeit. Ivii, 1896, p. 303. 
Locusta, Karny (Linn, pt.), Sitz. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-nat. 
Cl. cxvi, 1907, p. 304 

TYPE, Cyrtacantliacrig Jiumilicrus, Karsch, from E. & W. Africa. 

Range. Europe, Africa, W. Asia, India, Ceylon. 

Size large. Front perpendicular, vertex depressed, bordered 
with carinae in front of the eyes, passing insensibly into the suture 
of the frontal ridge, which is slightly contracted above and below 
the antennae, and is punctured between them ; antennae longer 
than the head and pronotum. Pronotum with a strong median 
carina, cut by the usual transverse sutures, the hind suture placed 
about the middle, punctured, the hind border rectangular, with 
the point rounded off, hind lobe thickened; tegmina and wings 
long or very long ; hind femora thick, rather shorter than the 
abdomen. 

Key to the Species. 

[1 (6) Wings not red at the base. 

2 (5) Wings banded with black. 

3 (4) Wings hyaline, with a broad black 

band before the middle (ryyptia, L., p. 225. 

4 (3) Wings pale yellow towards the 

base, with a black band towards 

the hind border favescens, F., p. 225. 

6 (2) Hind wings not bauded with 

black, violaceous at base violascens, Walk., p. 229. 

6 (1) Wings red at the base. 



ORTHACANTHACBIS. 225 

7 (10) Hind femora banded with black 

and yellow. 

8 (9) Antennae black nigricornis, Burm., p. 228. 

(8) Antennae pale vinosa, Walk., p. 228. 

10 (7) Hind femora not banded. 

11 (12) Size large ; wings brighter red at 

base succincta, L., p. 227. 

12 (11) Size moderate ; wings dull red at 

base japonica, Bol., p. 229.] 

271. Orthacanthacris segyptia, L. 

Gryllus Locusta eegyptius, Linnaeus, Mus. Ludov. Ulric. 1764, 
p. 138. 

Reddish-grey, tegmina with indistinct brown annular marks 
towards the base, and short black dashes on the nervures towards 
the extremity ; slightly subhyaline, especially towards the tips ; 
wings nearly as long as the tegmina, at least twice as long as 
broad, hyaline, with a black semicircular band, varying in width, 
extending from the base of the costa to about the middle of the 
wing, and inwardly to the inner margin. Hind femora with 
more or less distinct transverse black bands above, interrupted 
black lines on the outer carinae, and the inner surface red ; hind 
tibiae dull violet with 8-11 large white black- tipped spines. 
Prosternal tubercle straight, conical. 

Length 32-06 mm. ; expanse of tegmina, 87-130 mm. 

A common species throughout the Mediterranean Eegion ; and 
as it occurs at Quetta, it almost certainly crosses the north- 
western frontiers of India. 

272. Orthacanthacris flavescens, F. 

Gnjllusjlavescens, Fabricius, Ent. Syst. ii, 1793, p. 52. 

Gn/llus Locusta cmcifer, Stoll, Spectres, Saut. 1813, p. 30, pi. 146, 

fig. 51. 

Acridium semifasciatum, Serville, Ins. Orth. 1839, p. 655. 
Acridium pardalinum, Walker, Cat. Derm. Salt. B.M. iii, 1870, 

p. 587. 

Head yellowish above and behind the eyes, with two blackish 
bauds sloping backwards from between the eyes ; the front 
depressed, black, with a red mark in the middle, and passing 
into the frontal ridge, which is blackish, moderately broad, 
sulcated and punctured, with parallel sides, the face varied with 
black and red. Antennae black, longer than the head and pro- 
notum together. Pronotum strongly carinated, black, slightly 
varied with reddish, and spotted with pale yellow on the sides of 
the front lobes ; the hind lobe slightly expanded, black, punctured, 
with longitudinal reddish lines ; the rest of the body greenish 
brown. Tegmina long, yellowish grey, subhyaline, with brown 
nervures and a row of spots near the extremity below the costa, 
and with indistinct dusky markings formed by thickened nervures 

Q 



CATANTOPIN^E. 



into irregular and indistinct transverse bands. Wings pale 
greenish yellow at the base, brownish hyaline beyond the middle, 
with scattered black spots towards the upper and outer parts of 
the wing irregularly arranged in broken longitudinal rows ; 
towards the hinder angle the yellow part of the wing is bordered 




Fig. 125. Orthacanthacris flavesccns. 

by a smoky marginal baud darker than the outer part of the wing. 
Hind femora whitish, with longitudinal and transverse nervures 
reddish, the longitudinal ones interrupted by broken black lines ; 
genicular lobes large, white below ; legs otherwise mostly 
olive-green ; the hind tibias with 8 outer and 10 inner red 
black-tipped spines. 

Length 65 mm. ; expanse of tegmina, 140-150 mm. 

MADEAS ; CEYLON. 

Fig. 125 is taken from the type of 0. pardalinum, Walk. 



OETHACANTHACIUS. 



227 



273. Orthacanthacris succincta, L. 

Gryllus Locustn succinctly, Linnaeus, Amoen. Acad. vi, 1763, p. 398. 
Oijrtacanthacris fusilinea, Walker, Cat. Derm. Salt. B.M.Uii, 1870, 

p. 564 (bleached). 
Acridium elonyatum, Walker, op. cit. iii, 1870, p. 636 (bleached). 

Tegmina and wings very long ; head, pronotum, and abdomen 
(in fresh specimens) varied with light greenish yellow and brown. 
Scutellum of the vertex short and expanded in front of the eyes r 
rendering it sometimes almost circular ; frontal ridge "nearly 




Fig. 126. Orthacanthacris succincta, 

straight and moderately broad, sulcated and punctured, the lateral 
carinae nearly straight and very prominent ; eyes oval ; the face 
yellow, with brown stripes over the carinse, and below the eyes ; 
a broad band runs over the vertex within each eye, and curves 
down along the back of the head ; antenna yellow. Pronotum 
very coarsely punctured, brown, with a broad median yellow 



228 CATANTOPINJi. 

stripe, continuous with that of the head, over the carina ; it is 
narrowly bordered with yellow before and behind, and more 
broadly "below; on the sides are two short parallel yellow stripes 
on a blackish ground, hardly extending beyond the hind suture. 
Abdomen brown above, with a row of long yello\vish spots 
bordering the median carina on each side ; under surface pale. 
Tegmina subhyaline, with a yellow basal stripe on the costa ; the 
centre is filled up with brown and yellow quadrangular or oval 
spots, and on the apical third the nervures are marked with 
black streaks. Wings smoky hyaline, strongly tinged with 
purplish red on the basal half. Legs dark brown ; hind femora 
yellow, obliquely lined with brown on the outer surface ; hind 
tibiae with 8 to 10 white black-tipped spines. 

The dark markings of the tegmina vary considerably, and are 
sometimes nearly obsolete. 

Lengtli 50-62 mm. ; expanse of tegmina, 116-135 mm. 

INDIA ; CEYLON ; CHINA ; SUMATKA ; JAVA ; BORNEO. 

274. Orthacanthacris nigricornis, Burm. 

Acridium niyricorne, Burmeister, Handb. Ent. ii, 1838, p. 629. 
Acridium melanocorne, Serville, Ins. Orth. 1839, p. 659. 

Body varied with black and yellow ; antennre black. Scutellum 
of the vertex only slightly depressed, fronfal ridge nearly straight, 
sulcated, smooth ; head yellow, face with narrow black vertical 
stripes within the eyes, and behind them runs a broad black band 
on each side of the median yellow stripe across the head and 
thorax; behind each eye is an oblique yellow stripe, and towards 
the extremity of the pronotum the black is bisected on each side 
with yellowish. Pronotum coarsely punctured, the sides yellow, 
mai'ked with small black spots. Abdomen dull yellow, more or 
less suffused with blackish. Tegmina dull yellow, subopaque, 
more or less blackish towards the base; wings smoky hyaline, 
with the base tinged with red. Legs blackish, hind femora with 
broad yellow spaces spotted with black, hind tibiae with 8-11 
yellow black-tipped spines, hind tarsi red. 

Length 43-55 mm.; expanse of tegmina, 90-127 mm. 

S. INDIA ; MALAY STATES ; JAVA, etc. 

275. Orthacanthacris vinosa, Walk. 

Acridium vinosum, Walker, Cat. Derm. Salt. B.M. iii, 1870, p. 588. 

Almost uniform reddish brown, slightly varied with pale 
yellow behind the eyes and on the sides of the pronotum ; 
antennae yellowish. Scutellum of the vertex hardly depressed, 
frontal ridge only slightly sulcated, comparatively broad, thickly 
punctured throughout, and slightly narrowed at the ocellus ; 
lateral cai'inae slightly oblique. Pronotum thickly punctured, 
narrowly streaked with yellowish on the hind border. Tegmina 



ORTHACANTHACRIS. 229 

brown, subopaque ; wings brownish hyaline, with the base red. 
Legs brown, hind femora banded with lighter and darker brown, 
and whitish on the sides ; hind tibiae with 8-11 whitish black- 
tipped spines. 

Length 50-64 mm. ; expanse of tegmina, 94-120 mm. 

NORTH BENGAL ; CHINA. 

Type in the British Museum. 

276. Orthacanthacris violascens, Walk. 

Acridium violascens, Walker, Cat. Derm. Salt. B.M. iii, 1870, 
p. 587. 

Light brown, with a yellow stripe running from the fastigium 
of the vertex over the pronotum and the suture of the closed 
tegmina ; in some specimens this is red. Antennae yellow, or 
red, and there are also red lines (sometimes obsolete) below the 
antennae, in the suture of the frontal ridge, and along the hind 
borders of the head and pronotum. Fastigium of the vertex slightly 
expanded, and bordered with black lines running to the back of 
the head ; frontal ridge moderately broad, punctured above, and 
sulcated and slightly expanded below the ocellus. Pronotum 
coarsely punctured, sometimes distinctly darker on the sides of 
the yellow stripe above, and sometimes with one or two indistinct 
yellow spots on the side. Tegmina brown, with the inner margin 
yellow ; wings smoky hyaline, tinged towards the base with pale 
violet. Legs brown, with red tarsi ; hind femora with the outer 
and inner lobes whitish, with oblique brown lines ; all the carinae 
spotted with black, knees marked with black, with the lobes large 
and white, or yellow ; hind tibiae with 8-10 large yellow black- 
tipped spines. 

Lengtli 40-56 mm ; expanse of tegmina, 70 110 mm. 

CEYLON. 

Type in the British Museum. 

277. Orthacanthacris japonica, Bol. 

Acridiwn juponicum, Bolivar, Ann. Mua. Geneva, xxxix, 1898, 
p. 98. 

Light reddish brown ; antennae pale yellow, darker at the tips ; 
a pale yellow stripe running from the fastigium of the vertex 
over the pronotum and the suture of the closed tegmina. Frontal 
ridge rather constricted in the middle, slightly sulcated, and 
punctured above and below ; a broad blue-black stripe below each 
eye. Pronotum punctured, the sides bifasciated and bordered 
below with pale yellow, separated by blackish spaces. Hind 
knees darker, hind femora with 8-11 pale black-tipped spines. 
Tegmina subhyaline, brown towards the base, and spotted with 
brown longitudinally along the middle ; wings brownish hyaline, 
tinged with red at the base. In many specimens, especially 



230 

females, the head and pronotum are almost uniform brown, and 
a curved black line crosses the vertex within each eye. 

Length 35-45 mm. ; expanse of tegmina, 68-90 mm. 

jS.W. FRONTIER PROVINCE ; SIKKIM : Gantok; JAPAN. 



Genus CYRTACANTHACRIS. 

Cyrtacanthacris, Walker, Cat. Derm. Salt. B.M. iii, 1870, p. 550. 
Acrydium, pt., Olivier, Encycl. Meth., Ent. vi, 1791, p. 209. 
Acridium, Serville, Ann. Sci. Nat. xxxi, 1831, p. 282. 

TYPE, Gnjllus Locusta ranaceiis, Stoll. 
Range, Oriental Region. 

Differs essentially from Ortliacanthacris in the prosternal tubercle 
being very long and recurved. 




Fig. 127. Cyrtacanthacris rosca. 

Key to the Species. 

Hind wings red at base rosea, De Geer. 

Hind wings not red at base ranacea, Stoll. 



CYRTACANTHACniS. 231 

278. Cyrtacanthacris rosea, DeG. 

Acrydium roseum, De Geer, Mem. Ins. iii, 1773, p. 488, n. 3, pi. 41, 

fig. 1. 

Gryllusflavicornis, Fabricius, Mant. Ins. i, 1787, p. 237. 
Cyrtacanthacris lutescens, Walker, Cat. Derm. Salt. B. M. iii, 1870, 

'p. 5GC (bleached). 
Cyrtacanthacris fortis, Walker, 1. c. 1870, p. 567. 

Green ; antennae yellow. Scutelluni of the vertex hardly 
depressed ; frontal ridge punctured above, smooth and sulcated 
below, with parallel sides. Pronotum strongly rugose, witli the 
median cariua forming a strong ridge. Tegmina green, rather 
broad, obtusely and roundly truncate at the tips ; wings greenish 
hyaline, with the basal half tinged with red, Hind femora green, 
or with the sides yellower; hind tibiae and tarsi purplish red, 
the former with 9-11 yellowish spines, which have the extreme 
tips black. 

Length 45-80 mm. ; expanse of teginina, 105-165 mm. 

ASSAM : Sylhet ; CHINA ; JAVA ; PHILIPPINES, etc. 



279. Cyrtacanthacris ranacea, Stall. 

Gryllus Locusta ranaceus, Stoll, Spectres, Saut. 1813, p. 30, pi. 11 b, 

tig. 53. 
Cyrtacanthacris inficita, Walker, Cat. Derm. Salt. B.M. iii, 1870, 

p. 565 (discoloured). 

lleddish brown, mixed with yellowish or whitish. Antennae 
yellow ; head pale, with brown or blackish vertical lines below 
the eyes and bordering the carinse ; frontal ridge sulcated, 
with the borders slightly undulating, smooth in the male, punc- 
tured above and on the sides in the female ; eyes bordered behind 
with black or brown, a pale median stripe running from the 
scutellum of the vertex over the pronotum and the suture of the 
tegmiua. Prouotum with fine scattered raised whitish granules, 
and the hinder lobe punctured in the female; red, with the 
median carina and the borders pale, and a pale band on the side, 
which is much expanded and with dusky punctures on the hinder 
lobe. Abdomen and legs reddish ; hind femora with the outer 
central area whitish, the knees marked with black ; hind tibiae 
with 6-8 whitish spines Avith dusky tips. Tegmina yellowish 
subhyaline, with a row of dark spots along the costa, and many 
irregular spaces on the median area bounded and reticulated with 
brown ; wings dusky hyaline, slightly tinged with yellowish 
towards the base. 

Length 45-55 mm. ; expanse of tegmina, 82-112 mm. 

ARABIA ; MADEAS : Conoor, ]Vilgiris ; CEYLON ; SIAM. 



232 



CATANTOPOyE. 



Genus SCHISTOCERCA. 

Schistocerca, StSl, Recens. Orth. i, 1873, p. G4. 
TYPE, Gryllus Locusta tataricus, L. (Acridium pereyrinum, Oliv.). 

Ranc/e. America, S. Europe, Africa, Western and Southern 
Asia. 

General characters of Orthacanihacrii, but the cerci of the male 
are rather short, compressed, and laminated, and the subgenital 
lamina is triangularly emarginate ; in the female the cerci are 
short and pointed, and the lower valves of the ovipositor are not 
dentated at the base ; hind tibiae with about 8 spines on the outer 
and 11 on the inner carina. 




Fig. l2S.Sc//ii<(ocerca tatarica. 



280. Schistocerca tatarica, L. 

Grylhis Locusta tataricus, Linnjeus, Syst. Nat. (ed. x.} i, 1758, 

p. 432. 
Acridium pereyrimtm, Olivier, Voy. Emp. Othom. iv, 1804, p. 388, 

note. 

Gryllus mir/mtorim , Thunbergr, Mi!m. Sc. Potersb. v, 1815, p. 244. 
Gri/llxs rufescens, Thunberg, 1. c.' 1815, p. 245. 
Acridiumjiaviventre, Burnieister, Ilandb. Ent. ii, 1838, p. 631. 
Acridium sellatum, Walker, Cat. Derm. Salt. B.M. iii, 1870, p. 585. 



SCHISTOCERCA. PELECINOZl'S. 233 

Yellow or red, the face sometimes marked with vertical dusky 
or blackish lines ; frontal ridge smooth, only slightly sulcated, 
sometimes a median pale line with a darker border runs from the 
fastigiurn of the vertex over the pronotum. Pronotum thickly 
punctured, expanded and rounded behind. Tegmina long, sub- 
hyaline, covered with irregularly transverse brown reticulate spots ; 
wings more than twice as long as broad, hyaline, often slightly 
stained with yellow or red at the extreme base. Hind knees 
marked with blackish. 

Length 40-62 mm. ; expanse of tegmina, 100-140 mm. 

SIND ; NEPAL ; ASSAM ; CEYLON ; MEDITERRANEAN KEGION ; 
WESTERN ASIA ; SOUTH and CENTRAL AMERICA. 

Linua3us confounded several species under the name tatarica ; 
but the present species appears to be the best entitled to retain 
the name. 

Genus PELECINOTUS. 

Pelecinotus, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, Ixx, 1902, p. 619. 

TYPE, Pelecinotus brachypterus, Bol. 

Range. S. India. 

Vertex very broad, and sloping to the vertical front ; frontal 
ridge very broad between the antennae, suddenly narrowed before 
the ocellus, and with the margins subparallel as far as the clypeus ; 
antennae filiform, rather thick in the male, and slender in the 
female. Pronotum rather short in front, long and pointed behind, 
the hinder lobe shorter than the front lobe; the back compressed 
and cristate throughout its whole length, the crest more or less 
excavated, not interrupted by the sulci, which are obsolete on the 
summit of the crest. Tegmina rudimentary, short, broad, lateral, 
lanceolate ; wings obsolete. Legs thick ; femora with the outer 
dorsal area very broad, with the carinae spinose ; hind tibiae with 
the inner and outer rows of spines extending equally far towards 
the base. 

Key to the Species. 

Head rugose ; pronotum with large depressed black 

punctures laterally brachypterus, Bol. 

Head smooth ; pi-onotum with the crest more raised 

and without black punctures cristayalli, Bol. 

281. Pelecinotus brachypterus, Bol. 

Pelecmotus brachypterus, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, Ixx, 1902, 
p. 620, pi. ix, tig. 35. 

Green. Head rugose, vertex almost perpendicular, slightly 
sloping ; antennae brown towards the tips. Pronotum sharply 
tectiform, short in front, pointed behind, the median carina com- 
pressed, smooth ; viewed laterally, obtusely arched in the male, 
straight or slightly sinuated in the middle in the female, arched 
in front, and excavated behind, the sides with large black depressed 



234 

punctures, the bind sulcus behind the middle of the pronotum, 
the front area sparingly tuberculate, the hinder area thickly 
rugose-punctate, the hind border thickened, often yellow. Teg- 
mina rudimentary, lanceolate, as long as the hind lobe of the 
pronotum ; wings very short. Hind femora spinose above and 
below, the outer cariua with obtuse tubercles ; hind tibiae red in 
the male and yellow in the female, with black-tipped spines. 
Supra-anal lamina in the male triangularly produced, pointed ; 
in the female rather compressed, with the tip obtuse; subgenital 
lamina of the male compressed, carinated, and pointed. 

Length 20-40 mm.; pronotum, 11'5-20 mm.; tegmina, 6 
10 mm. ; hind femur, 13-19 mm.; hind tibiae, 12 mm. 

MADRAS: Kodaikanal. 

Types in the collections of Pantel and Bolivar. 

282. Pelecinotus cristagalli, Bol. 

Pdlecinotus cristagalli, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, Ixx, 1902, 
p. 620, pi. ix, fig. 36. 

Resembles the last-named species, but the head is smooth, not 
rugose ; the frontal carinae are scarcely raised and almost inter- 
rupted at the ocellus. The crest of the pronotum is much raised 
<ind arched, crenulated but only slightly compressed, and not 
punctured with black on the sides, the hind border broadly whitish, 
with the hinder angle pointed, but the lower part of the tip 
obtuse. Hind tibiae long. 

Length 21 mm. ; pronotum, 12 mm. ; tegmina, 5 mm. ; hind 
femur, 14 mm.; hind tibiae, 14 mm. 

MADRAS: Madura. 

Types in the collections of Pantel and Bolivar. 



Genus TERATODES. 
Teratodes, Brull<5, Hist. Ins. ix, 1835, p. 222. 

TYPE, Gryllus monticollis, Gray. 

Range. India, Ceylon. 

Body stout ; head broad, rounded above, face vertical ; frontal 
ridge very shallow, parallel-sided from the ocellus to the clypeus, 
but the carina3 diverging above to the antennae ; antennae short, 
filiform, rather thick, widely separated at the base, with indistinct 
joints. Pronotum raised, large, sublaminately compressed, the 
front arched above the head in a point, the middle forming a high 
crest, denticulated, especially behind, and covering half the length 
of the abdomen; the sides granulated, the extreme tip pointed 
and curved up. Prosternal tubercle pointed. Legs rather short ; 
hind femora with short spines on the upper carinae, and longer 
ones below ; hind tibiae with 9 or 10 very strong spines. Tegmina 
opaque, longer or shorter than the abdomen ; wings hyaline. 



TERATODES. BIBRACTE. 235 

283. Teratodes monticollis, Gray. 

Gryllus monticollis, Gray, Griffith's Anim. Kingd. xv, 1832, p. 215, 
pi. 64. 

Almost uniform green ; the following portions are generally 
yellow, or occasionally reddish : the antennae, a line on the whole 
crest of the pronotum, the upper carinae of the hind femora and 
an arch on the knees, and the lower carinae and spines of the 
hind tibiae. Within the outer upper carina of the femora is 
sometimes a row of pale spots. Tegmina opaque, uniform green, 
very thickly reticulated ; wings pale greenish hyaline. 

Length 35-65 mm. ; pronotum, 25-45 mm. ; expanse of tegmina, 
62-95 mm. 

BOMBAY; CEYLON. 

Type in the British Museum. 



Genus BIBRACTE. 

Bibracte, Stfil, Bih. Svensk. Akad. Handl. v (4), 1878, pp. 27, 71. 
TYPE, Acridium hagenbacJii, De Haan. 
Range. S. India, Indo- Malayan Islands. 

Body stout ; fastigium of the vertex projecting considerably 
between the antennae, face sloping ; antennae long, pointed at 
the tips ; pronotum with the median carina and the transverse 
sutures nearly obsolete ; tegmina and wings variable ; hind femora 
moderately stout. 

284. Bibracte rugulosa, Ed. 

Bibracte rugulosa, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, Ixx, 1902, p. 620. 

Ferruginous brown. Front coarsely impress-punctate. Pro- 
notum obtusely sinuated behind, with the back rugose, obtusely 
tectlform, the hind sulcus placed much behind the middle, the 
deflexed lobes subangulated, the inner half rather shining, 
impress-punctate; before the hinder angle somewhat concave, 
thickly impress-punctate behind. Tegmina rudimentary, shorter 
than the pronotum, with the inner margin straight, and the outer 
margin very convex before the tip. Hind femora red beneath ; 
hind tibiae red, with yellow spines tipped with black. Supra-anal 
lamina somewhat compressed, sulcate above at the base. 

Length 24 mm.; pronotum, 6 mm.; tegmina, 4 mm.; hind 
femur, 4 mm. 

MADRAS : Kodaikanal. 

Type in the collection of M. Pantel. 



230 CATANTOPINJE. 



Genus BIBRACTOIDES, nov. 

TYPE, Acridium punctorium, Walk. 

Range, South India. 

Head rugosely punctate; front prominent, considerably produced 
between the antennae, and rounded into the frontal ridge, which 
is very narrow, sulcated, and parallel-sided throughout, the lateral 
carinae also nearly straight ; antennse filiform. Pronotum rugosely 
punctate, with raised granules, the median carina forming a ridge, 
cut by only two distinct sulci, the hindmost beyond the middle, 
hind border truncate-sinuate. Prosternal tubercle pointed, meso- 
sternal lobes transverse. Tegmina shorter than the abdomen, ex- 
panded on the costa, and obliquely and roundly truncate at the tips ; 
wings two-thirds as long as the tegmina, with the costal area 
produced and rather pointed at the tip ; the hind margin deeply 
and roundly concave. Hind femora thickened at the base, finely 
serrated above, and granulated on the outer surface ; hind tibue 
with 8-9 spines. 

285. Bibractoides punctoria, Walk. 

Acridium punctorium, Walker, Cat. Derm. Salt. B.M. iv, 1870, 
p. 630. 

Brown, very rugose, with black granules, colour paler behind 
the eyes, on the sides of the pronotum, and towards the costa and 
apex of the tegmina. Antennae tawny, slightly flattened, brownish 
towards the tips. Tegmina spotted all over with brown, the 
spots being formed of short connected streaks on the nervures, 
frequently transverse or oblique; wings yellowish, with reddish 
nervures. Abdomen pale, with the hinder segments distinctly 
punctured. Hind femora pilose, pale, with ill-defined brown 
markings, the inner and under surfaces, as well as the hind tibia; 
and tarsi, red. 

Length 25jmm. ; tegmina, 18 mm. ; wings, 15 mm.; hind femur, 
18 mm. 

8. INDIA. 

Type in the British Museum. 



Genus ALECTOROLOPHUS. 

Alectorolophns, Brunner, Abh. Senckenb. Ges. xxiv, 1898, p. 244. 

TYPE, Alectoroloplms speciosus, Brunn. 

Ranye. India (?), Celebes, Lombok. 

Fastigium of the vertex strongly narrowed in front, and pro- 
jecting considerably between the antennae, frontal ridge obsolete ; 
pronotum with a high lobate and serrate crest; tegmina and 
wings rudimentary or wanting. 



ALECTOROLOPHUS. APALACRIS. 237 

286. Alectorolophus bimaculatus, sp. nov. 

Stout, very rugose, brown, subapterous. Pronotutn narrowed 
in front, expanded behind, with a high, quadrilobate serrated 
crest, deeply cut between the lobes by the sulci, and the hind 
border denticulated ; the lateral carinae are also lobate and denti- 
culated. The mesonotum is covered by what resembles rudi- 
mentary tegmina, soldered in the middle and concave behind, and 




Fig. l'-9. Alectorolophus bimaculatus. 
a. Side view of thorax. 

marked on each side by a large irregular black spot. Hind femora 
denticulated on the carinae, and marked with numerous black 
granules ; the median carina forms a strong spear-like projection 
above the knee ; hind tibiae about as long as the femora, with 
about 9 spines on the carinte. 

Length 30 mm. ; hind femur, 20 mm. 

SIK'KIM (?) 

Type in the British Museum. 

Genus APALACRIS. 

Apalacris, Walker, Cat. Derm. Salt. B.M. iv, 1870, p. 641. 
TYPE, Apalacris varicornis, Walk. 

Range. N. India. 

Body slender. Head and thorax rugose ; frontal ridge narrow, 
a little wider between the antennae than the vertex between the 
eyes, gradually but very slightly narrowed to the clypeus, slightly 
constricted midway, somewhat grooved and punctured from the 



238 



OATAJTTOMITJi. 



ocellus to within a short distance of the clypeus ; antennae very 
long, filiform. Tegmina extended beyond the apex of the hind 
femora, slightly oblique and obtuse at the apex, but not truncate ; 
wings with comparatively few transverse nervures. Prosternal 
tubercle small, acute. 

287. Apalacris varicornis, Walk. 

Apalacris varicornis, Walker, Cat. "Derm. Salt. B.M. iv, 1870, 
p. 642. 

Head and pronotum above of a slightly reddish brown ; front 
finely punctured, frontal ridge sulcated, narrow, with parallel 
carinae, lateral carince also straight; 
antenna? very long, the basal 
fourth reddish, the rest black, 
except the last five segments, 
which are yellowish, tips pointed. 
Pronotum punctate - granulate, 
with the median carina and the 
three sulci slightly marked, the 
last rather beyond the middle, 
the hinder extremity almost 
rectangular, but truncated at the 
tip. Under surface of body and 
sides of abdomen yellow, abdomen 
shining black above. Tegmina 
testaceous, subhyaline towards 
the tips, where they are only 
slightly oblique ; wing nearly as 
long as the tegmina, hyaline, with 
brown nervures. Prosternal tu- 
bercle pointed. Front and middle 
legs yellowish brown ; front tarsi blackish, with a rather strong 
spine at the extremity of the first joint ; hind legs yellowish, the 
femora with three oblique black bands connected by a black line 
along the lower outer carina, and with a curved black line on each 
side of the knees, hind femora very finely denticulated above ; hind 
tibiae slightly pubescent, with 9 or 10 rather small black-tipped 
spines. 

Length 18 mm. ; expanse of tegmina, 35 rum. 

NOBTH INDIA. 

Type in the British Museum. 

Genus COPTACRA. 

Coptacra, StSl, Recens. Orth. i, 1873, pp. 37, 58. 
TYPE, Acridium fcedatum, Serv. 
Ranc/e. Java, India. 

[Vertex not broader than the frontal ridge ; frontal ridge 
thickly punctured, parallel-sided, very slightly wider between the 
antennae than at the vertex; antennas more or less ensiform, 




Fig. 130. Apalacris varicornis. 



COPl'ACRA. COPTACKELLA. 239 

depressed beyond the third joint, which is as long as or longer than 
the second. Pronotnm with the three sulci slightly marked 
prosternal tubercle pointed. Hind femora moderately thickened, 
slender towards the apex. Tegmina and wings well developed, 
obliquely truncate at the apex.] 

288. Coptacra ensifera, Bol. 

Coptacra ensifera, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. France. Ixx. 1902. 
p. 621. 

Brownish testaceous. Fastigium shortly tricarinate between 
the eyes, the middle carina produced backwards ; tempora well- 
marked, carinulate within ; frontal ridge impress-punctate, very 
slightly expanded and produced between the antenna, very 
slightly siuuated, front rugose ; antennae distinctly ensiform, with 
the second joint evidently narrower than the following ones. 
Pronotum scabrous, rugose, bordered with grey bristles. Tegmina 
as long as, but not longer than, the hind femora, the distal area 
subhyaline, obliquely and narrowly banded with brown, with the 
tips very obliquely truncated ; wings yellowish hyaline, with the 
radial area obliquely truncated at the tip. Legs dotted with grey 
hairs, the front and middle legs rugose ; hind femora with the 
upper outer area scabrous, and the lower outer area rather broad, 
black, and transversely rugose ; inner area red, with two more or 
less distinct brown bands ; hind tibiae red, with 11 inner and 
9 outer black-tipped spines. 

Length 27 mm. ; pronotum, 6'5 mm. ; tegmina, 25 mm. ; hind 
femur, 16*5 mm. 

MADKAS : Madura. 

Genus COPTACRELLA. 

Coptacrella, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent, France, Ixx, 1902, pp. 622, 
624. 

TYPE, Coptacrella martini, Bol. 

Range. India. 

Head (seen from the front) not expanded below ; frontal ridge 
continuous, almost everywhere equally broad, but slightly con- 
tracted below, though on the same plane ; somewhat compressed 
between the antenna, and in the male slightly expanded ; lateral 
carina3 pointed, and nearly parallel with the carina? bordering the 
frontal ridge, lateral area of the front about three times as broad 
as the frontal ridge ; eyes oblong, separated above by a narrow 
interval, about as broad as the frontal ridge ; vertex horizontally 
produced by arching continuously into the frontal ridge, with a 
carina on each side above between the eyes, often interrupted in 
the middle ; antenna? slightly longer than the head, depressed and 
narrowly ensiform from the third joint. Pronotum obtusely 
tectiform, the middle carina cut by the three sulci, and rectangular 
behind. Tegmina rudimentary, pointed towards the tips, with 



240 

the marginal area convex and produced. Hind femora with the 
lower outer area black, with a slight longitudinal carina ; hind 
tibia? sinuated. 



289. Coptacrella martini, Sol. 

Coptacrella martini, Bolivar, Aun. Soc. Ent. France, Ixx, 1902, 
p. 622, pi. 9, fig. 37. 

Pale ochreous, rugose-granulose, and clothed with grey hairs. 
Head and pronotura often granulated with black. Tegmina 
extending to the middle of the abdomen, narrowly rounded at the 
tips, with the marginal area roundly produced. Hind femora 
:ibove indistinctly and obliquely banded with brown, lower outer 
area shining black, the inner side, the base, and the hind tibiae 
red. Supra-anal lamina of the male lanceolate, longer than the 
cerci, with the margins entire. 

Length 14-24 mm. ; pronotum, 3'2-o mm. ; hind femur, 9-12 
mm. 

MADRAS: Kodaikanal. 

Types in the collections of Pantel and Bolivar. 

Genus EUCOPTACRA. 

Eucoptacra, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, Ixx, 1902, pp. 623, 625. 

TrPE, Acridium (Catantops ?) pra>morswn, Still. 

Range. The Oriental Region, Australia. 

Frontal ridge distinctly expanded between the antennae, lateral 
carinee of the front parallel, sinuous in the middle ; fastigium of 
the vertex transverse, sloping, arched into the costal ridge ; 
antennae filiform, not depressed at the base, the third joint 
distinctly narrower than the second. Tegmina well-developed, 
the tip oblique, but not sinuated: the costal area of the wings 
truncated at the tip. Hind femora with the lower outer area 
black, with a longitudinal carina ; hind tibiae sinuated. 

Key to the Species. 

Wings subhyaline, greenish towards the base pramorsa, Stfil. 

Wings hyaline-yellow ceylonica, sp. n. 

2!)0. Eucoptacra praemorsa, Stal. 

Acridium (Catantops?) prtemorsum, StSl, Eugenie's Resa, Ortli. 

1860, p. 330. 
Acridium saturatum, Walker, Cat. Derm. Salt. B.M. iv, 1870, 

p. 628 (n. syn.). 

Caloptemis striyifer, Walker, op. cit. v, Suppl. 1871, p. 66. 
? Coptacra cyanoptera, Brunner, (or StRl), Ann. Mus. Geneva, 

xxxiii, 1893, p. 159. 

Brownish testaceous. Front thickly punctured, frontal ridge 



ECCOPTACRA. 



241 



obtuse, not sulcated, expanded between the antennae, bounded 
by distinct parallel carinae, cheeks with a well-marked carina 
below the eyes ; antennae filiform, contracted at the base, hardly 
longer than the head and pronotura together. Pronotum nar- 
rowed in front, rather convex, truncated at the extremity, forming 
an obtuse angle rounded off at the tip, median carina continuous, 
not interrupted by the sulci, the first and second of which extend 
far into the lateral lobes, and the third is wholly dorsal. Tegniina 
extending beyond the hind femora, subparallel-sidecl, truncated at 
the tips ; beyond the middle subhyaline with oblique obsolete 
transverse dusky markings ; wings pale brownish hyaline, greenish 
towards the base, and clouded at the tip. Hind femora extending 
beyond the abdomen, with a black spot before the tip on the 
upper inner area, the lower outer area brown, the carina marked 
with dark brown, the inner surface of the hind femora and the 
hind tibiae and tarsi red, with the spines tipped with black. 

Length 23 mm. ; expanse of tegmina, 47 mm. 

BOMBAY : Bandra ; MADRAS : Madura ; BURMA : Bhamo ; 
TENASSERIM : Maliwon ; CHINA. 



291. Eucoptacra ceylonica, sp. nov. 

Light brown. Antennae filiform, rather longer than the head 
and pronotum together; frontal ridge hardly sulcated, expanded 
between the antennae, thickly punc- 
tured, the carina well marked, as also 
the lateral carinse commencing between 
the antennae and the eves. Pronotum 
rugosely punctate, the three sulci 
slightly marked, but distinct, and the 
hindmost placed about the middle; 
hinder extremity almost rectangular. 
Tegmina long, rather narrow, obtusely 
truncated at the extremity, light brown, 
with indistinct dusky transverse mark- 
ings ; wings hyaline yellow. Hind fernoi-a 
greyish brown, with brown spots above, 
the most distinct being before the tip, 
and separated by an oblique yellowish 
space on the upper inner area ; inner 
and lower surface, as well as the hind 
tibiae and tarsi red ; 10-11 black-tipped 
tibial spines. 

Length 27-30 mm. ; expanse of teg- 
mina, 48-50 mm. 




Fig. 131. Eucoptacra 
ceylonica. 



CEYLON. 

Type in the British Museum. 



242 CATAIfTOPIlOS. 

Genus EPISTAURUS. 

Epistaurus, Bolivar, Jorn. Sci. Lisb. (2) i, 1889, p. 164. 

TYPE, Epistaurus crutigerus, Bol. 

Range. Imlia, Burma, Africa. 

Costal ridge round, arched at the base, very broad between the 
antennae, and narrowed towards the extremity, hardlv sulcated ; 
the vertex longitudinally carinated, with a transverse carina 
between the eyes. Pronotum with the median carina well marked, 
interrupted only by the hind sulcus. Tegmina well-developed, 
obliquely truncated at the tips. 

Key to the Species. 

Abdomen brown alerrans, Bruun. 

Abdomen red, spotted on the back sinctyi, Bol. 

292. Epistaurus aberrans, Brunn. 

Epistanrus aberrans, Bmimer, Ann. Mus. Genova, xxxiii, 1893, 
p. 160, pi. v, fig. 55. 

Brownish testaceous, very hairy. Tegmina obtusely and 
obliquely truncated at the tips ; wings yellowish, with the borders 
infuscated. Hind femora with the outer side indistinctly bi- 
fasciated with brown, the inner side red ; hind tibiae pale in the 
male, and red in the female. Last dorsal segment in the male 
bilobate at the extremity ; supra-anal lamina in the male quadrate, 
slightly suh-ated ; cerci curved, deflexed and pointed at the tips. 

Length 12-5-18'5 mm.; pronotum, 3'7-4 mm.; tegmina, 14- 
15 mm. ; hind femur, 10-11 mm. 

BTJBMA: Bliamo. 

Type in the Genoa Museum. 



293. Epistaurus sinetyi, Bol. 

Epistaurus sinefyi, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, Ixx, 1902, 
p. 623. 

Pale reddish. Median carina of the vertex very indistinct. 
Wings yellow ish hyaline. Hind femora obliquely trifasciate with 
brown, lower outer area brown, interrupted in the middle, on the 
inside red at the base, and bifasciate with brown ; tibiae clothed 
with long grey hairs, brown at the base, ringed with pale, and then 
red, with 9 outer and 11 inner spines. Abdomen red, with a row 
of spots on the back interrupted by the median line ; male with 
the supra-anal lamina smooth, transversely and rather indistinctly 
impressed in the middle, with the tip acutely angulated ; cerci 
short, slightly compressed, incurved towards the tips ; subgenital 



EPISTAURUS. GERENIA. 243 

lamina obtuse, slightly produced ; female with the valves of the 
ovipositor coarsely impress-punctate. 

Length 12-15 mm. ; pronotum, 3-4 nim. ; tegmina, 9-12 mm. ; 
.hind femur, 7*5-10 mm. 

MADRAS : Madura. 

Types in the collection of I. Bolivar. 

Genus GERENIA. 
Gerenia, Stal, Bih. Svensk. Akad. Ilandl. v (4), 1878, pp. 28, 73. 

TYPE, Acridium dorsale, Walk. (Gerenia obliquenervis, Stal). 

lianr/e. India, Burma, Australia. 

Head broad, space between the eyes broad ; fastigium of the 
vertex short, rounded into the costal ridge, which is almost 
obsolete below the antennae ; antennae rather short, filiform, 
Pronotum with the median car inatecti form, cut by three sulci, 
the latter placed about the middle, bind border obtusely angu- 
lated ; prosternal tubercle pointed. Tegmina and wings usually 
well-developed, the former with a shining black spot in the radial 
.area. Hind femora thickened, with the carinse denticulated ; 
hind tibia? with from 8 to 11 spines. 

Key to the Species. 

1 (4) Tegmina as long as or longer than 

the abdomen. 

2 (3) Black spot of tegmina subrotund . . dorsalis, Walk., p. 243. 

3 (2) Black spot of tegmina longer than 

broad intermedia, Brunn., p. 244. 

4 (1) Tegmina shorter than the abdomen. 

5 (6) Black spot of tegmina linear pusttilipennis, Walk., p. 244. 

(6) Black spot of tegmina oval abbreviata, Brunn., p. 244. 

294. Gerenia dorsalis, Walk. 

Acridium dorsale, Walker, Cat. Derm. Salt. B.M. iv, 1870, p. 630. 
Gerenia obliquenervis, Stal, Bih. Svensk. Akad. Ilandl. v (4), 1878, 
p. 73 (n. syn.). 

Brown or yellowish brown. Front punctured, frontal ridge 
not sulcated, obsolete below the ocellus. Pronotum thickly and 
rugosely punctate, with raised granules. Hind femora with the 
carinse denticulated and dotted with black, violaceous beneath ; 
hind tibise and tarsi dull violaceous or sanguineous, spines tipped 
with brown. Tegmina with a subrotund black spot in the radial 
.area, sometimes followed by a black dot ; wings hyaline, slightly 
bluish at the base. 

Length 32-41 mm. ; tegmina, 27-34 mm. 

S. INDIA. 

Type in the British Museum. 

R 



244 CATANTOP1NJE. 

295. Gerenia pustulipennis, Walk. 

Caloptemts pustulipennis, Walker, Cat. Derm. Salt. B.M. v, Suppl. 
1871, p. 68. 

Very similar to the last species, but more reddish brown, and 
the hind legs almost entirely reddish. Tegmina much shorter 
than the abdomen (?), with a linear black streak and a small 
black spot on the right tegmen, and on the left two contiguous 
spots, the upper rounded, and the lower small and oblong ; 
wings hyaline. 

Length 35 aim.; tegmina much damaged. 

Type in the British Museum. 

296. Gerenia intermedia, Brvnn. 

Gerenia intermedia, Brunner, Ann. Mus. Geneva, xxxiii, 1893, 
p. 161, pi. v, tigs. 5, 6. 

Eesembles G. dorsalis; the space between the eyes is rather 
narrower, the black spot on the tegmina is longer than broad, and 
the hind femora are smooth above, less strongly denticulated, 
and not dark coloured beneath. 

Length 32 mm.; pronotum, 9 mm.; tegmina, 28 mm.; hind 
femur. 20 mm. 

Type in the Genoa Museum. 

297. Gerenia abbreviata, Brunn. 

Gerenia abbreviata, Brunner, Ann. Mus. Geneva, xxxiii, 1893, 
p. 16:?. 

Differs from the last species in the short pointed tegmina, 
which are considerably shorter than the abdomen. The hind 
femora are smooth, with the carinse slightly denticulated, and the 
lower outer area brownish ; hind tibia? reddish towards the tips 
in the male, and dull fulvous iu the female. Supra-anal lamina 
of the male triangular, sulca'ted; cerci straight and pointed ; sub- 
genital lamina compressed, short and pointed. 

Length 23-34 mm. ; pronotum, 7-10 mm. ; tegmina, 12-15 mm. ; 
hind femur, 15-20 mm. 

BURMA : Prome. 

Type in the Genoa Museum. 

Genus TRAULIA. 

Traulia, Stai, Recens. Orth. i, 1873, pp. 37, 58. 
TYPE, Acridium flavoannulatum. 
Range. India, Burma, Malay Peninsula and Islands. 
Antenna? half as long again as the head and pronotum together, 
black with pale tips ; fastigium of the vertex produced and 
sulcated, passing into the frontal ridge, without a transverse 



TRATJLIA. 245 

carinula, frontal ridge sinuatecl below the antennae, and con- 
tinued to the labruni ; palpi pale, sometimes white. Pronotuui 
thickly punctured, cylindrical, slightly flattened above, the median 
carina almost obsolete in front. Tegmina narrow, hardly dilated 
in the middle, rounded at the tips, sometimes lateral and lobi- 
form ; wings rounded, with the hind margin crenate. Front and 
middle femora slender, hind femora thicker, denticulated ; hind 
tibite pilose, with 7 outer and 8 inner spines. Prosternal tubercle 
pointed ; pectus broad, with the lobes of the meso- and rneta- 
sternum not contiguous. Supra-anal lamina of the male triangular, 
sulcated ; cerci deflexed at the tips, and dilated at the apex in 
the subapterous species ; ovipositor smooth, with the tips slightly 
incurved. 

Key to tlie Species. 

Tegniina and wings well developed dimidiata, De Haan. 

Tegmina and wings rudimentary cachara, sp. n. 

298. Traulia dimidiata, De Haan. 

Acridinm (Oxya\ dimidiatum, De Haan, Temminck's Verhandel., 
Orth. 1842, pp. 156, 157, pi. xxi, fig. 4. 

Black, with a transverse yellow band, narrowed in front below, 
running across the face backwards along the lower border of the 
pronotum ; within each eye above runs another yellow band 
bordering the sides of the pronotum. Hind femora with an 
oblique yellow stripe outside towards the base, a yellow mark 
beneath just beyond the middle, and a yellow ring before the 
extremity ; tibiae with a yellow ring near the base, and a long red 
space before the extremity. Tegmina light brown, with a yellow 
line along the fold ; wings hyaline blue, with 
the tips clouded. In the female the yellow 
markings are much less distinct, and the black 
band on the pronotum above is widely inter- 
rupted in the middle. 

Length 20-37 mm.; expanse of tegmina, 
35-45 mm. 

TENASSERIM : Thagata ; MALAY STATES ; 
JAVA ; BORNEO. 

Type in the Leyden Museum. 

299. Traulia cachara, sp. nov. 

Head in front and head and pronotum 
above, green ; a wide black stripe runs behind 
each eye. covering the sides as far as the base 
of the hind femora ; it is divided by large pale 
yellow spots, one on the head, two on the 
sides of the prouotum, and two smaller ones 
below the tegmina. Abdomen brown, with 




246 CATAXTOPIXJE. 

three yellowish longitudinal lines, one on the median carina, and 
the lateral ones bordering a broad black stripe that runs along the 
sides of the abdomen nearly to the tip. Tegmina black, bordered 
within with green, oval, lateral, extending as far as the third 
segment of the abdomen. Legs green, the front and middle tibiae 
and tarsi blackish ; hind femora red towards the extremity, with 
the knees black ; hind tibiae green, with an ivory white spot at 
the base, bordered before and behind with black. 

Length 23 mm. ; tegmina, 5 rnm. 

ASSAM: Cachar. 

Type in the British Museum. 

Genus CATANTOPS. 
Catantops, Schaum, Bericht. Aknd. Berlin, 1853, p. 779. 

TYPE, Catantops melanostictus, Schaum. 

Range. Africa, Oriental and Australian Eegions. 

Head considerably produced between the antenna;, vertex 
gradually sloping into the frontal ridge, which is nearly parallel - 
sided, and hardly sulcated, face oblique ; eyes oval, oblique, 
approximating above ; antennae filiform. Pronotum carinated in 
the middle, the sulci rather indistinct, the hindmost placed about 
the middle, the hind border obtusely angulated. Prosternal tubercle 
stout, obtuse ; mesosternal lobes transverse, metasternal lobes 
contiguous. Tegmina and wings usually well developed. Hind 
femora moderately thickened, serrated above, often with black 
markings. 

Key to tlie Species.* 

[1 (18) Wings uniform yellowish tes- 
taceous, 

2 (17) Hind tibire red or testaceous. 

3 (16) Tegmina light brown or yellowish. 

4 (7) Hind femora with two dark brown 

oblique fasciae on the outer side, 
extending from the upper part 
to the lower carina. 

f> (6) Pronotum dark brown, with a dis- 
tinct yellow vitta on each side, 
extending forwards to the eyes. . dommans, Walk., p. 248. 

6 (">) Pronotum lijrht brown, with ill- 

defined yellowish vitta on each 

side ncuticerctis, Bol., p. 248. 

7 (4) Hind femora with the dark fascia? 

confined to the upper part. 

8 (13) Mfctasternal episterna with a dis- 

tinct oblique yellowish vitta. 

9 (10) Posterior femora with a row of 

black dots on the lower outer 

carina for the whole length .... karnyi, Kirby, p. 251 . 



* C. coJixaliriiiiis and pinyuis are known only from descriptions which do- 
not gire sufficient data to enable them to be located in this key. 



CATAKTOl'S. 



247 



10 (9) Posterior femora with two or three 

black dots on the carina close to 
apex. 

11 (12) Frontal ridge parallel, only slightly 

impressed in the middle 

12 (11) Frontal ridge parallel, rather deep- 

ly chanelled in the middle .... 

13 (8) Metasternal episterna without 

yellow vitta. 

14 (15) Frontal ridge parallel, only im- 

pressed just below the ocellus, 
scarcely continued to clypeus, 
faintly punctured 

15 (14) Frontal ridge parallel, impressed 

for its whole length, closely and 
very distinctly punctured 

16 (3) Tegmina rather dark fuscous 

brown, especially anteriorly ; 
wings yellowish fuscous 

17 (2) Hind tibiae blue 

18 (1) Wings red at the base. 

19 (20) Wings rose-red at the base 

20 (19) Wings scarlet at the base; size 

larger 



indicus, Bol., p. 251. 
\huntilis, Serv., p. 250. 
I interruptus, 13ol.,* p. 251 . 



ferrw/inea, Walk.f 
innotabili', Walk.f 

splendens, Thb., p. 250. 
j 6/?/^7m/?/'cMs,Karny,Jp.247. 
| angtistulus, Bol.,J p. 248. 

erubescens, Walk., p. 253. 
2)ulchellus, Walk., p. 252.] 



300. Catantops ophthalmicus, Karny. 

Catantops ophthalmicus, Karny, Sitz. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-nat. 
Cl. cxvi, 1907, pp. 313, 330. 

Brownish testaceous. Eyes rounded, subcontiguous, the inter- 
vening space not broader than the antennae. Pronotum slightly 
constricted behind the middle, with the transverse sulci distinct, 
the lateral lobes unicolorous in the female ; the lower half pale, 
with the margins whitish, and varied with black, in the male. 
Tegmina uniform greyish testaceous, scarcely extending beyond 
the hind knees. Prosternum with the tubercle straight, conical, 
pointed ; mesosternal lobes rather wide apart, metasternal lobes 
contiguous. Front and middle femora spotted with black ; hind 
femora testaceous, concolorous, or suffused with brown, the longi- 
tudinal carinae varied with black; hind tibia? dull bluish, with 
black spines. Cerci of the male slender, incurved, tapering 
towards the tip, pointed and not bifid ; subgenital lamina of the 
male sharply boat-shaped, distinctly longer than the cerci. 

Lenyth 19-28 mm, ; pronotum, 4-6 mm. ; tegmina, 15-12*5 
[? 22-5] mm. ; hind femur, 11-16 mm. 

N. CEYLON. 



[* C. interruptus is a variety of C. hnmilis distinguished by the long slender 
cerci of the male. 

t Considered to be varieties of humilis by Mr. Kirby (see p. 250). 
J These species are possibly identical.] 



248 CATANTOPIS.E. 

301. Catantops angustulus, Bol. 

Catantops angitstulus, Bolivar, Ann. Soe. Ent. France, Ixx, 1902, 
p. 627. 

Reddish brown, varied with brown. Space between the eves 
very narrow, not broader than the width of the antennae, fastigium 
of the vertex rather pointed : frontal ridge parallel-sided, not 
arched at the base, narrowed and rather concave before the ocelli, 
raised between the antennae, impress-punctate. Pronotum hardly 
punctured in front, but. thickly and closely punctured behind, with 
the front margin slightly indented in the middle, rounded or very 
obtusely angulated behind, the median carina nearly obsolete in 
front, and the lateral lobes with a longitudinal brown, fascia in the 
male. Tegmina extending much beyond the abdomen, varied 
with brown, and with crowded pale nervures. Hind tibiae blue. 
Cerci narrowed towards the tip, which is bifid. 

Length 16-21 mm. ; pronotum, 3-5-4-5 mm.; tegmina, 17-20 
mm. : hind fnmur, 10-11-5 mm. 

MADRAS: Madura. 

Types in the collections of Pantel and Bolivar. 



302. Catantops acuticercu?, Bol. 

Catantops acwticercus, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, Ixx, 1002, 
p. 626. 

Ferruginous brown, or pale ochraceous. Fastigium of the vertex 
rather pointed, frontal ridge arched at the base, then nearly 
parallel-sided, punctured, slightly concave before the ocellus. Pro- 
notum thickly punctured, median carina slight, but continuous, 
hind border rectangular ; lateral lobes above with a brown band, 
arched across the metapleura to the hind coxae ; metanotum with 
an oblique pale band on each side. Tegmina longer than the 
abdomen, brown in front, with the radial area spotted with brown. 
Prosternal tubercle thick. Hind femora with two black trans- 
verse bands above, obliquely produced into the outer median area, 
lower outer area brown, inner area red; hind tibiae red. Cerci 
of the male pointed, slightly incurved. 

Length 19-26 mm. ; pronotum, 4-7 mm. ; tegmina, 18-25 mm. ; 
hind femur, 12-16-5 mm. 

MADRAS: Madura. 

Types in the collections of Pantel and Bolivar. 



303. Catantops doniinans, Walk. 

Caloutenus dominant, Walker, Cat. Derm. Salt. B.M. iv, 1870, 
p. 705. 

Head light brown in front ; antennae reddish, rather longer 
than the head and pronotum ; fastigium of the vertex rather 



CATAXTOPS. 249 

obtuse, widened in front of the eyes, face punctured, frontal ridge 
sulcatecl, very slightly widened below the ocellus, the carinae 
slightly black-spotted ; a dark stripe runs from the fastigiuin over 
the vertex (where it is lightest) and the pronotum ; it is bordered 
on each side by a yellow stripe, broader and less defined on the 
nietanotum. Pronotum thickly punctured above, the median carina 
slightly developed and almost obsolete in front, the transverse 
sulci slightly marked, the hindmost placed about the middle ; the 
hind border forming a very obtuse angle, with the tip truncated ; 
at the lower end of the eye is a whitish spot, above which is a 
second, and between this and the yellow lateral stripes above is 
a brown stripe, running backwards from the eye and expanding 
over the whole of the deflexed lobes, except tor a slight yellow 
border in front; lower border of deflexed lobes nearly straight. 
Abdomen yellowish brown, with a black median stripe above 
becoming macular hindwards, and with some slight yellow spots 
on the sides. Prosternal tubercle conical, rounded at the tip; 
mesosternal lobes small, separate ; metasternal lobes contiguous. 
Tegmina long, light brown, speckled with brown in the costal 
area, and subhyaline towards the tips ; wings hyaline, slightly 
brownish towards the borders. Front and middle legs light 
brown ; hind femora yellowish, the outer area with two 
broad oblique brown bands, continued more narrowly on the 
upper surface and to the middle of the inner surface ; inner 
surface red, lower surface light brown, knees brown : hind tibia3 
red, with 8-9 black-tipped spines on each side ; the two basal 
joints of the tarsi red, terminal joint brown. 

Length 31 mm. ; expanse of tegmina, 62 mm. 

ASSAM : Sylhet. 

Type in the British Museum. 

304. Catantops consobrinus, Karny. 

Catantops consobrinus, Karuy, Sitz. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-nat. 
01. cxvi, 1907, pp. 319, 341. 

Testaceous, lateral lobes of the pronotum uuicolorous. Teg- 
mina extending much beyond the hind knees, testaceous, mottled 
with grey at the base and grey at the tip. Prosternal tubercle short, 
very obtuse ; mesosternal lobes not wide apart, metasternal lobes 
contiguous ; metathorax with an oblique pale stripe on the sides. 
Hind femora above with transverse dusky bands, a stripe in front 
very slightly extending into the externo-median area, and all 
the carinae, especially the lower ones, spotted with black ; hind 
tibiae dull testaceous. Male cerci slender, pointed, incurved ; 
subgenital lamina of male slightly compressed. 

Length 23 mm.; prouotum, 5 mm.; tegmina, 22 mm.; hind 
femur, 13 mm. 

INDIA (?). 

Type in the collection of Brunuer von "Wattenwyl. 



250 



CAT.VNTOPIV.E. 



305. Catantops splendens, Thunl. 

Gryllus splendens, Thunberg, Mem. Acad. Petersb. v, 1815, p. 2-36, 

ix, 1824, pp. 395, 408. 

Acridium lutcolum, Serville, Ins. Orth. 1839, p. 661. 
Acrydium nifitibia, Walker, Ann. & Mag. Xat. Hist. (3j iv, 1859, 

p. 223. 

Greenish brown. Frontal ridge sulcated, rather broad, punc- 
tured, with parallel sides. Pronotum thickly punctured, the 
carina and transverse sulci slightly marked, the deflexed lobes 
sometimes pale beneath, the hind border very obtusely angulated, 
subrotuud. Prosternal tubercle long, obtuse. Tegmina long and 
narrow, rounded at the end, testaceous subhyaline, more or less 
mottled with blackish ; wings yellowish hyaline, rarely hyaline. 
Hind femora with the outer area yellowish, generally with a longi- 
tudinal stripe, double towards the base, on its upper portion, and 
another on the lower side : inner surface black above, and red 
below; hind tibiae red (rarely yellowish) with 10-11 black-tipped 
spines. Male with the cerci slender, pointed, incurved ; supra- 
anal lamina long, pointed, compressed. 

Lenytli 33 mm. 

INDIA ; CEYLON ; ANDAMANS ; NICOBARS ; BURMA ; JAVA, &c. 

306. Catantops humilis, Serv. 

Acridium hnmile, Serville, Ins. Orth. 1839, p. G62. 
Acridium innotabilc, Walker, Cat. Derm. Salt. B.M. iv, 1870, p. 629. 
Caloptenus ferruf/inens, Walker, op. cit. 1870, p. 705. 
Culojftenw immwn's, Walker, op. cit. v, Suppl. 1871, p. (57. 

Dull greenish brown. Frontal ridge moderately sulcated, punc- 
tured, with parallel carirue ; eyes 
large. Pronotum thickly and 
finely punctured, with the median 
carina slightly, and the transverse 
sulci still more slightly, marked ; 
the hind border obtusely angu- 
lated, or subrotund. Prosternal 
tubercle thick, obtuse. Tegmina 
rather long, often with dusky 
mottling; wings clear hyaline. 
Abdomen shining, yellowish, 
darker 011 the back. Hind femora 
yellowish, Avith two transverse 
blackish bands above ; inner siu 1 - 
face and hind tibia? and tarsi red ; 
tibiae with 10-11 black-tipped 
spines. Cerci of male slender, 
pointed, slightly incurved ; sub- 
genital lamina pointed at tip. 

Length 22-30 mm. ; expanse of 
tegmina, 42-55 mm. 
BENGAL: Calcutta; BOMBAY; 




Fig. 133. Catantops humilis. 

Sylhet 



SiKKIM ; 

CEYLON. 



ASSAM 



CATAXTOPS. 251 

307. Catantops interruptus, Bol. 

Catantops hinnilis var. interntatus, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, 

Ixx, 1902, p. 02-"). 
Catantops intermptus, Karny, Sitz. Akad. Wis.s. "\Vien, Math.-nat. 

01. cxvi, 1907, pp. 317, 339. 

Pale ochreous, sparingly mottled with brown. Frontal ridge 
slightly widened between the antenna), punctured ; fastigium 
rather pointed, longer than broad in front of the eye. Pro- 
uotuin slightly compressed, rugosely punctate, with the median 
carina slight, but continuous, the hind border almost rectangular ; 
the lateral lobes concolorous, or slightly darker in front above. 
Tegmina longer than the abdomen, varied with brown, with 
numerous pale transverse nervures. Prosternal tubercle thickened 
at the tip. Hind femora pale, with two brown transverse bands 
above, the first slightly interrupted below, the lower outer area 
and extremity brown ; hind tibiae brown, with a pale ring at the 
base. Cerci of the male long and slender, slightly compressed 
at the tip. 

Length 27-39 mm. ; pronotum, 7-8'5 mm. ; tegmina, 2~>-32 mm. ; 
hind femur, 10-21 mm. 

MADRAS: Madura. 

Type in the collection of I. Bolivar. 

308. Catantops indictis, Bol. 

Catantops indicus, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, Ixx, 1902, 
p. 62. 

Testaceous brown, or ferruginous. Frontal ridge very slightly 
narrowed towards the extremity, punctured, projecting somewhat 
before the ocellus ; fastigium of the vertex nearly transverse in 
front of the eyes. Pronotum thickly and finely rugose-punctate, 
with a slight continuous median carina; hind border obtusely 
angulated, lateral lobes above indistinctly brownish. Tegmina 
longer than the abdomen, finely mottled with brown, radial area 
with pale spots ; metathorax with an oblique pale streak. Hind 
femora transversely banded with brown above the middle and 
before the tip, with the bands very slightly, if at all, produced into 
the externo-median area, which is yellow as far as the lower 
margin ; the lower outer area brown ; hind tibia) red. Cerci 
expanded at the tips. 

Length 24-30 mm. ; prouotum, 5-6*8 mm.; tegmina, 22-28 mm. ; 
hind lemur, 12-5-16 mm. 

MADRAS: Kodaikanal; CEYLOX; COREA ; CHIXA. 

Type in the British Museum. 

309. Catantops karnyi, Kirby. 

Catantops karnyi, Kirby, Syn. Cat. Orth. iii, 1910, p. 483. 
Catantops pulchellus, Karny (nee Walker), Sitz. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 
Math.-nat. Cl. cxvi, 190'7, pp. 317, 339. 

Eeddish brown. Eyes almost touching above, fastigium rounded 



252 CATAXTOPIX.B. 

between the antennae ; frontal ridge rather broad, finely punc- 
tured, slightly contracted at the ocellus. Pronotum broad, 
especially behind, an irregular dark brown band behind the eyes, 
slightly bordered with yellow above and below, and very faintly 
indicated on the metapleura ; pronotuin thickly punctured, finely 
above, but much more coarsely on the metapleura ; under the 
wings is a broad yellowish white oblique band, preceded by a dot 
of the same colour ; hind border of pronotum obtusely angulated. 
Prosternal tubercle stout, obtuse at the extremity. Legs tes- 
taceous ; hind femora with two oblique black bands on the sides, 
paler on the upper surface, but obsolete below, the lower outer 
carina spotted with black ; hind tibiae with 8 or 9 black-tipped 
spines, and one or two black spots near the base. Tegmina 
greyish brown, subhyaline, with indistinct darker mottling ; wings 
hyaline. 

Lenytli 23-25-5 mm. ; pronotum, 5 mm. ; tegmiua, 20-22 mm. ; 
hind femur, 14-14-5. 

NEPAL: Ternani. 

Type in the collection of Brunuer von AVattenwyl ; co-type in 
the British Museum. 

310. Catantops pinguis, St&l. 

Acridium (Catantops) pingue, St&l, Eugenie's llesa, Orth. 1860, 
p. 330. 

Eeddish brown, rather stout. Frontal ridge finely punctured, 
slightly expanded between the antennae, lateral carina} distinct, 
slightly divergent ; eyes approximating ; antenna; filiform, about 
as long as the head and pronotum together. Pronotum closely 
punctured, obtusely angulated behind ; carina slight, continuous, 
with the sulci well marked. Tegmiua extending beyond the abdo- 
men, slightly narrowed at the tip, which is rounded, darker 
towards the base, and subhyaline towards the tip ; wings dull 
hyaline, or slightly greenish towards the base, with brown ner- 
vures, and slightly clouded towards the tip. Under surface of 
body and legs pale ; prosternal tubercle thick, obtuse. Abdomen 
with a short narrow dorsal stripe behind. Hind femora stout, 
with two transverse black spots above, the first extending into 
the externo-median area, the lower outer area blackish brown, and 
the upper carina? slightly serrated ; hind tibia? and tarsi red, the 
former with black-tipped spines. Cerci of the male slightly 
expanded at the tips. 

Length 27-34 mm. ; expanse of tegmina, 40-01 mm. 

SIKKIM : CEYLOX ; BURMA : Karen Hills ; CAMBoniA ; CHINA ; 
JAPAN, &c. 

311. Catantops pulchellus, Walk. 

Curfocanthacris nulchellus, Walker, Cat. Derm. Salt. B.M. iii, 

1870, p. 574. 
Light brown. Face finely punctured, with parallel inner 



CATANTOPS. 



253 



cariua3, the outer slightly divergent below : frontal ridge uniform 
in width, shallowly sulcated. Pronotum finely punctured, with 
the sulci fairly well-marked ; the last placed about the middle, 
hinder edge obtusely rounded : a moderately broad blackish band 
runs behind the eye to the extremity of the deflexed lobes. 
Prosternal spine thick, obtusely rounded at the extremity ; abdo- 
men reddish. Tegmina greyish subhyaline, mottled with brown, 
especially towards the middle, hinder area pale, perhaps greenish 
or reddish in life ; wings iridescent hyaline, brick-red towards the 
base along the veins. Hind femora yellowish outside and above, 
and reddish within, with two black streaks iu the outer upper 
carina; opposite them, on the inner side above, and slightly 
extending to the inner area, are two transverse black bands ; the 
knees are also marked with black on each side ; hind tibia3 and 
tarsi red with black-tipped spines, the tibise with 9 or 10 on each 
side. 

Lenc/tJi 37 mm.; expanse of tegmina, 78 mm. 

INDIA (?). 

Type in the British Museum. 

312. Catantops erubescens, Walk. 

Caloptemts erulescens, Walker, Cat. Derm. Salt. J3.M. iv, 1870, 
p. 703. 

Eeddish broAvn, finely punctured. .Frontal ridge very slightly 
depressed in the male, and flattened in the female, subparallel- 
sided ; antenna? yellowish, mode- 
rately stout, filiform, about as 
long as the head and pronotum 
together. Pronotum with the 
median carina and sulci only 
slightly marked, the hind sulcus 
placed just behind the middle, 
the hinder border obtusely 
rounded ; a blackish stripe runs 
behind each eye, which is paler 
and broader on the metapleura. 
Prosternal tubercle thick, obtuse; 
abdomen light brown, rather 
shining. Tegmina subhyaline, 
brown towards the base, and 
mottled with brown beyond, the 
hinder area pale, perhaps reddish 
in life, with some scattered black 
spots ; wings hyaline, rose-red 
towards the base. Hind femora 
reddish, inclining to yellow out- 
side, with a broad black stripe on the outer upper area, obsolete 
at the base and towards the extremity ; and another extending 




Fig. \3.-Catantops erubescens. 



254 CATAXXOPIXJE. 

to the knees below the upper outer cariua ; on the inner upper 
surface are several large black spots; tibiae and tarsi red, the tibite 
with 8 or 9 black-tipped spines. 

Length 2^-33 mm. ; expanse of tegmina, 48-60 mm. 

NORTH BENGAL. 

Type in tbe British Museum. 



Genus STENOCROBYLUS. 
Stenocrobylus, Gerstaecker, Arch. Xaturg. xxxv, 1869, p. 219. 

TYPE, Stenocro'jylus cervimts, Gerst., from Zanzibar. 

Range. Africa, India. 

Eyes (in the type at least) closely approximating, vertex very 
narrow ; pronotum with a slight median carina ; prosternal 
tubercle compressed, almost bilobate ; tegmina and wings well 
-developed; hind legs stout, rather long, hind tibiae with 8 spines 
on the outer carina ; metasternal lobes of female rather widely 
separated. 

313. Stenocrobylus feinoratus, .BoZ. 

Stenocrolylus femoratm, Bolivar, Ann. So?. ICnt. France, Ixx, 190:?, 
p. (523. 

Reddish above, greenish below, pilose. Vertex very narrow 
between the eyes, hardly broader than the width of the antennas 
fastigium concave ; front slightly sloping, coarsely punctured 
towards the clypeus, with many green spots ; frontal ridge 
smooth, punctured in the middle, arched near the vertex, and 
slightly narrowed towards the extremity ; antennre greenish. 
Pronotum punctured, slightly hairy in front, and smoother and 
obtusely augulated behind, with a slight median carina, and the 
hinder sulcus placed rather behind the middle ; the deflexed 
lobes higher than long, narrowly rounded behind, with a broad 
red band traversing the lower part of the lobes. Tegmina green, 
distinctly narrowed towards the tips, extending for half their 
length beyond the abdomen. Anterior legs green ; hind femora 
thick, reddish, with the carime of the outer area spotted with 
black, knees with a black curve on both sides ; hind tibiae green, 
with long grey pile. Prosternal tubercle subcuneiform, slightly 
transverse ; metasterual lobes moderately distant behind the 
foveolse in the female. 

Length 20 mm. ; pronotum, 4 mm. ; tegmiua, 8*5 mm. ; hind 
femur, 12 mm. 

MADRAS: Madura. 

Type in the collection of M. Pantel. 



255 



Genus NAVASIA, nov. 
TYPE, Navasia insularis, sp. nov. 

Ranyc. India. 

Eyes large, oval, separated by a space as broad as the lower part 
of the frontal ridge ; fastigiuin of the vertex slightly narrowed in 
front, and sloping into the frontal ridge, which is narrowed above, 
slightly widened below, sulcated and strongly punctured, but not 
much produced, nor oblique ; vertex nearly smooth. Pronotum 
rather flattened, very slightly rounded behind, with four sulci, the 
lirst lateral, the second dorsal, and the two hinder ones complete, 
the median carina cut by the three hinder ones, and nearly 
obsolete between them, the hindmost placed rather behind the 
middle ; pronotuin punctured most strongly behind and on the 
sides, a broad punctured indistinct carina on each side, not con- 
tinued on the hinder lobe. Antennae with long joints, and nearly 
twice as long as the head and pro- 
notum together. Prosternal tubercle 
conical, rather pointed, but rounded 
off at the tip. Tegmina long and 
narrow, longer than the abdomen ; 
wings hyaline, rather narrow, nearly 
:is long as the tegmina. Hind 
femora moderately thickened at the 
base, longer than the abdomen ; hind 
tibiae with 8 or 9 spines. 

Differs from Coptacra in the flat- 
tened proiiotum with indistinct 
lateral carinse in front. 

314. Navasia insularis, sp. nov. 

Light brown, tegmina thickly 
veined, otherwise subhyaline; wings 
hyaline, with brown nervures, a 
broad reddish stripe on the costa 
beyond the middle for a short dis- 
tance, tips inf uscated. Hind femora 
yellowish, with a slight reddish 
shade, with two transverse black 
'bands, paler above, the first oblique in the upper outer part of the 
-sides, but not extending to the lower carina, either on the outer 
ot- inner surface ; the second smaller, but extending to both ; knees 
with a black baud on each side, connected by a transverse black 
hand beneath ; lower outer carina spotted with black ; hind tibiae 
pubescent, yellow, red at the base, followed by two black rings (the 
second the broader) separated by a yellow space ; hind tibiae with 
8 or 9 black-tipped spines on each side. 

Length 30-32 mm. ; expanse of tegmina, 60-65 mm. 
INDIA : Naraudam Island. 
Type in the British Museum. 




Pig. 135. Xavasia insularis. 



256 



CATAXTOPIXJE, 



Genus BRACHYXENIA, nov. 
Ti'PE, CaUptenus scutifer, Walk. 

Range. India. 

Body very broad. Head very broad ; eyes prominent, slightly 
oval; fastigium of the vertex not depressed, with a slight carina 
within each eye above, passing into the frontal ridge without a 
break ; frontal ridge flattened, slightly sloping, the carinae very 
slightly indicated between the antennae, lateral cariuae obsolete ; 
face thickly and rather coarsely, but not distinctly punctured, 
vertex and back of head smooth ; antennas filiform, shorter than 
the head and pronotum together. Pronotum broader than the 
head, strongly punctured and granulated, with the median carina 
well marked in front, but evanescent beyond the middle ; lateral 
carina? absent, hinder edge produced into an acute angle ; sulci very 
slightly marked and undulated, the hind sulcus placed considerably 
before the middle. Prosternal tubercle forming a transverse 
flattened lamina ; mesosternal lobes separated by a space equal 
to their own breadth ; metasternal lobes separated by the fossa?. 
Tegminaas long as the abdomen, with nearly parallel sides, slightly 
expanded on the costa near the base, and with the extremity 
obtusely rounded; wings as long as the tegmina, rounded and 

scalloped. Hind femora vei\v 
stout, strongly ridged and 
granulated, and pubescent be- 
neath ; hind tibia? as long as 
the femora, with 7-9 spines 
on the carina. 

This curious genus has a. 
superficial resemblance to 
Tniethis. At present I place 
it provisionally near Catantops. 

315. Brachyxenia scutifera, 
Walk. 

Caloptenus scutifer, Walker, 
Cat. Derm. Salt. B.M. iv, 
1870, p. 704, n. 56. 

Light brownish grey (dis- 
coloured?). Head, abdomen, 
and hind femora whitish, the 
granules on the pronotum and 

the raised strise on the hind femora yellowish, the carinfe, knees, 
and lower area of the femora with black speckles ; tegmina with 
traces of dusky markings towards the base and before the tip, and 
also of a longitudinal row of whitish spots ; there are also traces of 
blackish spaces on the mesopleura, towards the tips of the femora, 
and on the knees ; the tibial spines and abdominal appendages are 
tipped with black. 




Fig. iyO. liracliyxcma sculifera. 
(a) hind leg. 



BllACHYXEXIA. KRIPA. 257 

Length 30-32 mm. ; hind femur, 18 mm. ; expanse of tegmina, 
48 mm. 

SOUTH INDIA. 

Type in the British Museum. 

Genus KRIPA, nov. 
TYPE, Kripa undulata, sp. uov. 
Range. NVW. India. 

Head large, smooth above ; antennae filiform, as long as the 
head and pronotum together ; space between the eyes about as 
broad as half their diameter, fastigiuni of the vertex longer than 
broad, concave, and gradually passing into the costal ridge, which 
is nearly perpendicular, flattened, and distinctly widened below; 
sparingly punctured, cheeks more thickly, the lateral carinae very 
slightly indicated. Pronotum broad, tricarinate, the lateral carinae 
undulating, and nearly obsolete behind ; hinder area thickly and 
coarsely punctured on the sides, less strongly above, the sutures 
slightly marked, the hindmost placed about the middle, hind 
border rectangular with the tip rounded. Tegmina about as long 
as the abdomen, subhyaline, light brown towards the base, and 
mottled with light brown beyond, the markings towards the apex 
irregularly transverse ; wings hyaline, 
stained with red, and with the nervures 
of all the lower part red. Hind femora 
rather thick, strongly serrated above ; 
hind tibiae with 7-9 spines, inner spurs 
of nearly equal length. 



316. Kripa undulata, sp. nov. 

Light greyish brown, shading into yel- 
lowish beneath. Lower mouth-parts 
varied with black. Tegmina subhyaline. 
mottled with pale brown ; wings hyaline, 
stained with red, nervures brown towards 
the costa, otherwise red. Hind femur 
yellowish (or red beneath in life ?), the 
outer area white, with longitudinal 
black lines below the bounding carinae, 
and a central longitudinal black line, 
and with irregular longitudinal rows of 
black spots between ; inner area black 
Fig. 13,. -Knpa undulata. ^^ the bounding C arina3, except 

towards the extremities; hind femora red, with 7 to 9 black- 
tipped spines. 

Length 35 mm. : expanse of tegmina, 53 mm. 

PUNJAB : Campbellpur. 

Type in the British Museum. 




258 CATANTOP1XJE. 

Genus CALOPTENOPSIS. 

Caloptenopsis, Bolivar, Jorn. Sci. Lisb. (2)i, 1889, p. 173. 

TYPE, Caloptenus vittatus, Bol., from W. Africa. 

Range. India, Africa. 

Fastigium of the vertex concave and passing into the frontal 
ridge, which is moderately broad and flattened, sparingly punctured, 
and not expanded below; lateral carinse very slightly marked. 
Pronotum rather short and broad, with three carina?, the hinder 
area generally longer and broader than the fore part, transverse 
sutures very slightly marked, the hindmost generally placed before 
the middle. Tegmiua and wings well developed : the wings 
hyaline, generally stained with red. Hind femora much thickened, 
generally rather shorter than the abdomen and serrated above ; 
hind tibiaB with 7-9 spines on each side, and the lower terminal 
spine on the inner side generally much longer than the upper one. 

Key to the Species. 

1 (2) Dusky markings of the middle of the 

tegmina distinctly transverse iiisiynis, Walk., p. 258. 

2 (1) Dusky markings of tegmina not 

transverse. 
'.} (4) Hind femora with the outer carinse 

distinctly spotted with black punctate, sp. n., p. 260. 

4 (3) Hind femora with the outer carinae not 

distinctly spotted with black. 

5 (6) Hind femora with the lower outer 

carina marked with an interrupted 

black line glaucopis, Walk., p. 259. 

(5 (5) Hind femora with the lower outer 

carina pale liturifer, Walk., p. 259. 

31 7. Caloptenopsis insignis, Walk. 

Caloptenus insignis^ Walker, Cat. Derm. Salt. B.M. iv, 1873, 

p. 701. 

Caloptenus spissus, Walker, op. cit. v, Suppl. 1871, p. 70. 
Var. Caloptenus dams, Walker, op. cit. iv, 1870, p. 711. 
Caloptenopsis saussurei, Martinez, An. Soc. Espaii. 1896, p. 11. 

Brown above, and mostly white beneath. Head brown above, 
and over the frontal ridge, and below the eyes ; there is also a 
white band dotted with black, and separated by a black line from 
the white hind border of the head, running down behind the eyes. 
Pronotum brown, rather short, obtusely angulated behind, with 
the tip rounded; the sides are very coarsely punctured, the lower 
part being yellowish, obscurely spotted with black ; on the sides 
is a broad oblique white stripe, not extending to the hinder area, 
and bordered above with blackish. Tegmina rather long and 
narrow, subhyaline, with numerous brown spots and markings, 
especially towards the base, and those towards the middle irregu- 
larly transverse ; wings hyaline, strongly tinged with red (in the 



CALOFTENOPSIS. 259 

type) towards the base and along the nervures of: the lower part 
of the wing ; hyaline in var. clarus. Hind femora moderately 
long and broad, the outer area white, the cariuse spotted with 
black, and with several longitudinal brown lines ; the upper 
surface brownish ; with transverse black bands, extending to the 
inner surface, which is yellowish, filled up largely with black ; 
lower surface yellowish ; pectus and base of femora white, speckled 
with black ; hind tibiae yellow, with 7-9 black-tipped spines, the 
lower inner claw hooked, bifid, and thrice the length of the upper 
one. Prosternal tubercle conical. 

Length 34 mm. ; expanse of tegmina, 66 mm. 

INDIA. 

Type in the British Museum. 

318. Caloptenopsis glaucopis, Walk. 

Caloptenus glaucopis, Walker, Cat. Derm. Salt. B.M. iv, 1870, 
p. 702. 

Reddish brown. The fastigium of the vertex longer than broad, 
concave, with a slight median cariua at the base, in addition to the 
usual ones within the eyes; face with a narrow white band before 
the eyes, and a wider one behind extending to the back of the 
head ; the space below the antennae is also whitish on each side of 
the frontal ridge ; antennae rather longer than the head and pro- 
notum together. Pronotum with the sutures slightly marked, the 
hindmost placed just before the middle; hinder area thickly 
punctured, especially on the sides, hind border obtusely rounded ; 
three pale marks on each side, the uppermost short, oblique, 
yellowish; the second slightly oblique, white, broad, extending to 
the hinder suture ; the lowest white, broad, on the lower margin. 
Abdomen yellowish, spotted with black on the sides. Hind 
femora white outside, the serrations black, the surface with three 
suffused longitudinal submacular stripes, and a broken black line 
along the lower inner carina ; the lower surface blackish outside 
and yellow inside, the upper area yellowish, with transverse black 
streaks passing into the inner surface, which is mostly black ; hind 
tibiae yellow, with 7-9 black-tipped spines ; the lower inner ter- 
minal spine nearly twice as long as the upper. Prosternal tubercle 
thick, obtuse, slightly transverse, 

Length 35 mm. ; expanse of tegmina, 55 mm. 

NORTH INDIA. 

Type in the British Museum. 

319. Caloptenopsis liturifer, Walk. 

Caloptenus liturifer, Walker, Cat. Derm. Salt. B.M. iv, 1870, 

p. 703. 
Caloptenopsis crassiusculus, Martinez, An. Soc. EspaQ. 1896, p. 11 

^n. syii.). 

Brown. Scutellum of the vertex concave, longer than broad, 
rounded in front, and passing into the frontal ridge, which is 

32 



260 



CATANTOP1NJE. 



slightly narrowed between the antennae ; beneath each eye is a 
black band divided by a narrow yellow line, and the hind part of 
the head is white behind this. Pronotum short, slightly produced 
and truncated behind, with the three carinae pale, and two more or 
less distinct triangular black spots on the front of the median 
carina : the transverse sutures fairly distinct, the hindmost placed 
about the middle; below the lateral carinae the deflexed lobes 
are marked with a quadrangular black spot, on which stands an 
oblique yellowish callous spot, and some clots of the same colour ; 
beneath, the lobes are yellow, intersected by a blackish streak, but 
these markings scarcely extend beyond the hind suture. Tegmina 
yellowish brown towards the base, and subhyaline beyond, with 
brown markings separated by pale ones, the most distinct being a 
longitudinal row of pale spots ; wings hyaline, with the inner and 
lower half red. Legs ochreous yellow ; hind femora mottled out- 
side with blackish, and with two transverse black bands above, the 
inner surface mostly black; hind tibiae with 7-9 black-tipped 
spines, lower inner spine distinctly longer than the upper. Pro- 
sternal tubercle rather small, conical. 

Length 21-30 mm. ; expanse of tegmina, 30-50 mm. 

KASHMIR : Baltistan ; MADRAS : Madura. 

Type in the British Museum. 



320. Caloptenopsis punctata, sp. nov. 

Brown. Fastigium of the vertex con- 
cave, hardly longer than broad, face and 
sides of head irregularly mottled with 
white and brown ; antennae rather longer 
than the head and pronotum together. 
Pronotum obtusely rounded behind, the 
sutures slightly marked, the hindmost 
placed about the middle ; the deflexed 
lobes before the hind suture blackish, 
with white markings, the hind lobe often 
paler, especially at the sides. Tegmin 
subhyaline, irregularly spotted with 
brown, especially at the base ; wings 
hyaline, with the lower inner half stained 
with red. Hind femora with the outer 
area whitish, with large black spots on the 
bounding carinae, the longitudinal median 
and the short oblique ridges reddish, 
often more or less marked with dusky ; 
hind tibiae red, with 8-9 spines on each side, lower inner spine 
one-third longer than the upper. Prosterual spine rather lar^e, 
conical. 

Lenfjtli 25-27 mm. ; expanse of tegmina, 42-45 mm. 




Fig. 138. 
Caloptenopsis punctata. 



PERIPOLUS. 261 

Genus PERIPOLUS. 
Peripohis, Martinez, An. Soc. Espafi. xxx, 1902, p. 303. 

TYPE, Callijptamus pedarius, Stal. 

Range. India. 

Fastigium of the vertex sloping, forming an obtuse angle with 
the frontal ridge ; antennae filiform. Pronotum obtusely angu- 
lated before and behind, median carinae distinct, lateral carinae 
straight, diverging behind, or parallel, the prozona longer than the 
metazona. Tegmina short, lateral, rudimentary, with the rnedia- 
stinal and anal areas very broad, especially the apical half of the 
tegmina ; discoidal area narrow. Hind femora large, very stout, 
serrated above ; hind tibiae with 8 spines on the outer and 9 on 
the inner carina, no apical spines on the outer carina. Prosternal 
tubercle cylindro-conical ; mesosternal lobes as broad as the 
intermediate space, with the inner border obtusely angulate, inter- 
lobular space very narrow behind ; metasternal lobes widely 
separated, but rather less so than the mesosternals. Upper part 
of the last anal segment of the male very large; cerci of the male 
large, compressed, with a deep concavity at the tip ; supra-anal 
plate of the male with three fine longitudinal furrows, the lateral 
ones converging behind, all terminating in the middle of the plate 
in a transverse furrow ; infra-anal plate in the male forming a 
short obtuse pubescent triangle ; supra-anal plate of the female 
triangular, divided by a transverse furrow, and with another 
longitudinal one at the base ; lower valves sinuated. 

321. Peripolus pedarius, Stal 

Calliptamus pedarius, Stal, Bill. Svensk. Akad. Handl. v (4), 
1878, p. 75. 

Yellowish ferruginous. Cheeks below, front and sides of pro- 
no! um distinctly punctured; pronotum above depressed, rather 
smooth, obsoletely punctured on the hinder lobe, opaque, with a 
very distinct median carina, and distinct obtuse shiny carinae 
traversing the lateral margins ; cheeks with a narrow postocular 
band, and a band on the vertex, continued to the extremity of the 
pronotum, and a lateral band on the sides of the abdomen above. 
A lateral curve on the sides of the apex of the hind femora, the 
base of the hind femora and the greater part of the outer side of 
the cerci all black ; hind tibiae with 8 or 9 black-tipped spines. 
Tegmina broadly elliptical, rudimentary, extending rather beyond 
the median segment, with grey nervures, and a black longitudinal 
band traversing the discoidal area. 

Length 30-50 mm. ; pronotum, 8-11 mm. ; tegmina, 6-8 r o mm. ; 
hind femur, 19-29 mm. 

SIKKIM : Kurseong ; ASSAM. 

Type in the collection of Brunner von Wattenwyl. 



262 CATANTOPINJE. 



Genus HETERACRIS. 

Heteracris, Walker, Cat. Derm. Salt. B.M. iv, 1870, p. 660. 
Demodocus, Stal (nee Guerin), Bih. Svensk. Akad. Ilnndl. v (4),. 
1878, p. 7o. 

TYPE, Acridium Jierbaceum, Serv. 

Range. Africa, Oriental Begion, Australia. 

Body long, stout. Fastigium of the vertex slightly or not at 
all depressed, and rounded into the frontal ridge, which is broad 
and flattened, not sulcated ; antennae filiform. Proiiotinn with a 
distinct median carina, cut by three shallow sulci, the lateral 
carina3 slightly indicated, obsolete behind. Prostemal spine 
stout, more or less pointed, directed backwards ; space between 
the mesosternal lobes narrow, longer than broad. Tegmina and 
wings long and narrow. Legs very long ; hind femora mode- 
rately thickened at the base, and tapering beyond the middle, 
extending beyond the abdomen; hind tibia? with from 12 to 
14 spines. Anal segment of the male large ; cerci stout. 

Key to the Species. 

1 (2) Tegmina unspotted robmtu, Serv., p. 262 

2 (1) Tegmina spotted. 

3 (4) Tegmina with small scattered black spots. ifftttfrt,Walk.,p. '26:> 

4 (3) Tegmina with larger brown spots, ha v ins 

pale centres, and tending to become 
confluent. 

5 (6) Fastigium of the vertex smooth, not 

depressed towards the extremity eleyans, AYalk., p. 2(J4. 

6 (5) Fastigium of the vertex depressed towards [p. '2('i'-j. 

the extremity capensis, Thunb., 

322. Heteracris robusta, Sen: 

Acridivm robustum, Serville, Ins. Orth. 1830, p. 647. 
Heteracri* dnculis, Walker, Cat. Derm. Salt. B.M. iv, 1870, 
pp. 663, 665. 

Greenish brown, varied with darker brown and with yellow 
stripes. Antenna? reddish, longer than the head and pronotuin ; 
head greenish brown, with a broad brown band running down 
beneath the eyes, bordered in front by a yellow stripe ; some- 
times the whole front of the head between these stripes is dark 
brown ; fastigium of the vertex short, slightly concave, and 
obtusely rounded in front, curving into the frontal ridge, which is 
narrowest between the antenna?, and gradually widened below; 
vertex dark brown, bordered with yellow on each side. Pro- 
notum dark brown, closely and rather finely rugose-punctate, the 
upper part with the brown yellow-bordered band of the vertex 
continued to the extremity, the sides usually with some obscure 
greenish spots, the last sulcus placed slightly behind the middle. 
Abdomen greenish brown, sometimes with some yellowish lateral 



HETEEACRIS. 263 

spots towards the extremity. Tegmina yellowish subhyaline, 
closely reticulated towards the base with rufous nervures ; wings 
hyaline, with a bluish iridescence towards the base. Hind femora 
longer than the abdomen, greenish yellow, darker above, and not 
serrated ; hind tibiae and tarsi red, tibiae with the extreme base 
blackish, shining, and with 12 to 14 yellow black-tipped spines. 

Length 58-65 mm. ; hind femora, 40-42 mm. ; expanse of 
tegmina, 115-120 mm. 

ASSAM : Sylhet. 

Type in the Paris Museum. 

323. Heteracris illustris, Walk. 

Hfteracris illustris, Walker, Cat. Derm. Salt. B.M. iv, 1870, 
pp. 663, 664. 

Head almost uniform yellowish, with a brown stripe nearly 
uniform in width, broadly bordered on each side with yellow, 
extending over the vertex and upper part of the pronotum ; 
vertex carinated ; fastigium depressed, obtusely aud roundly 
angulate in front ; frontal ridge not much expanded below, 
punctured ; the face probably brownish in fresh specimens, a 
moderately narrow blue-black stripe beneath each eye. Pro- 
notum coarsely punctured, the sides brownish, with whitish 
depressions above, and yellowish spots below. Tegmina sub- 
hyaline, with reddish nervures, and with small scattered black 
spots on the disk, not extending to the costal or inner marginal 
areas. Hind femora yellowish, streaked with reddish ; hind 
tibiae and tarsi purplish blue, the former with from 11 to 13 
white black-tipped spines. 

Length 70 mm. ; hind femur, 43 mm. ; expanse of tegmina, 
116 mm. 

SOUTH INDIA. 

Tyjte in the British Museum. 

324. Heteracris capensis, Thunb. 

Gn/llus capensis, Thunberg, Mem. Acad. Petersb. v, 1815, p. 240, 

ix, 1824, pp. 399, 423, pi. xiv, fig. 6. 
Heteracris insignis, Walker, Cat. Derm. Salt. B.M. iv, 1870, 

pp. 663, 664 (n. syn.). 

Dull yellowish. Fastigium of the vertex depressed, short, 
rounded, a narrow black line below the eyes, frontal ridge 
sparingly punctured, like the rest of the face, and not much 
expanded ; vertex and back of pronotum with a uniformly broad 
brown longitudinal stripe, broadly bordered with yellow ou^both 
sides. Pronotum thickly punctured, with large punctures on the 
ridge behind the imperfect lateral carina3, sides brownish, with 
two large whitish pits above on the anterior lobes. Abdomen 
reddish. Hind femora reddish above and yellowish below ; hind 
tibiae yellowish, with from 11 to 13 black-tipped spines. Tegmina 



264 



CATAK TOPING. 



subhyaline, with reddish nervures, and numerous brown spots on 
the disk, the outer ones with paler centres, and sometimes showing 
a tendency to become confluent ; wings greyish hyaline. 

Length 57 mm. ; hind femur, 35 mm. ; expanse of tegmina, 
92 mm. 

HIMALAYAS ; BENGAL : Calcutta ; MADRAS : Coromandel 
Coast ; CEYLON ; BUBMA : Bhamo ; CHINA : S. AFRICA, &c. 

325. Heteracris elegans, Walk. 

Hetei-acris elegans, Walker, Cat. Derm. Salt. B.M, iv, 1870, 
pp. 602, 663. 

Yellow, rastigimn of the vertex not depressed, but with some 
large punctures on each side near the extremity, and passing into 

the frontal ridge, which is 
equally broad throughout, and 
bordered by narrow black lines 
on each side, outside which are 
light brownish bands ; a brown 
band, expanded behind, runs 
over the vertex and frontal 
ridge ; on the latter, the centre 
is yellowish ; there is also a 
short blackish streak under 
each eye; median carina of 
the vertex obsolete. Pronotum 
thickly punctured, with a red- 
dish brown longitudinal band 
above, bordered on each side 
by broad yellow ones ; the sides 
reddish brown, bordered all 
round with yellow, and with 
four yellow spaces, the two 
uppermost largest, the lower 
hind space linear. Femora 
yellow, the upper carinre im- 
perfectly lined with black 
towards the base; tibiae and 
tarsi dull green, the tibiae with 
12 to 13 white black-tipped 
spines, and the terminal spurs 
yellow. Tegmina subhyaline, 
with two longitudinal greenish- 
yellow spaces, and numerous 
brown pale-centred spots on 
the disk, with a tendency to 
become confluent and trans- 
verse ; there are also rows of 
dark spots on the costal area, and towards the base on the 
inner marginal area ; wings hyaline. 




Fig. 139. Heteracris elegans. 



HETEEACEIS. TYLOTHOPIDIUS. 



Length 50 mm. ; hind femur, 34 mm. ; expanse of tegmina, 
77 mm. 

NOBTII INDIA. 

Type in the British Museum. 



Genus TYLOTROPIDIUS. 

Tylotropidius, StSl, Kecens. Orth. i, 1873, p. 74. 

TYPE, Pezotettix (Tylotropidius) didymus, Stal, from Sierra 
Leone. 

Range. Africa, Burma, Ceylon. 

Fastigium of the vertex with two depressions at the base ; 
front very oblique. Pronotum with the front and hind lobes 
of equal length, with the lateral margins smooth and callous, 
more or less converging. Tegmina and wings well developed, 
the former densely reticulate in the postradial area, with no 
intercalated nervure. Hind tibiae with from 9 to 18 spines; 
hind tarsi very long, the second joint half as long as the first. 
Anal segment of the male not enlarged, the cerci narrow and 
compressed. Prosternal tubercle bifid; 
metasternal lobes of the female trun- 
cated on the inner side, and connected 
by a straight suture. 

326. Tylotropidius varicornis, Walk. 

Heteracris varicornis, Walker, Cat. 
Derm. Salt. B.M. iv, 1870, p. 667. 

Tylotropidius ceylonicus, Branner, 
Ann. Mus. Geneva, xxxiii, I< 
p. 164, pi. v, fig. 57 (n. syn.). 

Pronotum brown, with the lateral 
carinae pale, curving hindwards, where 
they become evanescent, hind border 
somewhat roundly angulate. Pro- 
sternal tubercle compressed, truncated, 
and slightly bituberculate at the ex- 
tremity. Tegmina castaneous, with 
a row of triangular whitish spots upon 
the radial nervure and a pale longi- 
tudinal stripe in the costal area ; 
wings bluish hvalirie. Hind femora 
thickened at the base, vry slender 
towards the tips, the upper carinae 
sparsely serrated, with the sulci of 
the outer area marked with brown, 
two spots on the inner surface ; hind 
tibiae towards the extremity dull blue, with from 12 to 15 spines 
on the outer carina ; tarsi dull blue ; tibiae and tarsi very pilose. 




Tylotropidius varicornis. 



266 CATANTOPIN.E. 

Supra-anal lamina of the male elongate-triangular, sulcated ; cerci 
straight, rounded, or slightly compressed, acuminate. 

Length 28-48 mm. ; pronotum, 5*8-8 mm. ; tegmina, 23- 
36 mm. ; hind femur, 2332 mm. 

S. INDIA ; CJSYLON ; BURMA : Karen Hills. 

Type in the British Museum. 



Genus PARAEUPREPOCNEMIS. 

Paraeuprepootemis. Brunner, Ann. Mus. Geneva, xxxiii, 1893. 

p. 151. 

Pareuprepocttemit, Bianchi, Preni. Loz. Ross. Imp. 1902, pp. 174. 
205, 320. 

TYPE, Pezotettiv syriaca, Brunn. 

Range. Egypt, Arabia, E. Africa, "VV. Asia, India. 

Allied to Euprepocnemis ; pronotum truncated behind ; tegmina 
lobiform, wings rudimentary ; hind tibia? with from 8 to 12 
spines ; male with the cerci compressed, sulcated above. 



327. Paraeuprepocnemis pictipes, Bol. 

Parcteitprepocneiiris pictipes, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, Ixx. 
1902, p. 631. 

Eeddish yellow, varied with chestnut-brown. Fastigium of 
the vertex obtusely and slightly produced, regularly curving into 
the frontal ridge, which is marked with rows of compressed 
points, and is expanded towards the tip ; antenna? red, paler 
at the base. Pronotum opaque brown above, with the carina* 
more shining, hind border roundly truncate ; upper part of 
lateral lobes with a large oblique shining black blotch, bordered 
with pale above and below, and with large impressed punctures 
on the lower and hind margins. Prosternal tubercle thick, rather 
smooth behind. Tegmina short, lanceolate, not longer than the 
pronotum. Front femora thickened in the male, and linear 
in the female ; hind femora shining red beneath, the outer area 
brown, with an oblique yellow band at the base, and a yellow 
spot just beyond the middle ; hind tibitc red, with the base more 
or less brown, with a pale ring. Abdomen varied with brown ; 
supra-anal lamina of male broadly lanceolate, with a short 
sulcus at the base and middle ; cerci short, pointed. 

Length 16-23 mm. ; pronotum, 3'8-5'3 mm. ; tegmina, 4- 
6 mm. ; hind femur, 11-15 mm. 

MADRAS : Madura. 

Types in the collections of Pantel and Bolivar. 



EUPREPOCXEMIS. 267 

Genus EUPREPOCNEMIS. 



p. 9. 



u-enus JLurxtJLjruuiNjLmiB. 

Eyprepocnemis, Fieber, Lotos, iii, 1853, p. 98 ; iv, 1854 
Euprepocnemis, StSl, Eecens. Orth. i, 1873, p. 75. 

TYPE, Gryllus plorans, Cbarp. 

Range. S. Europe, Africa, W. Asia, Oriental Begion. 

Vertex horizontal, impressed, front sloping, frontal ridge 
rounded, obtuse, not sulcated : antennae filiform, longer than 
the head and pronotum together. Pronotum truncated in front, 
rounded and subtruncated behind, the disk smooth in front, 
punctured behind, with the median carina slightly raised, and 
intersected only by the third sulcus, the lateral carinse straight, 
slightly diverging ; the front lobe longer than the hind lobe. 
Tegmina and wings well developed. Prosternal tubercle obtuse 
towards the tip, sloping; pectus narrow, the mesosternal lobes 
approximating, with the inner margin rounded ; metasternal lobes 
extended behind the foveolse and contiguous. Anal segment of 
the male not enlarged ; supra-anal lamina triangular, slightly 
sulcated at the base ; the cerci slender, compressed, pointed or 
laminated ; the supra-genital lamina slightly produced, obtuse. 

Key to the Species. 

Hind femora with a longitudinal black stripe on the 

outer side alucris, Serv. 

Hind femora with no black stripe on the outer side . . pulchru, Bol. 

328. Euprepocnemis alacris, Serv. 

Acridium aluci-e, Serville, Ins. Orth. 1839, p. 682. 

Acrydium deponens, Walker, Ann. Xat. Hist. (3) iv, 1859, p. 222. 

Heteracris rudis, Walker, Cat. Derm. Salt. B.M. iv, 1870, pp. 662, 

664. 
Euprepocnemis plorans, var. intermedia, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. 

France, Ixx, 1902, p. 630. 

Yellowish. A black streak below each eye, a broad velvety 
black subparallel-sided stripe runs over the vertex and pro- 
notum ; the median carina narrowly, and the lateral borders 
rather broadly yellow ; deflexed lobes yellow, with an oblique 
blackish bar, and suffused pale markings above and below it. 
Tegmina subhyaline, with numerous brown spots, which towards 
the base form a linear series divided by pale spaces ; costal area 
unspotted, inner marginal area slightly spotted towards the base ; 
wings hyaline, slightly greenish towards the base. Abdomen 
shining greenish brown. Femora yellowish, with a longitudinal 
black streak on the outer surface ; tibia? and tarsi purplish brown, 
the former with two pale bands towards the base, and with 
9 or 10 white black-tipped spines. 

Length 35-38 mm. ; expanse of tegmina, 60-66 mm. 

MADBAS : Madura ; CEYLON. 

Type in the Paris Museum. 



268 CATANTOPINjE. 

329. Euprepocnemis pulchra, Sol. 

Euprepocnemis pulchra, Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, Ixx, 1902, 
p. 630. 

Olivaceous. Head pale red, broadly banded with black below 
the eyes ; front slightly oblique, frontal ridge nearly parallel- 
sided, narrowed towards the clypeus, impress-punctate ; fastigium 
of the vertex smooth, nearly transverse, slightly sulcated ; antennae 
pale above, brown below. Pronotum with a broad velvety-black 
stripe on the back, distinctly expanded and paler in the middle, 
the borders green, the median carina compressed in front, with 
the deflexed lobes testaceous brown. Prosternal tubercle sub- 
cylindrical, compressed in front, and obtuse towards the tip. 
Tegrnina extending beyond the hind femora in the male, but not 
in the female, thickly spotted with brown or green, anal area 
green. Femora pale red or green, obscurely spotted with brown, 
with a broad pale ring before the extremity, black at the base on 
the inner side, and with the knees marked with black curves ; 
hind tibiae brown at the base, with a pale ring, the apical half 
dull red, the spines white, tipped with black. Cerci compressed, 
curved. 

Length 22-25 mm. ; pronotum, 4-5-9 mm. ; tegmina, 20- 
36 mm.; hind femur, 13-29 mm. 

MADRAS : Kodaikanal. 

Types in the collections of Pantel and Bolivar. 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



All names printed in i 
When more than one 


italics are synonyms, 
reference is given, the page 


on which the description 


occurs is indicated by thickened numerals. 




Abbasia. 27. 


tsqyptius Locust a (Gyl- 


anomalus (Systolederus), 


abbreviata (Gerenia), 


' Uis), 225. 


46. 


244. 


.Eolopus, 121. 


antennata (Phlfeoba), 


aberrans (Epistaurus), 


aqua, (Phyllochoreia), 


102. 


242. 


83. 


antennatus (Gompho- 


aberrans (Scirtotvpus), 


affinis (^Eolopus), 122. 


uiasiax), 93. 


84. 


affinis (Epacromia), 122. 


antica (Heteracris), 


abrupt us ( G ryllus), 


affinis (Erianthus), 87. 


209. 


144. 


affinis (Mastax), 87. 


Apalacris, 237. 


abruptus ((Edaleus), 


Aiolopus, 121. 


apicalis (Dociostaums), 


144. 


alacrc (Acridium), 267. 


117. 


abruptus (Pachytylus) 


alacris (Euprepocnemis), 


apicalis (Stenobothrus), 


((Edaleus), 144. 


267. 


117. 


Acanthalobus, 36. 


albolineatus (Gelastor- 


apta (Heteracris), 199. 


Acrida, 97. 


rhintiB), 216, 218. 


aptera (Anarchita), 


Acridella, 100. 


Alectorolophus, 236. 


178. 


Acridium, 66, 230. 


alligator (Gavialidium), 


aptera (Pyrgomorpha), 


Acrotylus, 152. 


29. 


178. 


ACRYDIIX.B, 11. 


alligator (Scelymena), 


Apterotettix, 47. 


Acrvdiini, 57. 


29. 


argentcovittata (Capel- 


Acrydium, 66, 146, 


americana (Aspido- 


lea), 211. 


230. 


phyma), 190. 


armigera ( Tettix), 38. 


acuteterminatus (Copto- 


Anarchita, 178. 


asina (Phyllochoreia), 


tettix), 75. 


angustidorsis (Phlaeoba), 


83. 


acuticarinatus (Erian- 


104. 


aspera (Epacromia), 


thtis), 87. 


angustipennis (Para- 


150. 


acuticeps (Orthacris), 


phlaioba), 107. 


asperatus (Coptotetlix), 


187. 


angustipennis (Phlieo- 


74. 


acuticercus (Catantops), 


bida), 107. 


Aspidoph3 r ma, 190. 


248. 


angust,ulus (Catantops), 


assamus (Loxilobus), 


acutipennis (Erianthus), 


248. 


43. 


89. 


annulata (Trilophidia), 


Aswatthamanus, 101. 


acutipennis (Lefrova), 


149. 


Atractomorpha, 180. 


219. 


annulata, var. a (Trilo- 


attenuatus (Hedotettix), 


acutus (Lair.ellitettix), 


phidia), 150. 


73. 


50. 


annulata, var. b (Trilo- 


atypicale (Acrydium), 


acutus (Loxilobus), 42. 


phidia), 149. 


67. 


adusta (Morphacris\ 


annulata var. ceylonica 


atypicale ceylonuna 


137. 


(Trilophidia), 149. 


(Acrydium), 67. 


irgvptia (Orthacantha- 


annul atus (G-ryllus), 


atypicalis ceylonus (Tet- 


cris), 225. 


149. 


tix), 67. 



270 



ALPHABETICAL IXJDEX. 



atypicalis (Tettix), 67. 


bispinosus (Criotet/i.r), 


Ceracris, 110. 


Aulacobothrus, 123. 


37. 


Cercina, 206. 


Aularches, 168. 


blanciiardi (Atraeto- 


cervinus (Stenocrobj- 


aurora (llacilia), 205. 


morpha), 184. 


lus), 254. 




blanchardiana (Quiro- 


ceylonica (Dittopternis), 




guesia), 133. 


139. 


bait eat a ((Edipoda), 


brachycera (Eremopeza), 


ceylouica (Eucoptacra), 


157. 


159. 


241. 


balteata (Tettix), &\. 


brachycera (Pyrgoiuor- 


ceylonica (Wacata), 219, 


balteatus( Paratettix), 61. 


pha), 175. 


'220. 


balteatus(Sphingonotus), 


Brachycrotaplnis, 115. 


ccylonicus ( Choroetypus) , 


157. 


brachypterus (Olirotogo- 


85. 


banian (Gryllus), 204. 


nus), 167. 


ceylonicus (Orchetypus), 


banian (Hieroglyphus), 


brachypterus (Pelecino- 


85. 


204. 


tus), 233. 


ceylonicus ( Tylotropi- 


Batrachidiini, 78. 


Bracbyxenia, 256. 


dius),265. 


BATRACHOTETRIGIN.E, 158. 


brain ina (Ohloebora), 


chincnsis ( Grt/Uits), 


bengalensis (Sphingono- 


131. 


199. 


tils), 156. 


brevicollis (Acrida), 99. 


Chloebora, 130. 


Beunia, 91. 


brevicollis (Tryxalis), 


Ohlorizeina, 174. 


bettoni (Hieroglyphus), 


99. 


Choroetypus, 80. 


203. 


brevis (Chrotogonus), 


Chorotypus, 80. 


Bibracte, 235. 


16:3. 


Chorthippus, 128. 


Bibractoides, 236. 


bruttei, var. blanchar- 


Chrotogonus, 161. 


bico/or (Gryllus), 127. 


diana (Quiroquesia), 


cinctalis (Phljuoba), 


bicolor (Stauroderus), 


133. 


105. 


127. 


Brvodema, 150. 


cinctifcmiir (Acridium) , 


bidcns (Gri/llus), 149. 


Utllla, 66. 


134. 


bifid us (Erianthus), 87. 


burri (Atractomorpha), 


cincli femur (Acrydium), 


bilineatus (Hierogly- 


183. 


222 


phus), 202. 




cinctifeniur(Mesambria), 


bimaculata (Pteruo- 




222. 


scirta), 136. 


cachara (Traulia), 245. 


cinctifemur (Pternoscir- 


biniaculatus (Alectorolo- 


ceeriifans (Grylliis Lo- 


ta), 134. 


plius), 237. 


custa), 154. 


cinerascens (Eremobia), 


Jiiiiiaculatus (Gryllus), 


ca^rulans (Sphingonotus), 


158. 


136. 


154. 


cinerascens ( Gri/llus), 


bipunctatum (Acry- 


ceerulans, var. candidus 


146. 


diuin), 68. 
biputictatus ( Gryllus) 


(Sphinffonotuit), 155. 
caliginosa (Pternoscirta), 


ciiiereus (S3 r stolederus), 


(Bulla), 68. ' 


135. 


cingalensis (Paratettix), 


bipuiictatus (Tettix), 


caliginosum (Acridium) 


63. 


68. 


((Edipoda), 135. 


cingalensis (Tarbaleus), 


Biriuana, 13. 


caliqinosus (Caloptenus), 


201. 


ttirmanica (Etigavia- 


208. 


cingalensis ( Tettix), 


lidium), 27. 


Caloptenopsis, 258. 


63. 


birmanica (Scelimena), 


CapeUea, 210. 


cinqulata ( Opomala), 


27. 


capensis (Gryllus), 263. 


175. 


biriiuinicum ( Gaviali- 


capensis (Heteracris), 


citrina (Morphacris), 


diiim), 27. 


263. 


137. 


birmanieus (Erianthus), 


capitatus (Ooptotettix), 


citrina ( (Edipoda), 


90. 


76. 


145. 


bispiuosa (Pyrgomor- 


carinata ^Paraphlaeoba), 


cttrinolimbatus (Hiero- 


pl.a), 176. 


108. 


glyphus), 205. 


bispiitosa ( Tettix), 37. 


Carsula, 214. 


Cladoiiotiui, 14. 


bispinosum (Acrydium), 


Caryanda, 201. 


Cladonotus, 17. 


37. 


Castetria, 206. 


clarus (Caloptenus), 


bifpiitosum ( Tetrix) 


CATANTOPIN^, 191. 


258. 


(Acridium), 37. 


Catantops, 246. 


Colemania, 188. 


bispinosus (Acanthalo- 


cephalotes (Madurea), 


concavus (Ohrotogonus), 


bus), 37. 


115. 


165. 



ALPHABETICAL IXDEX. 



271 



coneolor (Hieroglypbus), 


cruciatus (Grryllus), 


dominans (Catautops), 


204. 


116. 


248. 


coticolor (Oxya), 204. 


crucifer (Lscusta Gryl- 


dorsale (A'-ridtum), 


conica (Pyrgomorpba), 


ftw), 225. 


243. 


175. 


crucigerus (Epistaurus), 


dorsalis (Gerenia), 243. 


conicum (Acridium), 


242 


dorsalis (Gri/llus), 122. 


174. 


cucullifera (Saussurella), 


dorsatus (Cliortbipptis), 


conicum (Acrydium), 


79. 


128. 


175. 


cucullifera (Tettix), 79. 


dorsatus (Gryllus), 128. 


consobriua (Atractomor~ 


cunctatus ( Amorpbopus), 


dorsifer (Paratettix), 


pha), 182. 


48. 


63. 


consobrinus (Catantops), 


cuneatus (Acanthalobus), 


dorsifera ( Tettix), 


249. 


40. 


63. 


coiispercus (Locusta) 
(Gryttus), 168. 


cyanoptera (Coptacra), 
240. 


dubia (Mesambria), 
221. 


co nspurca ta ( Truxalis) , 


cylindricus (Aswattba- 


dubia (Xistra), 56. 


100. 


manus), 101. 


dubium (Acridium), 


constrietus (Groniplio- 


Oyrtaoantbacris, 230. 


221. 


mastax), 93. 


daganensis (Hierogly- 


ducidis (Hcteracris), 


contracta (Scelymena), 


phus), 201. 


2C.2. 


26. 


danica (Locusta), 146. 




convergens (Ischna- 


danicus ( Gryllus Locus- 




crida), 212. 


fa), 146. 


cdax ( Gelastorhimis), 


convergens (Mazarreclia), 


daiiicus (Pachytylus), 


217. 


52. 


146. 


elegans (Gryllus), 128. 


convergent (Opomala), 


decisus (Dociostaurus), 


elegans (Heteracris), 


212. 


120. 


264. 


Coptacra, 238. 


decisus ( Stenobothrus), 


elegans (Orthacris), 


Coptacrella, 239. 


120. 


186. 


Coptotettix, 74. 


decurva (Saussurella), 


elonqatum (Acridium), 


cornuta (Saussurella), 


79. 


227. 


79. 


deflorata (Ceracris), 


ensif'era (Coptacra), 


<-ornutum (Acridium) 


112. 


239. 


(Tetrix), 78. 


deflorata (Duronia), 112. 


Epacromia, 121. 


('osriiorhyssa, 137. 
<-rassa (Cblcebora), 131. 


defloratus (Eriaiitlnis), 
89. 


epacromoides (Docios- 
taurus), 119. 


<-rassa ((Edipoda), 131. 


Deltonotus, 15. 


epacromoides (Stenobo- 


crassiusculus ( Calopteno- 


Dcmodocus, 262. 


thrus), 119. 


psis), 259. 


deutiumeris (Eugaviali- 


Epistaurus, 242. 


cremilata (Atractomor- 


diuin), 30. 


equa (Pbylloclioreia), 


pha), 181. 


deponens (Acrt/dium), 


83. 


cremilata, var. prasina 


267. 


Ereinopeza, 158. 


(Atractomorpha), 181. 


didymus (Tylotropidius) 


Eremoplava, 158. 


d-enulatum (Acridium), 


(Pezotettix), 265. 


Ergatettix, 69. 


182. 


dilatafum (Acridium) 


Brian thini, 86. 


cretmlatus (Tnwalis), 


(Tef(u'), 68. 


Erianthus, 86. 


180, 181. 


dilatatum (Acrydium), 


erubescent (Calopterus), 


Criotettix, 31. 


68. 


253. 


cristagalli (Pelecinotus), 


dilatalus (Tettix), 68. 


erubescens (Catantops), 


234. 


diiuidiata (Traulia), 


253. 


cristella COEdipoda), 


245. 


Eruciini, 94. 


148, 150. 


dimidiatum (Otya) 


Eucoptacra, 240. 


cristella (Trilophidia), 


(Acridium), 245. 


Eiigavinlidium, 30. 


150. 


discalis (Tettix), 72. 


EUJIASTACIN.E, 80. 


ci-istulata (Mazarredia), 


dispar (Castetria), 206, 


Euparatettix, 67. 


52. 


207. 


Euprepocneniis, 267. 


crocodilus (Gavialidium), 


Dittopternis, 139. 


Eurymorpbopus, 48. 


29. 


Dociostaurus, 116. 


Euthymia, 196. 


crocodilus (Scelymena), 


dominant, (Caloptenns), 


exaltata (Aerida), 99. 


29. 


248. 


exaltata ( Truxalis), 99. 



272 


ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 




exsertus (Criotettix), 


fumida (Xiphocerd), 


Gryllus, 145. 


34. 


105. 


Gryllus Acrida, 97. 


extensa (Oxyrrhepes), 


furcifer (Acridium), 


guttuta (A/asta-x), 88. 


209. 


204. 


guttatus (Erianthus), 


exfensa (Scelymena), 22. 


fusca (Ischnacrida), 212. 


88. 


extensum (Acridium), 


fuscescens (Chroto- 


Gymnobothrus, 113. 


209. 


gonus), 163. 




Eyprepocnemis, 267. 


fusilinea ( Cyrtacantha- 






cris), 227. 


haani (Systolederus), 44. 


fasciatus (Mecostethus), 




hagenbacbi (Acridium), 


113. 




235. 


femoralis (Racilia), 205. 


gallinaceus (Gryllus), 


hancocki (Loxilobus), 


femorattis (Stenocro- 


80. 


42. 


bylus), 254. 


Gast.rimargus, 144. 


Hancocki a, 46. 


fenestrata (Xiphicera), 


Gavialidium, 28. 


harpago (Scelimena), 


81. 


gavialis (Scelimena), 24. 


23. 


fenestratus (Ckorco- 
typus), 81. 


gavialis(Scelymcna), 24. 
gebleri ((Edipoda), 150. 


Jiarpago (Tetrix), 23. 
hastulatum (Eugavia- 


ferruginea (Tripetalo- 


Gelastorrhinus, 216. 


lidium), 30. 


cera), 12. 


eeminella (Mazarredia), 


Hedotettix, 71. 


form ff in eus ( Calop- 


50. 


herbaceum (Acridium), 


temts), 250. 


geniculata (Mesambria), 


262. 


fostmts (Hedoteltix), 


220, 223. 


Heteracris, 262. 


72. 


Gerenia, 243. 


Heteropternis, 141. ' 


Fieberiana, 14. 


gibbiceps (Deltonotus), 


Hieroglyphus, 201. 


Hiatus (Gelastorrhinus), 


16. 


himalayica (Atracto- 


216. 


gibbiceps (Pcecilotettix), 


morpha), 183. 


flatus (Mesops), 216. 


16. 


hirsutus (Paratettix), 


filiformis (Leptacris), 


gigaiitea (Acrida), 98. 


65. 


210, 211. 


oiqanteus ( Truxalis), 


hoplosterna (Mestra), 


filiformis (Ortliacris), 


* 98. 


179. 


184, 185. 


gigas (Sphingonofcus), 


humbertiana (Pterno- 


fiuoti (Euthymia), 107. 


158. 


scirta), 134. 


fiavesceiis (Gryllus), 


glaucopis (Caloptenop- 


humbertianus (Acro- 


225. 


sis), 259. 


tylus), 136, 153. 


flavescens (Orthacantha- 


glaucopis (Caloptmus), 


humbertianus (Clado- 


cris), 225. 


259. 


notus), 17. 


fla ricoru is ( G ryllus) , 


gogarzea (Xistra), 55. 


humbertianus (Eriau- 


231. 


Gomphoiuastacini, 93. 


thus), 90. 


flavipes (Erianthus), 


Gompbomastax, 93. 


humile (Acridium), 250. 


96. 


gracile (Acridium) 


humilicrus (Cyrtactm- 


Jlaviven tre (Acridium ), 


(Tettix), 72. 


thacris), 224. 


232. 


gracilis (Birmana), 14. 


humilis (Catantops), 


flavoannulatum (Acri- 


gracilis (Hedotettix), 72. 


250. 


dium), 244. 


gracilis abortus (Hedo- 


humilis var. interrupt us 


flavopictus (Acantha- 


tettix), 72. 


(Catantops\, 251. 


lobuB), 41. 


granwloita (Eremocharis), 


hyla (Oxya), 198. 


flai'opictiis (Criotetlix), 


159. 




4L 


granulosa (Eremopeza), 




flaws (G ryllus), 143. 


159. 


illustris (Heteracris), 


fletcheri (Spadotettix), 


granulosa ( (Edipoda), 


263. 


71. 


159. 


immunis ( Calopten-tis), 


florans (Gryllus), 267. 


greeni (Euthymia), 198. 


250. 


floraiis, var. intermedia 


greeni (Leptacris), 211. 


inaequalis (Mazarredia), 


(Euprepocnemis), 267. 


greeni (Scirtotypus), 


. 53. 


fcedatuui (Acridium), 


84. 


incertus (Chrotogonusj, 


238. 


greeni (Systolederus), 


103. 


fort is ( Cyrtacantliacris), 


45. 


in da (Bryodema), 151. 


231. 


grossa (Chlcebora), 130, 


India (Scelimena), 23. 


fosMjlat us (Coptotettix), 


grylloides ( Tmixalis), 


indica (Aspidophyma), 


76. 


175. 


190. 



ALPHABETICAL I 



273 



indica (Pi/rgomorpha), 


japonica (Orthacantha- 


luteipes (Stenobothrus\ 


176. 


cris), 229. 


121. 


indica (Tagasta), 180. 


japonicum (Acridium), 


lutedum (Acridium), 


indicuni (Acrydium), 


229. 


250. 


77. 




lutescens (Cyrtacan- 


indicus (Catantops), 




thacris), 231. 


251. 


karnyi (Catantops), 




indicus (Criotettix), 33. 


251. 




indicus (Gymnobo- 


kirbyi (Euthymia), 196. 


maculatus (Criotettix), 


thrus), 113. 


Kripa, 257. 


32. 


indicus (Paratettix), 




Madurea, 114. 


64. 




maindroni (Orthacris), 


indus (Sphingonotus), 


Lamellitettix, 49. 


185. 


156. 


laticornis (Gelasto- 


marmoratus, Tar. minor 


infernus (Aulacobo- 


rrhinus), 217. 


(CEdcdeus), 145. 


thrus), 124. 


laticornis (Opomala), 


ruaroccanus (Gryllus), 


inflcita (Acrotylusl, 


217. 


116. 


152. 

inficita ( Cyrtacantha- 


latifrons (Coptotettix), 


martini (Coptacrella), 
239, 240. 


cris), 231. 


latilobus (Eurymorpho- 


Mastacides, 94. 


inficita ( CEdipoda ) , 


pus), 49. 


maxima (Ischnacrida), 


152. 


latiramus (Cladonotus), 


211. 


inficita, var. /3 ((Edi- 


19. 


maxima (Leptacris), 


poda), 153. 


Icitispina ( Tettix), 38. 


211. 


int'umata (Phlaeoba), 


lativertex (Mazarredia), 


Mazarredia, 50. 


103. 


54. 


Mecistopteryx, 147. 


innotabile (Acridium), 


Lefroya, 219. 


Mecostethus, 112. 


250. 


Leptacris, 210. 


melanocerca (Euthy- 


innotata (Becnua), 91. 


Lerina, 138. 


mia), 196. 


innotata (Mastax), 91. 


liaspis (Chrotogonus), 


melanocorn e (Acridiu m), 


inornata (Tettix), 39. 


165. 


228. 


inornatus (Acantha- 


liaspis ( Ommexi/cka), 


melanostictus (Catan- 


lobus), 39. 


165. 


tops), 246. 


insignis (Caloptenopsis), 


linea-alba (Gyuino- 
bothrus), 113. 


meridionalis (Tetrix), 
60. 


insignis (Caloptenus), 


linearis ( Truxalis), 175. 


Mesambria, 220. 


258. 


lineata (Tettix), 72. 


Mestra, 179. 


insignis (Heteracris), 


lineatitarsis (Opsomala), 


Metrodoriui, 43. 


23. 


209. 


migratorius (Grulliis 


insiguis (Mazarreclia), 


lineatus (Gryllus), 120. 


Locusta), 146. 


54. 


lineifera (Hedotettix), 


migratorius (Gryllus), 


insubricus (Grvllus), 


73. 


232. 


152. 


lineifera (Tettix). 73. 


migratoroicles (Locusta), 


insularis (Mazarredia), 


liturifer (Caloptenop- 


146. 


52. 


sis), 259. 


migratoroides (CEdi- 


insularis (Navasia), 


lit urifer (Ca loptenus) , 


poda), 146. 


255. 


259. 


migratoroides (Pachy- 


intermedia (Gerenia), 


Locusta, 145, 224. 


tylus), 146. 


244. 


logani (Sceliniena), 25. 


miliaris (Aularches), 


interruptus (Catantops), 


longiceps (Ochrilidia), 


168. 


251. 


116. 


miliaris (Locusta) 


interruptus (Copto- 


. loiigipennis (Sphingo- 


(Gryllus), 168. 


tettix), 78. 


notus), 156. 


miliariiis (Acantha- 


interruptus (Eupara- 


Loxilobus, 41. 


lobus), 37. i 


tettix), 59. 


lugubre (Ommexycha), 


miliariiis ( Criotettix), 


interruptus (Paratettix), 


161. 


37. 


59. 


lugubris (Acrida), 99. 


miliariiis cuneatus 


intricata (Oxya), 200. 


lugubris (Erianthus), 


(Acanthalobus), 40. 


intricatum(0xya) (Acri- 


89. 


miniata (Truxalis), 100. 


dium), 200. 


lugubris (Mazarredia), 


miniatum (Acridium), 


Iscbnacrida, 212. 


55. 


132. 






T 



274 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



Mnema, 19. 


ornata (Pcecilocera), 


pliysopoda (Scyllina), 


moiiticollis (Gryllus), 


173. 


125. 


234, 235. 


ornatus (Poeciiocerus), 


pictipes ( Paraeuprepoc- 


mouticollis (Teratodes) 


173. 


neuiis), 266. 


235. 


Orthacantbacris, 224. 


pictus (Gryllus), 170, 


morii (Stenobothrus), 


Orthacris, 184. 


172. 


127. 


Oxya, 198. 


pictus (Pcecilocercus), 


Morpbacris, 137. 


oxypterum ( Ommexycha), 


172. 


mundus (Dociostaurus), 


166. 


pilosus (Tarbaleus), 200. 


119. 


oxypterus (Cbroto- 


pingue ( Catantops) 


mundus (Stenobothrus), 


gonus), 16(5. 


(Acridium), 252. 


119. 


Oxyrrhepes, 209. 


pinguis (Catantops), 252. 
Plagiocephalus, 14. 






platyceps (Parapblajoba), 


nasuta (Acrida), 100. 


pachymerus (Fieberi- 


108. 


nasuta (Acridella), 100. 


ana), 15. 


Pcecilocerus, 170. 


nasutut ( Gryllus 


pachymerus (Piezotettix) 


Paecilotettix, 15. 


Acrida), 98, 100. 


15. 


Pxkilocerus, 170. 


nasutus (Truxalis), 98. 


pachymerus (Plagio- 


porrecta (Truxalis), 182. 


Navasia, 255. 


cephalus), 15. 


portentosa (llancockia), 


nepalensis (Caloptenus), 


Paehytyhus, 146. 


46. 


224. 


pallidum (Ommexycha), 


praemorsa (Eucoptacra), 


nepalensis (Mesambria), 


162. 


. 240. 


524. 


pallidus (Cbrotogonus), 


pr&morsum (Catantops) 


nigricollis (Tettix), 72. 


162. 


(Acridium), 240. 


nigricorne (Acridium). 


pallitarsis (Tettix), 38. 


prasina (Xenippa), 215. 


_228. 


PAMPIIAGIN.E, 190. 


prasinifera (Heteracris), 


nigricornis (Ceracris), 


panteli (Phlaeoba), 104. 


208. 


110. 


Paraeuprepocneuiis, 266. 


prasiniferum (Spatbo- 


nigricornis (Orthacan- 


Parapblceoba, 108. 


sternum), 208. 


tbacris), 228. 


Parajjleurtts, 112. 


Prionidia, 134. 


nigrofasciatum (Acry- 


parapleurus (Gryllus), 


procera (Truxalis), 100. 


dium), 143. 


11* 


producta (Scelimena), 


nigrofasciatus ((Eda- 


Paratettix, 60. 


22. 


leus), 143. 


pardalinum (Acridium), 


producta (Scelymena), 


nigrota3niata (Tristria), 


225. 


22 


207. 


Parerucius, 93. 


producta (Tetrix), 22. 


nodosa (Scelymena). 24. 


Pareuprepocnemis, 266. 


productum ( Tetrix) 


notata (Mestra), 179. 


partita (Epacromia), 142. 


(Acridium), 22. 


notata (Tagasta), 179. 


partita (Heteropternis), 


Pseudocarsula, 214. 




142. 


psittacina (Atracto- 




parvus(Euparatettix),60. 


morpba), 182. 


obertburi (Bennia), 92. 


pedarius (Calliptamus), 


pssittacinum ( Truxalis) 


obliquenervis ( Gerenia), 


261. 


(Acridium). 182. 


243. 


pedarius (Peripolus), 


psittacinum (Acridium), 


obliquifera (Tettix), 72. 


261. 


181. 


obscurus (Criotettix), 


Pelecinotus, 233. 


Pternoscirta, 134. 


32. 


pelops (Cladonotus), 20. 


pterolepis (Mastacides), 


obtusa (Cercina), 206. 


pelops (Mnema), 20. 


95. 


obtusus (Apterotettix), 


peregrinum (Acridium), 


pulchcllus (Catantops), 


48. 


232. 


251, 252. 


Ocbrilidia, 115. 


Peripolus, 261. 


pulchcllus (Cyrtacan- 


oculatus (Oriotettix), 


personatus (Eupara- 


thacris), 252. 


34. 


tettix), 58. 


pulcbra (Euprepoc- 


(Edaleus, 142. 


personatus (Paratettix), 


nemis), 268. 


(EDIPODIN.E, 128. 


58. 


punctata (Caloptenopsis), 


O3dipodioides (Lerina), 


PhliBobn, 102. 


260. 


138. 


Phlrcobida, 107. 


punctata (Trigono- 


opbtbalmicus (Catan- 


Phyllocboreia, 82. 


teryx), 189, 190. 


tops), 247. 


physopoda (Aulaco- 


punctatus (Aularches), 


Orclietypus, 84. 


botbrus), 125, 


J69, 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



275 



punctatus (Locusta) 


rudis (Heteracris), 267. 


scutifera (Brachyxenia), 


(Gryllus), 169. 


rufescens ( Acanthalobus), 


256. 


punctiventris (Poecilo- 


38. 


selacbe (Gelastorrhinus), 


cerus), 173. 


rufescens (Gryllus), 232. 


218. 


punctiventris (P&kilo- 


ruficornis (Orthacris), 


sellatum (Acridium), 232, 


cerus), 173. 


186. 


semifasciatum (Acri- 


punctoria (Bibractoides), 


rufitibia (Acrydium), 


dium), 225. 


236. 


250. 


seiuibirsutus (Paratettix), 


punctorium ( Acridium) , 


rugifrons (Xiphicera), 


66. 


236. 


81. 


semipicta (Opomala), 217. 


pupaefbrmis (Mastacides), 


rugosus (Loxilobus), 42. 


semipictus (Gelasto- 


94. 


rugulosa (Bibracte), 235. 


rrhinus), 217. 


pustulipennis (Calo- 


riisticus (Gomphocerus) 


senegalensis (CEdaleus), 


ptenus), 244. 


(Phlffioba), 102. 


143. 


pustulipennis (Gerenia), 
244. 




senegalensis (Pachytylus), 
143. 


Pyrgomorpha, 174. 


saaiiiatus (Criotettix), 


simoni (Paraphlaeoba), 


PYRGOMORPHINjE, 160. 


39. 


109. 


pyrrJtoscelis (Hetero- 


sanguineo - annulata 


simplex (Gyinnobotbrus), 


pternis), 141. 


(Caryanda), 201. 


114. 




sanguineus (Gryllus), 


simplex (Stenobothrus), 




137. 


114. 


guadriplagiata ( Tettix), 


saturata ((Edipoda), 134. 


simulans (Orthacris), 


69. 


saturata (Pternoscirta), 


188. 


quadriplagiatum (Acry- 


134. 


simulatrix (Epacromia), 


dium), 69. 


saturatum (Acridium), 


122. 


Quiroguesia, 132. 


240. 


sinetyi (Epistaurus), 




sanssurei ( Caloptenopsis), 


242. 




258. 


sinuatocollis ('Zygo- 


Eacilia, 205. 


saussurei (Chrotogonus), 


phteoba), 106. 


ranacea (Cyrtacan- 


166. 


socius (Aulacobothrus), 


thacris), 231. 


Saussurella, 78. 


124. 


ranaceus (Locusta) 


savignyi (Sphingonotus), 


sonneratii (Poekilocerus), 


(Gryllus), 230, 231. 


155. 


172. 


respondens (Acridium), 


scaber (Caloptenus), 221. 


sordidus (Chrotogonus), 


141. 


scaber (Paratettix), 62. 


167. 


respondens (Hetero- 


scaber ( Tettix), 62. 


Spadotettix, 70. 


pternis), 141. 


scaber (Truxalis), 182. 


Spathosternum, 207. 


rhodoptila ( Truxalis), 


scabiosfe (Aularches). 


speciosus (Alectoro- 


175. 


170. 


lophus), 236. 


robertsi (Chrotogonus), 


scabioste (Gryllus), 170. 


sphenarioides (Cole- 


164. 


scabiosus (Locusta) 


mania, 188, 189. 


robusta (Heteracris), 262. 


(Gryllus), 168. 


Sphinctonotus, 153. 


rolmstum (Acridium), 


scabra (Atractoinorpha), 


Sphingonotus, 153. 


262. 


182. 


spinilobus (Criotettix), 


rosea (Cyrtacanthacris), 


scabra (Mesambria), 220. 


31. 


231. ' 


scabripes (Euparatettix) 


spissus ( Caloptenus), 258. 


rosea (Truxalis), 175. 


59. 


splendens (Catantops), 


roseum (Acrydium), 231. 


scabripes (Paratettix), 


250. 


rotundata " (Mecisto- 


59. 


spl widens (Gryllus), 250. 


pteryx), 148. 
rotundata ((Edipoda), 


scabrum (Acrydium), 62. 
scaltuia (Truxalis), 100. 


spurium (Oxva) (Acri- 
dium), 201." 


148. 


Scelhymena, 21. 


squalina (Pyrgomorpha), 


rotundatus (Orchetypus), 


Scelimena, 21. 


177. 


85. 


Scelimenini, 20. 


squalina (Zarytes), 177. 


rubescens ((Edipoda), 155. 


Scelymcna, 21. 


Stauroderus, 127. 


rubescens (Sphingo- 


Schistoeerca, 232. 


Stauronotus, 116. 


notus), 155. 


Scirtotypus, 84. 


Stenobothrus, 120. 


rubripes ( Aulacobothr us), 


sculpta (Mazarredia), 51. 


Stenocrobylus, 254. 


126. 


scutifer ( Caloptenus), 


strangulata (Heteracris), 


rubripes (Scyllina), 126. 


256, 


209, 



276 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



str ictus ( Aulacoboth rus) , 


tessellatus (Pcecilo- 


vaginalis (Mastacides), 


124. 


cercus), 17J. 


95. 


strigifer ( Calopteiius), 


testaceus (Coptotettix), 


variabilis (Paratettix), 


240. 


77. 


62. 


strigulatus (Steno- 


Tetrix, 66. 


variabilis (Truxalis), 100. 


bothrus), 208. 


Tettix, 66. 


varicornis (Apalacris), 


stylata (Xistra), 56. 


thalassinus (Gryllus), 


237, 238. 


subcucullatus (Delto- 


121. 


varicornis (Heteracris), 


notus), 15. 


trachypterus (Chroto- 


265. 


subcucullatus (Tettix), 


gonus), 165. 


varicornis (Tylotro- 


15. 


trachypterus ( Om- 


pidius), 265. 


subserrata (Abbasia), 28. 


mexi/cha), 165. 


variegatus (Paratettix), 


subpustulata (Tettix), 62. 


transversus (Gastri- 


63. 


subtruncatus (Orcbety- 


margus), 145. 


velox (Gryllus), 199. 


pus), 85. 


transversus ( Gryllus), 


velox (Oxya), 199. 


subulatus (Criotettix), 


145. 


venulosum (Spatho- 


35. 


Traulia, 244. 


sternum), 209. 


subulatus (Gryllus), 66. 


tricarinatus (Criotettix), 


venusta (Dittopternis), 


succincta (Ortbacan- 


33. 


140. 


tbacris), 227. 


tricoloripes ( Gompho- 


venusta (CEdipoda), 140. 


succincius (Locusta) 


cerus),122. 


verrucosum (Acrydium), 


(Gryllus), 111. 
sulcata (Cosmorhyssa), 


Trigonopteryx, 189. 
Trilophidia, 148. 


168. 
versicolor (Ceracris), 111. 


137. 


Tripetalocera, 12. 


versicolor (Duronia), 111. 


sulcata (Phi/llochoreia), 


Tripetalocerini, 11. 


versicolor (Erianthus), 88. 


82. 


truncaticollis (Zygo- 


vicina (Oxya), 199. 


syriaea (Pezotettix), 266. 
Systolederus, 44. 


phheoba), 106. 
Truxalis, 97. 


vidali (Criotettix), 35. 
vinosa (Ortbacantbacris), 




tryxalicera (Oporaola), 


228. 




115. 


vinosum (Acridium), 228. 


tecniata ( Iscftinacrid'tt) 


TRYYAlTXyF QT 


violascens (Acridium), 


213. 


Tryxalis, 97. 


229. 


taniata (Ischnacrida), 


tryxaloides ( Gelasto- 


violascens (Ortbacan- 


213. 


rhinus), 217. 


tbacris), 229. 


teniatus (Aulaco- 


turbata (Epacromia), 


virescens (Gryllus), 144. 


bothrus), 125. 


136. 


viridula (Xenippa), 215. 


Tagasta, 179. 


turbatus (Dociostaurus), 


vittattis (Caloptenus), 


taimilus (jEolopus), 122. 


118. 


258. 


tamulus (Gryllus), 122. 


turbatus (Stenobothrus), 


vittifera (Tettix), 72. 


Tarbaleus, 200. 


118. 




tarsale (Acridium), 222. 


turpis (Epacromia), 149. 




tarsalis (Ergatettix), 70. 
tarsalis (Hieroqluphus), 


turpis (Trilophidia), 149. 
turrifer (Cladonotus), 18. 


Wacata, 219. 


204. 


turrita (Acrida), 98. 


walhousci (Phlaoba), 104. 


tarsalis (Ichnacrida). 


turritus (Gryllus Acrida), 




213. 


98. 




tarsalis (Mesambria), 


Tylotropidius, 265. 




222. 




Xenippa, 215. 


tarsalis (Opomala), 213. 




Xiphicera, 80. 


tatarica Locusta 


umbrifera (Tettix}, 72. 


Xiphicerini, 80. 


(Gryllus), 232. 


uncinata (Sceliiuena), 26. 


Xistra, 55. 


tatarica (Schistocerca), 


uncinata (Tetrix), 26. 


Xyphicera, 80. 


232. 

tectiformis (Deltonotus), 
15. 


undulata (Kripa), 257. 
unguiculata ( Truxalis), 
100. 




tenera (Carsula), 214. 


unicolor (Chlorizeina), 


Zarytes, 177., 


tenera ( Pseud ocarsula), 


174. 


zebrata (Dittopternis), 


214. 


unicolor (Phyllochoreia), 


140. 


Teratodes, 234. 


82. 


Zygophlajoba, 105. 



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